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PubMed | Red Cross, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, Eiju General Hospital, Keio University and 18 more.
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013-14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics with a fever of 38 C or over and had undergone an IRDT were enrolled in this study. Patients with positive IRDT results were recorded as cases, and patients with negative results were recorded as controls. Between November 2013 and March 2014, a total of 4727 pediatric patients (6 months to 15 years of age) were enrolled: 876 were positive for influenza A, 66 for A(H1N1)pdm09 and in the other 810 the subtype was unknown; 1405 were positive for influenza B; and 2445 were negative for influenza. Overall VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-52). Adjusted VE against influenza A, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B was 63% (95% CI, 56-69), 77% (95% CI, 59-87), and 26% (95% CI, 14-36), respectively. Influenza vaccine was not effective against either influenza A or influenza B in infants 6 to 11 months of age. Two doses of influenza vaccine provided better protection against influenza A infection than a single dose did. VE against hospitalization influenza A infection was 76%. Influenza vaccine was effective against influenza A, especially against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, but was much less effective against influenza B.


Takahashi M.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Sakurai K.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Fujii H.,Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center | Saito K.,Hoshi University
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2014

Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin- 3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-Ogentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas.


Sugaya N.,Keiyu Hospital | Sakai-Tagawa Y.,Institute of Medical Science | Bamba M.,Keiyu Hospital | Yasuhara R.,Keiyu Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2015

Background: Shedding of the pandemic virus during an influenza pandemic is thought to persist longer than shedding of influenza viruses during annual influenza seasons, because people have much less immunity against a pandemic influenza. A correlation is thought to exist between the length of virus shedding and the clinical severity of influenza illness. Methods: We compared the virus isolation rates of children with pandemic A H1N1/09 influenza infection and children with A H3N2 influenza infection after the patients had been treated with one of three neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) such as peramivir, laninamivir and oseltamivir. The clinical effectiveness of each NAI was assessed on the basis of the duration of the febrile period after the start of treatment. Results: Influenza viruses were isolated from 15 of the 34 patients in the A H3N2 group (mean age 6.2 years) and from 4 of the 25 patients in the A H1N1/09 (mean age 5.6 years) virus group (44.1% versus 16.0%; P<0.05). However, the differences between the duration of fever in the patients in the A H3N2 group and A H1N1/09 group after treatment with the NAIs were not significant. Conclusions: The virus isolation rates after treatment with each of the NAIs were significantly lower in the A H1N1/09 group, suggesting that the pandemic A H1N1/09 virus was more sensitive to the NAIs than the seasonal A H3N2 virus was. Clinically, there were no significant differences in the effectiveness of the NAIs between the H1N1/09 infected group and H3N2 infected group. © 2015 International Medical Press.


Mitamura K.,Eiju General Hospital | Kawakami C.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Shimizu H.,Kawasaki City Institute of Public Health | Abe T.,Abe Childrens Clinic | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

We evaluated Clearline Influenza A/B/(H1N1)2009, a new multi-line immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of antigens of influenza A (Flu A), B (Flu B), and A(H1N1)2009 viruses. Clearline detected Flu A, Flu B, and A(H1N1)2009 viruses with a detection limit of 4.6 × 103 to 7.5 × 104 pfu/assay. The sensitivity and specificity of detection of influenza virus by Clearline, using RT-PCR as reference standard, were determined for A(H1N1)2009, Flu A, and Flu B, in nasopharyngeal aspirate, nasopharyngeal swab, and self-blown nasal discharge specimens. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 97.3 %, Flu A = 94.5 %, and Flu B = 96.8 %, and specificity was Flu A = 99.1 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal swab specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 91.9 %, Flu A = 92.8 %, and Flu B = 100 %, and specificity was Flu A = 98.2 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity for self-blown nasal discharge specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 75.7 %, Flu A = 86.5 %, and Flu B = 76.2 %, and specificity was Flu A = 98.4 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity and specificity of Clearline were sufficient for nasopharyngeal aspirate and swab specimens. For self-blown nasal discharge specimens, sensitivity was lower than for nasopharyngeal aspirates and nasopharyngeal swabs. The sensitivity of Clearline for A(H1N1)2009 was good even 6 h after the onset of symptoms. These findings suggest that Clearline may be useful for early clinical diagnosis of influenza. © 2012 The Author(s).


Watahiki M.,Toyama Institute of Health | Isobe J.,Toyama Institute of Health | Kimata K.,Toyama Institute of Health | Shima T.,Toyama Institute of Health | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

In April and May 2011, there was a serious food-poisoning outbreak in Japan caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains O111:H8 and O157:H7 from raw beef dishes at branches of a barbecue restaurant. This outbreak involved 181 infected patients, including 34 hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases (19%). Among the 34 HUS patients, 21 developed acute encephalopathy (AE) and 5 died. Patient stool specimens yielded E. coli O111 and O157 strains. We also detected both EHEC O111 stx2 and stx-negative E. coli O111 strains in a stock of meat block from the restaurant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the stx-negative E. coli O111 isolates were closely related to EHEC O111 stx2 isolates. Although the EHEC O157 strains had diverse stx gene profiles (stx1, stx2, and stx1 stx2), the PFGE and MLVA analyses indicated that these isolates originated from a single clone. Deletion of the Stx2-converting prophage from the EHEC O111 stx2 isolates was frequently observed during in vitro growth, suggesting that strain conversion from an EHEC O111 stx2 to an stx-negative strain may have occurred during infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Kumazaki M.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Usuku S.,Yokohama City Institute of Health
Food and Environmental Virology | Year: 2015

Rotavirus C (RVC) is detected in both sporadic cases and outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. However, the epidemic dynamics of RVC in populations remain poorly understood because the detection rate is low. In this study, raw sewage samples were collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Yokohama, Japan, over 5 years, in 12-month period from September to August, to identify the RVC strains in these samples and compare them with the RVC strains circulating in the population. RVC strains were detected in 15 of the 118 raw sewage samples collected between 2007 and 2012. The highest number of positive samples detected per period (seven) was in 2008–2009. A fragment (225 nucleotides) of the VP7 gene of RVC from 14 sewage samples was sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of 11 strains were completely consistent with those of clinical strains identified in Yokohama. A phylogenetic analysis showed that 13 strains from the sewage samples clustered with several Yokohama outbreak strains and were closely related to the clinical strains (except sewage-derived strain Y11-SW0805-C). Our study demonstrates a correlation between clinical and sewage strains of RVC based on a genetic analysis, and shows that monitoring environmental samples is an effective way to study the strains circulating in a population, including in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients, even when these infections are not detected in clinical samples. This is the first report of the surveillance of RVC in sewage samples in Yokohama, Japan, for molecular epidemiological analysis. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Ozawa H.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Kumazaki M.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Ueki S.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Morita M.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Usuku S.,Yokohama City Institute of Health
Food and Environmental Virology | Year: 2015

An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred at a restaurant in Yokohama in December 2011. Because many of the customers had consumed raw sea snail, sea snail was suspected to be the source of this outbreak. To determine whether sea snail contains Norovirus (NoV) or Sapovirus (SaV), we analyzed 27 sea snail samples collected over 5 months (May, June, August, October, and December 2012) and 59.3 % were positive for NoV and/or SaV. The levels of NoV ranged from 1.5 × 103 to 1.5 × 105 copies/g tissue, and those of SaV from 1.5 × 102 to 1.3 × 103 copies/g tissue. The highest levels were observed in sea snails collected in December. A phylogenetic analysis of the NoVs showed that the viral strains were NoV genotypes GI.4, GI.6, GII.4, GII.12, GII.13, and GII.14, and the SaV strains were genotypes GI.2 and GI.3. The NoV GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants were only detected in December. This variant was a major source of gastroenteritis in Japan in the winter of 2012/2013. In contrast, the NoV GII.4 strains detected in May and June 2012 were not the Sydney 2012 variant. This study demonstrates that sea snail contains multiple genogroups and genotypes of NoV and SaV strains. We conclude that the sea snail presents a risk of gastroenteritis when consumed raw. © 2015, The Author(s).


Matsumoto Y.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Izumiya H.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Sekizuka T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Kuroda M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Ohnishi M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

The acquisition of resistance to cephalosporins among Salmonella spp. is a major public health concern. This study identified clonal plasmids carrying blaTEM-52 from 10 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and Manhattan isolates from retail chicken meats that originated from a common supplier in Japan. Whole-genome analyses of the representative plasmids, including pYM4, revealed that they are 38 kb in size and that pYM4 is identical to pDKX1 from beef in Denmark, suggesting a global dissemination of resistance mediated by the plasmids. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Yokohama City Institute of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food and environmental virology | Year: 2015

An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred at a restaurant in Yokohama in December 2011. Because many of the customers had consumed raw sea snail, sea snail was suspected to be the source of this outbreak. To determine whether sea snail contains Norovirus (NoV) or Sapovirus (SaV), we analyzed 27 sea snail samples collected over 5 months (May, June, August, October, and December 2012) and 59.3% were positive for NoV and/or SaV. The levels of NoV ranged from 1.5 10(3) to 1.5 10(5) copies/g tissue, and those of SaV from 1.5 10(2) to 1.3 10(3) copies/g tissue. The highest levels were observed in sea snails collected in December. A phylogenetic analysis of the NoVs showed that the viral strains were NoV genotypes GI.4, GI.6, GII.4, GII.12, GII.13, and GII.14, and the SaV strains were genotypes GI.2 and GI.3. The NoV GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants were only detected in December. This variant was a major source of gastroenteritis in Japan in the winter of 2012/2013. In contrast, the NoV GII.4 strains detected in May and June 2012 were not the Sydney 2012 variant. This study demonstrates that sea snail contains multiple genogroups and genotypes of NoV and SaV strains. We conclude that the sea snail presents a risk of gastroenteritis when consumed raw.


PubMed | Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Yokohama City Institute of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy | Year: 2014

The acquisition of resistance to cephalosporins among Salmonella spp. is a major public health concern. This study identified clonal plasmids carrying bla(TEM-52) from 10 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and Manhattan isolates from retail chicken meats that originated from a common supplier in Japan. Whole-genome analyses of the representative plasmids, including pYM4, revealed that they are 38 kb in size and that pYM4 is identical to pDKX1 from beef in Denmark, suggesting a global dissemination of resistance mediated by the plasmids.

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