News Article | April 16, 2017
Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan makes statements in Istanbul, on Sunday, April 16, 2017. Erdogan declared victory in Sunday's historic referendum that will grant sweeping powers to the presidency, hailing the result as a "historic decision." (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis) ISTANBUL (AP) — Rising from humble origins to take the helm of Turkey's government in 2003, Recep Tayyip Erdogan quickly attracted a fervent following. But Erdogan, who served as prime minister and then president, also became feared and hated by many who saw him as an increasingly autocratic leader seeking to erode the country's secular traditions by imposing his conservative, religious views. Constitutional changes that would change the country's system of government from parliamentary to presidential — and grant Erdogan even more authority — were narrowly approved by Turkey's voters on Sunday, according to unofficial results from the country's election commission. The changes, one of the most radical political reforms since the Turkish republic was established in 1923, could see the 63-year-old president remain in power until 2029. The vote's outcome reinforced Erdogan's image as a figure both popular and polarizing. While thousands of flag-waving supporters cheered the referendum's approval, political opponents immediately questioned the legitimacy of the balloting and said they intended to challenge a sizeable share of the count. Erdogan served three consecutive terms as prime minister as head of his Islamic-rooted Justice and Development Party, before becoming Turkey's first directly elected president in 2014. Supporters found in him a man who gave a voice to the working- and middle-class religious Turks who long had felt marginalized by the country's Western-leaning elite. He was seen to have ushered in a period of stability and economic prosperity, building roads, schools, hospitals and airports in previously neglected areas, transforming hitherto backwaters. "He's a real leadership figure because he is not a politician that comes from the outside. He comes from the street," Birol Akgun, an international relations expert at Ankara's Yildirim Beyazit University, said. "He has 40 years of political experience and is very strong in practical terms." But with each election win, Erdogan grew more powerful, and, his critics say, more authoritarian. His election campaigns have been forceful and bitter, with Erdogan lashing out at his opponents, accusing them of endangering the country and even supporting terrorism. After surviving an attempted coup last July, Erdogan launched a wide-ranging crackdown on followers of his former ally, Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen. Erdogan blames Gulen, who lives in the United States, and his supporters for plotting the coup, an allegation Gulen has denied. The crackdown saw roughly 100,000 people lose their jobs, including judges, lawyers, teachers, journalists, military officers and police. More than 40,000 people have been arrested and jailed, including pro-Kurdish lawmakers. Hundreds of non-governmental organizations and news outlets have been shut down, as have many businesses, from schools to fertility clinics. Erdogan has also blasted European countries, accusing authorities in the Netherlands and Germany of being Nazis for refusing to allow Turkish ministers to campaign for Sunday's referendum among expatriate voters. His critics fear that if the "yes" vote prevails in the referendum, Erdogan will cement his grip on power within a system that has practically no room for checks and balances, opposition or dissent. "One person will determine national security policies, according to the constitutional changes. Why one person? What if he makes a mistake? What if he is deceived? What if he is bought?" said Kemal Kilicdaroglu, head of the main opposition Republican People's Party, during a "no" rally in Ankara Saturday. "Surrendering the Republic of Turkey to one person is a heavy sin. It's very heavy," Kilicdaroglu continued. "Can there be a state without rights and justice?" As prime minister, Erdogan garnered support from Turkey's Kurdish minority, which is estimated to make up about one-fifth of the country's population of 80 million people. He eased restrictions on the right to be educated in Kurdish and to give children Kurdish names. He also oversaw a fragile cease-fire in the fight between the state and Kurdish rebels in the country's southeast, a conflict that has claimed an estimated 40,000 lives since 1984. But the cease-fire collapsed in 2015, and about 2,000 people have died since then, including nearly 800 members of the security forces. With renewed fighting in the southeastern predominantly Kurdish areas, it is unclear whether Erdogan still would have much support from the Kurdish community. Erdogan has promised the new presidential system will herald a period of stability and prosperity for Turkey, a country that has suffered several coups in the past few decades. "He is a harsh leader in character," said Ankara academic Akgun, who used to head a pro-government NGO. "But in Turkey, a country that has so many problems, in societies like ours, the image of strong leadership is necessary to command both fear and respect and trust in society."
Ozbugday F.C.,Yildirim Beyazit University |
Erbas B.C.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology
Energy | Year: 2015
Energy efficiency and renewable energy are considered to be two indispensable solutions to control GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. Moreover, industrialization is at the center of discussions on the roles of countries to reduce CO2 emissions. However, the literature is underprovided to understand the long run contribution of energy efficiency, renewable energy and industrial composition in reducing GHG emissions at the macro level. In this study, we differentiate the effects of economic activity, energy efficiency, economic structure and use of renewable energy resources on CO2 emissions. We develop energy efficiency indices for thirty six countries for the period of 1971-2009 and use a CCE (common correlated effects) estimator model that is consistent under heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. We find a positive significant effect of energy efficiency on CO2 emissions in the long-run. Similarly, substituting renewable energy for non-renewable energy reduces CO2 emissions in the long-run. Our results ensure widely discussed roles of energy efficiency and renewable energy in curbing CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the scale of economic activity measured by real income and industrialization have significant positive effect on CO2 emissions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Akkemik K.A.,Kadir Has University |
Goksal K.,Yildirim Beyazit University
Energy Economics | Year: 2012
Existing studies examining the Granger causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP use a panel of countries but implicitly assume that the panels are homogeneous. This paper extends the Granger causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP by taking into account panel heterogeneity. For this purpose, we use a large panel of 79 countries for the period 1980-2007. Specifically, we examine four different causal relationships: homogeneous non-causality, homogeneous causality, heterogeneous non-causality, and heterogeneous causality. The results show that roughly seven-tenths of the countries exhibit bi-directional Granger causality, two-tenths exhibit no Granger causality, and one-tenths exhibit uni-directional Granger causality. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Yalcin B.,Yildirim Beyazit University
Experimental Oncology | Year: 2013
According to the analysis on locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) from all breast cancer cases recorded in Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database between the years 1992-1999 in the United States, the incidence of LABC were found to be 4.6% of all female breast cancers. Clinically, when breast cancer has advanced locoregionally but has not yet spread outside of the breast and regional lymph nodes, it is considered LABC. LABC includes breast cancers that have evidence of a large mass, involve the skin of the breast or the underlying muscles of the chest wall, and cancers that have infiltrated into the local lymph nodes. The prognosis of patients with LABC is relatively poor, with 5-year survival rates less than 50%. Because the incidence of LABC is very low, there are not many studies comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens in the literature. In management of LABC, initial therapy should be systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy, aiming pCR. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens are frequently recommended as the standard primary neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of LABC. Today, the optimal duration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is unknown. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is considered an option for patients with hormone receptor-positive LABC. Ongoing clinical trials are now under way to evaluate the use of novel targeted agents in the neoadjuvant treatment of LABC. Copyright © Experimental Oncology, 2013.
Hiziroglu A.,Yildirim Beyazit University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013
Segmentation has been taken immense attention and has extensively been used in strategic marketing. Vast majority of the research in this area focuses on the usage or development of different techniques. By means of the internet and database technologies, huge amount of data about markets and customers has now become available to be exploited and this enables researchers and practitioners to make use of sophisticated data analysis techniques apart from the traditional multivariate statistical tools. These sophisticated techniques are a family of either data mining or machine learning research. Recent research shows a tendency towards the usage of them into different business and marketing problems, particularly in segmentation. Soft computing, as a family of data mining techniques, has been recently started to be exploited in the area of segmentation and it stands out as a potential area that may be able to shape the future of segmentation research. In this article, the current applications of soft computing techniques in segmentation problem are reviewed based on certain critical factors including the ones related to the segmentation effectiveness that every segmentation study should take into account. The critical analysis of 42 empirical studies reveals that the usage of soft computing in segmentation problem is still in its early stages and the ability of these studies to generate knowledge may not be sufficient. Given these findings, it can be suggested that there is more to dig for in order to obtain more managerially interpretable and acceptable results in further studies. Also, recommendations are made for other potentials of soft computing in segmentation research. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yalcin B.,Yildirim Beyazit University
Experimental Oncology | Year: 2013
Breast cancer is the most common female malignant disease in the western countries where a woman's lifetime risk of developing the disease is more than 10%. Nulliparity or use of hormonal replacement therapy, strong family history, or a history of therapeutic thoracic radiation are considerable high risk factors for the development of breast cancer. Nowadays more new effective therapeutic agents have been developed for the intervention of the breast cancer, but prognosis is still remained poor in the metastatic disease. For the general population, screening mammography in women older than 40-45 years has been shown to be effective in identifying early-stage breast cancer and in decreasing the mortality rate. In randomized screening mammography trials for breast cancer, it has been established that screening mammograms reduced breast cancer mortality in women older than 50 years of age by 25 to 30%. This review article summarizes the risk factors for developing breast cancer, methods for risk assessment and the accepted screening guidelines. Copyright © Experimental Oncology, 2013.
Celebi N.,Yildirim Beyazit University
Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Rapid Communications | Year: 2013
Mid infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting in the 3-4 micron wavelength range have many potential applications in addition to sensitive gas detection since some gases have their strongest absorption features in this region. In this study, this type of QCL is intelligently modelled as a function of characteristic quantities (gain, refractive index change with injection current, linewidth enhancement factor) in terms of radial basis function network (RBFN). The single model results well matched with the experimental data reported elsewhere.
Pinar G.,Yildirim Beyazit University
Clinical journal of oncology nursing | Year: 2012
The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences in the effect of hysterectomy on body image, self-esteem, and marital adjustment in Turkish women with gynecologic cancer based on specific independent variables, including age, education, employment, having or not having children, and income. This cross-sectional study compared a group of women who underwent a hysterectomy (n = 100) with a healthy control group (n = 100). The study findings indicate that women who had a hysterectomy were found in worse conditions in terms of body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment compared to healthy women. In terms of dyadic adjustment and body image among women who had undergone a hysterectomy, those with lower levels of income and education were found in poorer conditions. The study's findings show that hysterectomies have negative effects on body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment in women affected by gynecologic cancer. Nursing assessment of self-esteem and marital adjustment indicators and implementation of strategies to increase self-confidence and self-esteem are needed for high-risk women.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-RI | Phase: MSCA-IF-2014-EF | Award Amount: 157.84K | Year: 2015
The research on terahertz technology has become one of the emerging fields due to the unique properties that it offers, presenting enabling alternatives in imaging, spectroscopy, and communication applications. Increasing research activities in the field also brings the need for high performance components that operate in the terahertz regime, the most important of which are the high performance sources and detectors. Photomixing is one of the most commonly used methods for terahertz generation and detection, which employs an ultrafast semiconductor substrate integrated with an antenna. The state-of-the-art photomixer antennas have either a low radiation resistance in a wide band or a high radiation resistance in a narrow band, both of which introduce a significant reduction in the amount of terahertz power generated or detected. Possible antenna reconfigurability options to overcome these issues have not been investigated so far due to the lack of high performance switching elements in the terahertz band, which could boost the antenna, and hence, photomixer performance significantly. Moreover, electronically controlled beam steering possibilities, which could enhance the system performance radically in terahertz imaging and communication applications, have not been studied to date, which also requires high performance switching elements. In this project, we aim to develop, for the first time, beam steerable and frequency reconfigurable photomixer antenna array for terahertz generation and detection. Beam steering and frequency reconfiguration will be achieved by means of nano-actuators, which is expected to provide high performance switching at terahertz frequencies. The nano-actuators that we target to develop will be the smallest ones reported up to date, which is mandatory to integrate them into the very small antenna dimensions. The proposed project will be a high level of interdisciplinary research between optics, electronics, and mechanical engineering.
Oguz F.,Yildirim Beyazit University
Telecommunications Policy | Year: 2013
The meaning of universal service in telecommunications has changed considerably in the last decade. Technological advances have created the necessity to redefine the legal framework. While the demand for old universal services falls, new and wider services are to be included in the scope of legal obligations such as broadband. In this transformation of public policy toward universal services, political preferences take precedence over economic considerations. Turkey provides a good case in point. In this paper, the authors assess the legal framework of universal services and its institutional structure in Turkey. The tension between enlarging the scope of universal service and pressures on using revenues efficiently is emphasized. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.