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Medicine, South Korea

Wang H.-Y.,M Technology Inc. | Ahn S.,Yonsei University | Kim S.,Yonsei University | Park S.,Yonsei University | And 4 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an independent prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer. However, the role of CTCs in early breast cancer management is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize CTCs in blood sample of a breast cancer patient as a biomarker for monitoring treatments efficacy. In this study, 692 blood samples from 221 breast cancer patients and 376 healthy individuals was used to detect CTCs with multiple markers including epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), cytokeratin (CK) 19, human epidermal growth factor (HER) 2, Ki67, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and vimentin using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). A total of 153 (69.2%) blood samples of 221 patients with breast cancer were found to be positive for at least one of the cancer-associated marker gene before treatment. After chemotherapy, no CTCs were found in 28 (33.3%) of the 84 blood samples analyzed for the presence of CTCs using the RT-qPCR, whereas 56 (66.7%) blood samples were still found to be positive for at least one of the markers. After completing the therapy, the CTC positivity rate decreased to 7 (20.6%) in the neoadjuvant group, whereas this increased to 7 (14%) cases in the adjuvant group. There was no statistically significant relationship between TNM stage and detection of CTC-related markers. Data from this study suggest that RT-qPCR assay for the detection of CTC markers might be useful in selecting appropriate therapeutics and for monitoring treatment efficacy in breast cancer patients. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sundar R.,National University of Singapore | Soong R.,National University of Singapore | Cho B.-C.,Yonsei Cancer Center | Brahmer J.R.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Lung Cancer

Advances in the understanding of the role of the immune system in tumor immunosurveillance have resulted in the recognition that tumors can evade immune destruction via the dysregulation of co-inhibitory or checkpoint signals. This has led to the development of a generation immunotherapeutic agents targeting the immune checkpoint pathway. Recent early phase studies of immune checkpoint modulators, such as CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors in NSCLC have reported promising results with prolonged clinical responses and tolerable toxicity. This article provides an overview of co-stimulatory and inhibitory molecules that regulate the immune response to tumors, recent therapies that have been developed to exploit these interactions and the role of predictive biomarkers in treatment selection. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Sundar R.,National University of Singapore | Cho B.-C.,Yonsei Cancer Center | Brahmer J.R.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center | Soo R.A.,National University of Singapore
Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology

New insight on the interaction between the immune system and tumor has identified the programmed death-1/programmed death-1 ligand pathway to be a key player in evading host immune response. The immune checkpoint modulator, nivolumab (BMS-936558/ONO-4538), is the first PD-1 inhibitor to gain regulatory approval, for the treatment of patients with unresectable melanoma. This review will discuss results from early phase studies of nivolumab in solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as studies of nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, other immune modulators and molecular targeted therapy in patients with NSCLC. © The Author(s), 2015. Source

Background:Among colorectal cancers (CRCs), high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) is associated with a better prognosis, compared with low-frequency MSI or microsatellite stability (MSI-L/MSS). However, it is unclear whether MSI affects the prognosis of recurrent CRCs.Methods:This study included 2940 patients with stage I–III CRC who underwent complete resection. The associations of MSI status with recurrence patterns, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival from diagnosis to death (OS1), and overall survival from recurrence to death (OS2) were analysed.Results:A total of 261 patients (8.9%) had MSI-H CRC. Patients with MSI-H CRC had better DFS, compared to patients with MSI-L/MSS CRC (hazard ratio (HR): 0.619, P<0.001). High-frequency microsatellite instability CRC was associated with more frequent local recurrence (30.0% vs 12.0%, P=0.032) or peritoneal metastasis (40.0% vs 12.3%, P=0.003), and less frequent lung (10.0% vs 42.5%, P=0.004) or liver metastases (15.0% vs 44.7%, P=0.01). Recurrent MSI-H CRC was associated with worse OS1 (HR: 1.363, P=0.035) and OS2 (HR: 2.667, P<0.001). An analysis of patients with colon cancer yielded similar results.Conclusions:Recurrence patterns differed between MSI-H CRC and MSI-L/MSS CRC, and recurrent MSI-H CRCs had a worse prognosis.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 26 May 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.161 www.bjcancer.com. © 2016 Cancer Research UK Source

Kim H.S.,Yonsei University | Kim S.C.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kim S.J.,Yonsei University | Park C.H.,Yonsei University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics

Background: In the postgenome era, a prediction of response to treatment could lead to better dose selection for patients in radiotherapy. To identify a radiosensitive gene signature and elucidate related signaling pathways, four different microarray experiments were reanalyzed before radiotherapy.Results: Radiosensitivity profiling data using clonogenic assay and gene expression profiling data from four published microarray platforms applied to NCI-60 cancer cell panel were used. The survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2, range from 0 to 1) was calculated as a measure of radiosensitivity and a linear regression model was applied to identify genes or a gene set with a correlation between expression and radiosensitivity (SF2). Radiosensitivity signature genes were identified using significant analysis of microarrays (SAM) and gene set analysis was performed using a global test using linear regression model. Using the radiation-related signaling pathway and identified genes, a genetic network was generated. According to SAM, 31 genes were identified as common to all the microarray platforms and therefore a common radiosensitivity signature. In gene set analysis, functions in the cell cycle, DNA replication, and cell junction, including adherence and gap junctions were related to radiosensitivity. The integrin, VEGF, MAPK, p53, JAK-STAT and Wnt signaling pathways were overrepresented in radiosensitivity. Significant genes including ACTN1, CCND1, HCLS1, ITGB5, PFN2, PTPRC, RAB13, and WAS, which are adhesion-related molecules that were identified by both SAM and gene set analysis, and showed interaction in the genetic network with the integrin signaling pathway.Conclusions: Integration of four different microarray experiments and gene selection using gene set analysis discovered possible target genes and pathways relevant to radiosensitivity. Our results suggested that the identified genes are candidates for radiosensitivity biomarkers and that integrin signaling via adhesion molecules could be a target for radiosensitization. © 2012 Kim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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