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Relethford J.H.,York College
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2010

Past studies have revealed that much of human craniometric variation follows a neutral model of population relationships. At the same time, there is evidence for the influence of natural selection in having shaped some global diversity in craniometrics. In order to partition these effects, and to explore other potential population-specific influences, this article analyzes residuals of craniometric distances from a geographically based neutral model of population structure. W.W. Howells' global craniometric data set was used for these analyses, consisting of 57 measurements for 22 populations around the world, excluding Polynesia and Micronesia because of the relatively recent settlement of these regions. Phenotypic and geographic distances were derived between all pairs of populations. Three-dimensional multidimensional scaling configurations were obtained for both distance matrices, and compared using a Procrustes rotation method to show which populations do not fit the geographic model. This analysis revealed three major deviations: the Buriat, Greenland Inuit, and Peru. The deviations of the Buriat and Greenland Inuit appear to be related to long-term adaptation to cold environments. The Peruvian sample is more similar to other New World populations than expected based on geographic distance alone. This deviation likely reflects the evolutionarily recent movement of human populations into South America, such that these populations are further from genetic equilibrium. This same pattern is seen in South American populations in a comparative analysis of classical genetic markers, but not in a comparative analysis of STR loci, perhaps reflecting the higher mutation rate for the latter. Am J Phys Anthropol 142:105-111, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Zhang X.,York College
The Journal of general physiology | Year: 2014

Orai proteins contribute to Ca(2+) entry into cells through both store-dependent, Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels (Orai1) and store-independent, arachidonic acid (AA)-regulated Ca(2+) (ARC) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4)-regulated Ca(2+) (LRC) channels (Orai1/3 heteromultimers). Although activated by fundamentally different mechanisms, CRAC channels, like ARC and LRC channels, require stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). The role of endoplasmic reticulum-resident STIM1 (ER-STIM1) in CRAC channel activation is widely accepted. Although ER-STIM1 is necessary and sufficient for LRC channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the minor pool of STIM1 located at the plasma membrane (PM-STIM1) is necessary for ARC channel activation in HEK293 cells. To determine whether ARC and LRC conductances are mediated by the same or different populations of STIM1, Orai1, and Orai3 proteins, we used whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recording to compare AA- and LTC4-activated currents in VSMCs and HEK293 cells. We found that both cell types show indistinguishable nonadditive LTC4- and AA-activated currents that require both Orai1 and Orai3, suggesting that both conductances are mediated by the same channel. Experiments using a nonmetabolizable form of AA or an inhibitor of 5-lipooxygenase suggested that ARC and LRC currents in both cell types could be activated by either LTC4 or AA, with LTC4 being more potent. Although PM-STIM1 was required for current activation by LTC4 and AA under whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in both cell types, ER-STIM1 was sufficient with perforated patch recordings. These results demonstrate that ARC and LRC currents are mediated by the same cellular populations of STIM1, Orai1, and Orai3, and suggest a complex role for both ER-STIM1 and PM-STIM1 in regulating these store-independent Orai1/3 channels. Source


Stone M.H.,York College
Current psychiatry reports | Year: 2013

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been recognized as heterogeneous, etiologically, stemming from many combinations of genetic and environmental factors BPD never occurs alone: it is always accompanied by traits of other personality disorders and by various symptom-conditions, especially mood disorders. The controversy about linkage between BPD and bipolar disorder could not be resolved when the debate relied only on clinical description. Some twin-studies suggested modest overlap between BPD and bipolar disorder. Current neuroimaging research points to similarities in brain changes among several conditions characterized by emotional over-reactivity to stress: bipolar disorder, certain cases of BPD and attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD). These include alterations in the limbic system (e.g., amygdala and hippocampus) and neocortex (especially the prefrontal cortex). An important subset of BPD exists in which brain changes are essentially identical with those of bipolar disorder. Relevant brain-change findings and treatment implications are summarized in this article. Source


Girardi G.,York College
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2011

In this review, the dual role of tissue factor (TF) in pregnancy is described. On the one hand, TF is required for embryonic and placental development in a successful pregnancy, and on the other hand, pathologic expression of TF can lead to serious pregnancy complications in humans and mice. Human studies show increased TF levels in plasma, amniotic fluid and and/or placentas of abnormal pregnancies affected by miscarriages, preterm birth, or pre-eclampsia. Interestingly, using two mouse models, we found that blood-borne TF plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications. TF on neutrophils and monocytes is a critical mediator in trophoblast injury and embryo damage in pregnancy loss induced by antiphospholipid antibodies and in the antibody-independent CBA/J×DBA/2 model of miscarriages. Blockade of TF or genetic diminution prevented pregnancy complications, suggesting that TF may be a good target for therapy in patients with recurrent miscarriages, pregnancy loss, and pre-eclampsia. In addition, statins, which downregulate TF, may constitute a good therapeutic option for women with pregnancy complications. Clinical trials should be conducted to confirm these observations in women. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Source


Pontzer H.,York College
Current Anthropology | Year: 2012

Models for the origin of the genus Homo propose that increased quality of diet led to changes in ranging ecology and selection for greater locomotor economy, speed, and endurance. Here, I examine the fossil evidence for postcranial change in early Homo and draw on comparative data from living mammals to assess whether increased diet quality has led to selection for improved locomotor performance in other lineages. Body mass estimates indicate early Homo, both males and females, were approximately 33% larger than australopiths, consistent with archeological evidence indicating an ecological change with the origins of our genus. However, many of the postcranial features thought to be derived in Homo, including longer hind limbs, are present in Australopithecus, challenging the hypothesis that early Homo is marked by significant change in walking and running performance. Analysis of energy budgets across mammals suggests that the larger body mass and increased diet quality in early Homo may reflect an increase in the hominin energy budget. Expanding the energy budget would enable greater investment in reproduction without decreasing energy available for larger brains or increased activity. Food sharing and increased adiposity, which decrease variance in food energy availability, may have been integral to this metabolic strategy. © 2012 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.All rights reserved. Source

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