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Liu J.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Yao J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wu D.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Wu R.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Lu W.,Three north Construction Bureau of State Forestry Adminstration
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Caragana korshinski, an shrub species, is very important to soil and water conservation. Korshinskii not only can be used as wind-break and sand-fixation can also be deemed to be economic crops. However when age increases, some problem exist, such as the decrease of growth and beneath and so on. The stubble technology in Caragana growth, not only to make it more robust growth can also produce a large number of korshinskii. Caragana is a high-value crop economy, is often used as livestock feed, as have better combustion characteristics to be used as fuel. Northwest of Chinese Caragana yield is large, it can replace coal, for power generation. Caragana utilization technology can not only improve its economic value, increase revenue for the local, but also reduce environmental pollution. Ningxia region has a large Caragana, but usually used as domestic fuel, which value low. It's a study of caragana korshinskii in Ningxia province. Through the growth index, industry analysis, sulfur analysis, calorific value, and thermal gravimetric analyzes. The results indicated: 1) Three years later after stumping, plant height, basal diameter and number of branches were higher than CK by 16.67%, 11.54% and 160.00%. This shows take appropriate stumping period can make korshinskii grow more vigorous, and korshinskii production increased more than doubled.2) By analyzing the calorific value of five students Caragana were compared, Korshinskii heat value increases with it's age, korshinskii and found 3-5 years old Caragana heat better, but it was not much difference; Caragana through different months from October to December harvest harvesting Caragana found most beneficial.3) From the analysis of the sulfur content, Caragana sulfur content is 1/12 times of bituminous coal.4) Industry analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis showed that caragana korshinski and coal ash generated as compared, Caragana ash is 1/9 times of bituminous coal, Dust is a major pollutant of the city. Dust is mainly produced by burning coal, including power plants, combustion boilers. PM2.5 and PM10 is due primarily to burn a lot of coal, the coal will not only generate large amount of dust, but also produce many sulfide and nitrogen oxides and other harmful substances. So it should be possible to reduce the use of coal. Korshinskii contain small amounts of sulfur compounds and ash, it is a good substitute for coal, which benefits the environment.5) Kinetics parameters of activation energy E and frequency factor A were deduced by reaction kinetics equations. It indicated that biomass has lower E value. So it's easy to be ignited. The activation energy korshinskii 3 years old and above growth cycle is relatively low, the escape of volatile combustion stage and the activation energy in the 2.31-2.77 kJ/mol range, fixed carbon combustion stage activation energy of about 35.26-40.45 kJ/mol in the range. In summary, by stumping for a period of three years of caragana are most suitable as a thermal power plant fuel. © 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.

Wang W.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang W.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Li X.,Dalian University of Technology | Sun Z.,Dalian University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2016

The SiO2 supported Ni2P catalysts were prepared by H2 temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) or plasma reduction (PR) of two precursors, which were obtained by co-impregnation of SiO2 with (NH4)2HPO4 and Ni(NO3)2·6H2O with and without calcination. Their catalytic performances were evaluated by the hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline. The catalysts prepared by the TPR method showed a higher denitrogenation activity at low temperature (≤320 °C) but a lower denitrogenation activity at high temperature (≥340 °C) relative to those prepared by the PR method. The results of CO chemisorption and XPS analysis suggest that this can be explained that more metallic Ni species were present in the surface of the catalysts prepared by the TPR method, which enhanced their hydrogenation activity at temperatures below 340 °C. Calcination of the precursor is not necessary for the preparation of Ni;bsubesubbsubesub. However, both the dispersion and the surface composition of the Ni2P phase were affected by the calcination and reduction approaches. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang W.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang W.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Wang A.-J.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang A.-J.,Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Experiment | And 3 more authors.
Huaxue Gongcheng/Chemical Engineering (China) | Year: 2015

Ni2P-NC-PR and Ni2P(25)/SiO2-NC-PR hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts were prepared by non-calcination method, in which the precursors containing Ni (NO3)2 and (NH4)2HPO4 were directly converted to the active phosphide phase by hydrogen plasma reduction (PR) method. The HDS performances of the prepared catalysts were studied by using a model fuel containing mass fraction 0.8% dibenzothiophene in decalin, and the morphologies of the catalysts were characterized by XRD. A mixture of volume fraction 10% H2S/Ar was used to passivate the freshly synthesized catalysts to protect the crystal structures before entering the fixed bed reactor. Experimental results show that the hydrodesulfurization performances of Ni2P-NC-PR and Ni2P (25)/SiO2-NC-PR prepared by PR method are higher than that of Ni2P-C-PR and Ni2P (25)/SiO2-C-PR respectively. XRD characterization results reveal that the catalyst particle size of Ni2P-NC-PR or Ni2P (25)/SiO2-NC-PR is less than that of Ni2P-C-PR or Ni2P (25)/SiO2-C-PR. The catalyst active center of Ni2P-NC-PR or Ni2P (25)/SiO2-NC-PR is more, and its high activity is attributed to the increase in the number of the active center. © 2015, Editorial Office of Chemical Engineering (China). All right reserved.

Wang W.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang W.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Wang A.-J.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang A.-J.,Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Equipment | And 3 more authors.
Huaxue Gongcheng/Chemical Engineering (China) | Year: 2015

The bulk Ni2P was synthesized by means of hydrogen plasma reduction (PR). A mixture of 10% H2S in Ar was used to passivate the freshly-synthesized Ni2P to protect their crystal structures before entering the fixed bed reactor. The experimental results show that their catalytic performances are higher in the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) than those prepared by the conventional temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) method. XRD characterization results reveal that there exist more active sites in the PR-synthesized Ni2P than in the TPR-synthesized ones due to the decreased particle sizes of the PR-synthesized Ni2P. The PR-synthesized Ni2P exhibits a good stability during HDS reaction. ©, 2015, Editorial Office of Chemical Engineering (China). All right reserved.

Yang J.,Ningxia University | Yang J.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Sun Z.,Ningxia University | Luo C.,Ningxia University | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Takyric solonetz, a typical subclass of alkali soil, is widely distributed in the north of Yinchuan Plain of Ningxia Province, the west of Hetao Plain and the desert steppe in north Xinjiang in China. Due to the hard soil texture, poor permeability and difficult improvement, takyric solonetz has become the main factor severely affecting the development of local agriculture, and is expected to bring threat to the regional food security in the future. More and more improvement techniques have been developed to achieve a sustainable utilization of saline-alkali waste land, but the effect of the treatment of leaching + gypsum + furfural residue + desert sand + deep scarification + soil bin on soil properties and yield of oil sunflower on newly reclaimed takyric solonetz land remains unknown. In the present study, we conducted a three-year field comparative experiment to investigate the effect of different salt-water regulation modes on soil properties and yield of oil sunflowers, which were planted on newly reclaimed takyric solonetz land on the Qianjin Farmland of Xidatan, Ningxia (106° 24'209″ E, 38° 50'289″ N). On the basis of the unified application of desulfurization gypsum of 28 t3/hm2, furfural residue of 22.5 t3/hm2 and leaching water of 4 500 m3/hm2, 7 salt-water regulation measures were applied: desert sand (T1), deep scarification (T2), soil bin (T3), desert sand + deep scarification (T4), desert sand +soil bin (T5), deep scarification + soil bin (T6), and desert sand + deep scarification + soil bin (T7). A flat field only with leaching (4 500 m3/hm2) was used as control (CK). Soil permeability, pH value, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium saturation percentage (ESP), salt ions and growth of oil sunflower were monitored during the whole growth season. Results indicated the pH value, EC, ESP and salt ions in 0-40 cm soil layer significantly decreased (P< 0.01) under T7 compared with those under CK, and the pH value, EC and ESP decreased by 22%, 95% and 71% respectively. Furthermore, the values of pH, EC and ESP were lower in the third year than those in the first year, which dropped to 7.25, 0.087 ms/cm and 5.2% respectively. By comparing the values of pH, EC and ESP between the 7 treatments in 0-40 cm, our results indicated that these values were the highest under T7, followed orderly by T6, T4, T2, T5, T3 and T1, and T1 showed the lowest values. In addition, T7 increased the emergence rate and the yield of oil sunflower by 6% and 16%, 8% and 19%, 3% and 15%, 21% and 28%, 16% and 20%, and 19% and 21% respectively compared to T6, T4, T5, T2, T3 and T1. We thus conclude that the regulation mode of desert sand + deep scarification + soil bin is able to improve the newly reclaimed takyric solonetz land most effectively. These results will also provide a technical support for the salt-water management of the newly reclaimed takyric solonetz farmlands, and a guide for the sustainable development and utilization of waste takyric solonetz land. ©, 2015, Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.

Cui H.,Ningxia University | Cui H.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Zhang Y.-H.,Ningxia University
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2016

The fenced measures could improve the ecological environment of degraded grassland, it's a main measure for restoration of degraded grassland vegetation in China. Soil respiration (Rs) is an important component of an ecosystem's carbon cycle and the main pathway for carbon moving from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. In order to explore soil respiration characteristics and influencing factors of the different fenced years in arid desert grassland, we continuously observed Rs rate and environmental factors in the growing season of fenced enclosure 11 a, 7 a and no fenced (CK) desert steppe in Ningxia. The results showed that: (1) Both the diurnal and seasonal variations of Rs rate showed a single asymmetric peak changing in fenced enclosure of 11 years, 7 years, CK desert steppe. On the daily scale, the maximum and minimum values of Rs rate were found in the periods of 12:00-16:00 and 00:00-06:00, respectively. On the seasonal variation scale, the maximum value of Rs rate occurred in August with suitable precipitation and temperature conditions. And the Rs rate of the growing season of different fenced enclosure years was in the order of 11 a [0.143 g·(m2·h)-1]>7 a [0.138 g·(m2·h)-1]>CK [0.106 g·(m2·h)-1]. (2) According to statistical analysis, it indicated that Rs rate had a significant exponential positive relationship with air and soil temperature in fenced enclosure of 11 years, 7 years, CK desert steppe (P<0.01). The order of the correlation of Rs rate and temperature was shown as soil surface temperature (R2: 0.408-0.413)>air temperature (R2: 0.355-0.376)>5-20 cm soil temperature (R2: 0.263-0.394). The temperature sensitivity coefficient Q10 increased gradually with the soil depth, and Q10 of different fenced enclosure years was showed as 11 a (2.728)>7 a (2.436)>CK (2.086). (3) A significant quadratic function model (P<0.05) was observed for the relationship between Rs rate and relative air humidity, soil moisture content of fenced enclosure 11 a, 7 a and CK desert steppe in the whole growing season. Rs rate had a significant linear negative correlation with air carbon dioxide concentration (P<0.01), a linear positive correlation with the wind speed (P<0.05), and a significant weak linear positive correlation with light intensity (P<0.01). (4) It showed that Rs increased with increasing fenced closure years in arid desert steppe, and temperature sensitivity coefficient Q10 also increased with increasing fenced enclosure years. To sum up, 0-20cm soil temperature and moisture were the main influencing factors of soil respiration of arid desert steppe. This study has important implications to understand the role that different fenced enclosure years play in carbon emission. Such information will lay a foundation for assessing carbon source or carbon sequestration of different fenced enclosure years in desert steppe. Therefore, our research results have important function for better managing grassland in desert steppe in Ningxia and other arid and semiarid areas of North China. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Cao X.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Cao X.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Ma C.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University
Journal of Bionanoscience | Year: 2014

In order to solve the problem of hazardous materials supplier selection of enterprise, this paper firstly used the intuitionistic fuzzy sets to describe evaluation index, and filtered the supplier evaluation index through the ISM model. Secondly, it used interval intuitionistic fuzzy multiple attribute decision method based on cross-entropy to calculate and model the weight of multi-attribute value of each hazardous materials supplier, and to get the right weight of each evaluation index. Thirdly, it obtained the optimal supplier by a grey relational analysis approach. Finally, the method was validated through a case, the results showed that the hazardous materials supplier selection method based on cross-entropy and grey relation is feasible and effective. This paper built the decision method which based on cross-entropy interval intuitionistic fuzzy sets and a grey relational analysis approach can satisfy the enterprises to choose the most suitable supplier as their own hazardous materials suppliers. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

Wu Y.,Yinchuan Energy Institute
Zhongguo Youse Jinshu Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals | Year: 2016

On the basis of derived intrinsic-kinetics equation producing the Si-CVD of the hydrogen reduction reaction system of trichlorosilane in the bell furnace, the concentration distribution differential equation (the zero order Bessel equation), integral equation (the zero order Bessel function) and deposition rate model of Si were derived by combining the basic material flow characteristics of the gas phase and transferring reaction-CVD process and analyzing the concentration distribution of key component in the cylindrical silicon core CVD layer with the classical theory of reaction engineering, then the deposition rate model of Si-CVD was established. If CVD player concentration distribution is taken into consideration, the average deposition thickness model and the deposition quality model will be included. If not, the two simplified models will be included. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Cui Y.-H.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Chen J.-W.,Yinchuan Energy Institute | Wang W.,Yinchuan Energy Institute
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2015

Fe2O3 is directly dissolved from pyrite slag by mixing concentrated nitric acid and aid leaching agent. The effects of the leaching temperature and the acid concentration on the crystal structures of Fe2O3 are studied by XRD. The results show that nitric acid can achieve better leaching effect and has slight influence on the change of crystal structure. By contrast, the leaching temperature has a much greater influence. © 2015, China National Chemical Information Center. All right reserved.

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