Yokohama, Japan
Yokohama, Japan

Yokohama City University is a public university, in Yokohama, Japan. As of 2013, YCU has two faculties with a total of around 4,850 students, 111 of whom are foreign. YCU also has four campuses and two hospitals . YCU is a member of the Port-City University League , and a core member of the Japanese University Network in the Bay Area . Wikipedia.


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Patent
Yokohama City University and Saitama University | Date: 2015-02-26

The present invention finds out find out the requirements necessary for preparing a cell condensate in vitro from a large number of cells (several ten thousand to several million cells) and provides a method of forming a cell condensate for self-organization which is capable of realizing complex higher structures (such as liver and kidney) and interactions with other organs. A method of preparing a cell condensate in vitro, comprising culturing a mixture of cells and/or tissues of a desired type in a total cell count of 400,000 or more and 100,000 to 400,000 mesenchymal cells to form a cell condensate of 1 mm or more in size. A cell condensate prepared by the above-described method. A method of preparing a three-dimensional tissue structure, comprising allowing self-organization of a cell condensate prepared by the above-described method to form a three-dimensional tissue structure that has been provided with higher structures. A gel-like support wherein the side on which culture is to be performed has a U- or V-shaped cross-section.


Patent
Yokohama City University and Saitama University | Date: 2017-02-01

The present invention finds out find out the requirements necessary for preparing a cell condensate in vitro from a large number of cells (several ten thousand to several million cells) and provides a method of forming a cell condensate for self-organization which is capable of realizing complex higher structures (such as liver and kidney) and interactions with other organs. A method of preparing a cell condensate in vitro, comprising culturing a mixture of cells and/or tissues of a desired type in a total cell count of 400,000 or more and 100,000 to 400,000 mesenchymal cells to form a cell condensate of 1 mm or more in size. A cell condensate prepared by the above-described method. A method of preparing a three-dimensional tissue structure, comprising allowing self-organization of a cell condensate prepared by the above-described method to form a three-dimensional tissue structure that has been provided with higher structures. A gel-like support wherein the side on which culture is to be performed has a U- or V-shaped cross-section.


Patent
Kuraray Co. and Yokohama City University | Date: 2017-04-05

The present invention provides a culture method for culturing, in recesses (10), a population including two or more cells including a cell derived from a stem cell and a mesenchymal cell. The cell derived from a stem cell is a cell obtained by differentiating a stem cell in vitro. The cell is a cell of one or more types selected from the group consisting of an endodermal cell, an ectodermal cell, and a mesodermal cell. The population is cultured in the recesses (10) together with a vascular cell or a secretor factor. Each recess (10) includes a space in which cells are movable. When a volume of the space is represented by V mm^(3) and the number of mesenchymal cells seeded in the space is represented by N, V is 400 or less and NN is in a range from 35 to 3000.


We analyzed 1,900 Turkish Behçet's disease cases and 1,779 controls genotyped with the Immunochip. The most significantly associated SNP was rs1050502, a tag SNP for HLA-B*51. In the Turkish discovery set, we identified three new risk loci, IL1A–IL1B, IRF8, and CEBPB–PTPN1, with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) by direct genotyping and ADO–EGR2 by imputation. We replicated the ADO–EGR2, IRF8, and CEBPB–PTPN1 loci by genotyping 969 Iranian cases and 826 controls. Imputed data in 608 Japanese cases and 737 controls further replicated ADO–EGR2 and IRF8, and meta-analysis additionally identified RIPK2 and LACC1. The disease-associated allele of rs4402765, the lead marker at IL1A–IL1B, was associated with both decreased IL-1α and increased IL-1β production. ABO non-secretor genotypes for two ancestry-specific FUT2 SNPs showed strong disease association (P = 5.89 × 10-15). Our findings extend the list of susceptibility genes shared with Crohn's disease and leprosy and implicate mucosal factors and the innate immune response to microbial exposure in Behçet's disease susceptibility. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

La Jolla, Calif., May 8, 2017 - An international collaborative study led by researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP), with major participation from Yokohama School of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and UC San Diego, has identified the molecular mechanism behind lithium's effectiveness in treating bipolar disorder patients. The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), utilized human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells) to map lithium's response pathway, enabling the larger pathogenesis of bipolar disorder to be identified. These results are the first to explain the molecular basis of the disease, and may support the development of a diagnostic test for the disorder as well as predict the likelihood of patient response to lithium treatment. It may also provide the basis to discover new drugs that are safer and more effective than lithium. Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition causing extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression) and affects approximately 5.7 million adults in the U.S. Lithium is the first treatment explored after bipolar symptoms, but it has significant limitations. Only approximately one-third of patients respond to lithium treatment, and its effect is only found through a trial-and-error process that takes months--and sometimes years--of prescribing the drug and monitoring for response. Side effects of lithium treatment can be significant, including nausea, muscle tremors, emotional numbing, irregular heartbeat, weight gain, and birth defects, and many patients choose to stop taking the medicine as a result. "Lithium has been used to treat bipolar disorder for generations, but up until now our lack of knowledge about why the therapy does or does not work for a particular patient led to unnecessary dosing and delayed finding an effective treatment. Further, its side effects are intolerable for many patients, limiting its use and creating an urgent need for more targeted drugs with minimal risks," said Evan Snyder, M.D., Ph.D., professor and director of the Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine at SBP, and senior author of the study. "Importantly, our findings open a clear path to finding safe and effective new drugs. Equally as important, it helped give us insight into what type of mechanisms cause psychiatric problems such as these." "We realized that studying the lithium response could be used as a 'molecular can-opener' to unravel the molecular pathway of this complex disorder, that turns out not to be caused by a defect in a gene, but rather by the posttranslational regulation (phosphorylation) of the product of a gene--in this case, CRMP2, an intracellular protein that regulates neural networks," added Snyder. In hiPS cells created from lithium-responsive and non-responsive patients, researchers observed a physiological difference in the regulation of CRMP2, which rendered the protein to be in a much more inactive state in responsive patients. However, the research showed that when lithium was administered to these cells, their regulatory mechanisms were corrected, restoring normal activity of CRMP2 and correcting the underlying cause of their disorder. Thus, the study demonstrated that bipolar disorder can be rooted in physiological--not necessarily genetic--mechanisms. The insights derived from the hiPS cells were validated in actual brain specimens from patients with bipolar disorder (on and off lithium), in animal models, and in the actions of living neurons. "This 'molecular can-opener' approach--using a drug known to have a useful action without exactly knowing why--allowed us to examine and understand an underlying pathogenesis of bipolar disorder," said Snyder. "The approach may be extended to additional complex disorders and diseases for which we don't understand the underlying biology but do have drugs that may have some beneficial actions, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and others in need of more effective therapies. One cannot improve a therapy until one knows what molecularly really needs to be fixed." This study was performed in collaboration with Veterans Administration Medical Center in La Jolla, University of California San Diego, Yokohama City University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Mailman Research Center at McLean Hospital, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, National Institute of Mental Health, Vala Sciences, Inc., Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, Dalhousie University, Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Örebro University, Janssen Research & Development Labs, Waseda University, and RIKEN . Funding was provided by the National Institutes of Health (grants RC2MH090011, R21MH093958, R33MH087896 and R01MH095088 and the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures Program), the Viterbi Foundation Neuroscience Initiative, the Stanley Medical Research Institute, the Tau Consortium, the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, the California Bipolar Foundation and the International Bipolar Foundation. Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) is an independent nonprofit medical research organization that conducts world-class, collaborative, biological research and translates its discoveries for the benefit of patients. SBP focuses its research on cancer, immunity, neurodegeneration, metabolic disorders and rare children's diseases. The Institute invests in talent, technology and partnerships to accelerate the translation of laboratory discoveries that will have the greatest impact on patients. Recognized for its world-class NCI-designated Cancer Center and the Conrad Prebys Center for Chemical Genomics, SBP employs about 1,100 scientists and staff in San Diego (La Jolla), Calif., and Orlando (Lake Nona), Fla. For more information, visit us at SBPdiscovery.org or on Facebook at facebook.com/SBPdiscovery and on Twitter @SBPdiscovery.


Patent
Yokohama City University and Nihon Medi Physics Co. | Date: 2017-05-17

A novel technique of quantifying nuclear medicine data is provided. The novel technique is characterized in that information acquired from nuclear medicine image data is normalized with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). Some embodiments use, instead of the conventional SUV, the SUVbone that has been invented by the inventors of the present application such as the following: SUVbone = {Amount of attenuation-corrected radioactivity in region of interest (kBq) Volume of region of interest (ml)} / {Administered radioactivity dose (kBq) Bone mineral content (g)} or SUVbone = {Amount of attenuation-corrected radioactivity in region of interest (kBq) Volume of region of interest (ml)} / {Administered radioactivity dose (kBq) Bone mineral density (g/m^(2))}. BMC or BMD may be estimated from sex, age, height, or weight of a subject.


Patent
Kuraray Co. and Yokohama City University | Date: 2016-04-20

A tissue structure for enabling comprehensive understanding of gene patterns of mature cells and a method of preparing the tissue structure are provided. A tissue structure is obtained by co-culturing an endodermal, ectodermal, or mesodermal cell derived from a stem cell and at least one cell and/or factor selected from the group consisting of a vascular cell, a mesenchymal cell, a factor secreted by a vascular cell, a factor secreted by a mesenchymal cell, and a factor secreted when both a vascular cell and a mesenchymal cell exist. A value obtained by assay of a plurality of functions using a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is closer to a value of a cell or biological tissue sampled from an adult than a value of a cell or biological tissue sampled from a fetus.


Patent
Kuraray Co. and Yokohama City University | Date: 2016-04-13

Provided is a culture chamber capable of preparing spheroids with a uniform size with high efficiency and having a micro-space structure which is designed to facilitate replacement of a medium and harvesting of cells. The culture chamber includes a plurality of recesses (10) each formed of a bottom portion (11) and an opening portion (12). The bottom portion (11) has one of a hemispherical shape and a truncated cone shape and the opening portion (12) is defined by a wall that surrounds an area from a boundary between the opening portion (12) and the bottom portion (11) to an end of each of the recesses (10), the wall having a taper angle in a range from 1 degree to 20 degrees. An equivalent diameter of the boundary is in a range from 50 m to 2 mm and a depth from a bottom of the bottom portion (11) to the end of each of the recesses is in a range from 0.6 or more times to 3 or less times the equivalent diameter, and the wall defining the opening portion (12) forms a surface continuous to the bottom portion (11) and an inclination of the continuous surface changes at the boundary.


Patent
Kuraray Co. and Yokohama City University | Date: 2016-01-29

To provide a cell culture kit including cultured living cells of various donors, and a manufacturing method thereof. The cell culture kit includes a culture plate and living cells cultured thereon. The culture plate includes a plurality of microchambers (33) and living cells derived from various donors are adhered to surfaces of the plurality of microchambers (33). Specifically, living cells D1, D2, and D3 derived from various donors are adhered to the plurality of microchambers (33). In each microchamber (33), living cells derived from one donor or living cells derived from various donors may be cultured. The living cells derived from various donors are adhered and cultured in the cell culture kit as a whole, which makes it possible to provide a cell culture kit to conduct a test using cells derived from various donors.


A superelastic material is provided, which can exhibit superelasticity even with a reduced amount of energy compared with the conventional superelastic materials. The superelastic material is characterized by having a molecular crystal. The molecular crystal preferably has an organic skeleton.

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