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Sugaya N.,Keiyu Hospital | Sakai-Tagawa Y.,Institute of Medical science | Bamba M.,Keiyu Hospital | Yasuhara R.,Keiyu Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2015

Background: Shedding of the pandemic virus during an influenza pandemic is thought to persist longer than shedding of influenza viruses during annual influenza seasons, because people have much less immunity against a pandemic influenza. A correlation is thought to exist between the length of virus shedding and the clinical severity of influenza illness. Methods: We compared the virus isolation rates of children with pandemic A H1N1/09 influenza infection and children with A H3N2 influenza infection after the patients had been treated with one of three neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) such as peramivir, laninamivir and oseltamivir. The clinical effectiveness of each NAI was assessed on the basis of the duration of the febrile period after the start of treatment. Results: Influenza viruses were isolated from 15 of the 34 patients in the A H3N2 group (mean age 6.2 years) and from 4 of the 25 patients in the A H1N1/09 (mean age 5.6 years) virus group (44.1% versus 16.0%; P<0.05). However, the differences between the duration of fever in the patients in the A H3N2 group and A H1N1/09 group after treatment with the NAIs were not significant. Conclusions: The virus isolation rates after treatment with each of the NAIs were significantly lower in the A H1N1/09 group, suggesting that the pandemic A H1N1/09 virus was more sensitive to the NAIs than the seasonal A H3N2 virus was. Clinically, there were no significant differences in the effectiveness of the NAIs between the H1N1/09 infected group and H3N2 infected group. © 2015 International Medical Press. Source


Matsumoto Y.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Izumiya H.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Sekizuka T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Kuroda M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Ohnishi M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

The acquisition of resistance to cephalosporins among Salmonella spp. is a major public health concern. This study identified clonal plasmids carrying blaTEM-52 from 10 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and Manhattan isolates from retail chicken meats that originated from a common supplier in Japan. Whole-genome analyses of the representative plasmids, including pYM4, revealed that they are 38 kb in size and that pYM4 is identical to pDKX1 from beef in Denmark, suggesting a global dissemination of resistance mediated by the plasmids. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Mitamura K.,Eiju General Hospital | Kawakami C.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Shimizu H.,Kawasaki City Institute of Public Health | Abe T.,Abe Childrens Clinic | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

We evaluated Clearline Influenza A/B/(H1N1)2009, a new multi-line immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of antigens of influenza A (Flu A), B (Flu B), and A(H1N1)2009 viruses. Clearline detected Flu A, Flu B, and A(H1N1)2009 viruses with a detection limit of 4.6 × 103 to 7.5 × 104 pfu/assay. The sensitivity and specificity of detection of influenza virus by Clearline, using RT-PCR as reference standard, were determined for A(H1N1)2009, Flu A, and Flu B, in nasopharyngeal aspirate, nasopharyngeal swab, and self-blown nasal discharge specimens. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 97.3 %, Flu A = 94.5 %, and Flu B = 96.8 %, and specificity was Flu A = 99.1 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal swab specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 91.9 %, Flu A = 92.8 %, and Flu B = 100 %, and specificity was Flu A = 98.2 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity for self-blown nasal discharge specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 75.7 %, Flu A = 86.5 %, and Flu B = 76.2 %, and specificity was Flu A = 98.4 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity and specificity of Clearline were sufficient for nasopharyngeal aspirate and swab specimens. For self-blown nasal discharge specimens, sensitivity was lower than for nasopharyngeal aspirates and nasopharyngeal swabs. The sensitivity of Clearline for A(H1N1)2009 was good even 6 h after the onset of symptoms. These findings suggest that Clearline may be useful for early clinical diagnosis of influenza. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Uchiyama S.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | Tomizawa T.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | Tokoro A.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | Aoki M.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

A nationwide survey of indoor air quality in Japan was conducted using four types of diffusive samplers. Gaseous chemical compounds such as carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOC), acid gases, basic gases, and ozone were measured in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer. Four kinds of diffusive samplers were used in this study: DSD-BPE/DNPH packed with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine and trans-1,2-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylene coated silica for ozone and carbonyls; VOC-SD packed with Carboxen 564 particles for volatile organic compounds; DSD-TEA packed with triethanolamine impregnated silica for acid gases; and DSD-NH3 packed with phosphoric acid impregnated silica for basic gases. These samplers are small and lightweight and do not require a power source, hence, it was possible to obtain a large number of air samples via mail from throughout Japan. Almost all compounds in indoor air were present at higher levels in summer than in winter. In particular, formaldehyde, toluene, and ammonia were strongly dependent on temperature, and their levels increased with temperature. The nitrogen dioxide concentration in indoor air particularly increased only during winter and was well correlated with the formic acid concentration (correlation coefficient=0.959). Ozone concentrations in indoor air were extremely low compared with the outdoor concentrations. Ozone flowing from outdoor air may be decomposed quickly by chemical compounds in indoor air; therefore, it is suggested that the indoor/outdoor ratio of ozone represents the ventilation of the indoor environment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Takahashi M.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Sakurai K.,Yokohama City Institute of Health | Fujii H.,Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center | Saito K.,Hoshi University
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2014

Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin- 3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-Ogentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas. Source

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