Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar
Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

Yezin Agricultural University , located in Yezin about 18 km north of Pyinmana in Naypyidaw, is the only institution of higher learning in agriculture in Myanmar. The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation administered university offers primarily a four-year Bachelor of Agricultural Science program in addition to small master's and doctorate programs. Starting from the 2009 academic year, third-year and fourth-year undergraduate students have to select one crop as a specialized subject and study off campus at one of seven designated farms of the Myanmar Agricultural Service.YAU produces more than 200 graduates both for bachelor and postgraduates each year. The university has already produced more than 9000 bachelor degree holders together with numbers of postgraduate degrees up to 2012. Wikipedia.


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Thwe A.A.,Yezin Agricultural University | Thwe A.A.,Kasetsart University | Vercambre G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gautier H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Photosynthetica | Year: 2014

The crop sensitivity to ozone (O3) is affected by the timing of the O3 exposure, by the O3 concentration, and by the crop age. To determine the physiological response to the acute ozone stress, tomato plants were exposed to O3 at two growth stages. In Experiment I (Exp. I), O3 (500 μg m-3) was applied to 30-d-old plants (PL30). In Experiment II (Exp. II), three O3 concentrations (200, 350, and 500 μg m-3) were applied to 51-d-old plants (PL51). The time of the treatment was 4 h (7:30-11:30 h). Photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were done 4 times (before the exposure; 20 min, 20 h, and 2-3 weeks after the end of the treatment) using a LI-COR 6400 photosynthesis meter. The stomatal pore area and stomatal conductance were reduced as the O3 concentration increased. Ozone induced the decrease in the photosynthetic parameters of tomato regardless of the plant age. Both the photosystem (PS) II operating efficiency and the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry declined under the ozone stress suggesting that the PSII activity was inhibited by O3. The impaired PSII contributed to the reduced photosynthetic rate. The greater decline of photosynthetic parameters was found in the PL30 compared with the PL51. It proved the age-dependent ozone sensitivity of tomato, where the younger plants were more vulnerable. Ozone caused the degradation of photosynthetic apparatus, which affected the photosynthesis of tomato plants depending on the growth stage and the O3 concentration. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Win N.K.K.,Kyungpook National University | Win N.K.K.,Yezin Agricultural University | Lee S.-Y.,Kyungpook National University | Bertaccini A.,University of Bologna | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

A phytoplasma was identified in naturally infected wild Balanites triflora plants exhibiting typical witches' broom symptoms (Balanites witches' broom: BltWB) in Myanmar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that BltWB phytoplasma had the highest similarity to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi' and it was also closely related to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi'. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the BltWB phytoplasma clustered as a discrete subclade with Elm yellows phytoplasmas. RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene including the 16S-23S spacer region differentiated the BltWB phytoplasma from 'Ca. P. ziziphi', 'Ca. P. ulmi' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii'. Analysis of additional ribosomal protein (rp) and translocase protein (secY) gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis of BltWB showed that this phytoplasma was clearly distinguished from those of other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa. Taking into consideration the unique plant host and the restricted geographical occurrence in addition to the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the BltWB phytoplasma is proposed to represent a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae'. © 2013 IUMS.


Oo A.Z.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Nguyen L.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | Win K.T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Win K.T.,Yezin Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2013

Understanding the spatial and temporal variations in toposequential methane (CH4) emission is essential for assessing and mitigating CH4 emission from rice cascades in mountainous watersheds. To assess the toposequential variation in CH4 emission among different field positions, two cascades of double-cropping paddy rice fields were investigated in Yen Chau district, Northwest Vietnam. The cascades were divided into fertilized and non-fertilized parts and CH4 measurements at 10days intervals were conducted at top, middle and bottom fields of each part. The results showed that the rate and cumulative amount of CH4 emissions in non-fertilized part were higher than that of fertilized one in both spring and summer rice seasons due to the stimulation of CH4 oxidation by urea and sulfate containing fertilizers. The spatial variation in CH4 emissions among the field positions was high in both cropping seasons with the highest emissions in the bottom fields and the lowest emissions were found in the top fields (i.e. bottom field CH4 emissions 1.8-3.0 times higher than the top field). The differences among field positions were influenced by clay content, total nitrogen and total carbon content which showed toposequential differences. The average CH4 fluxes ranged from 1.0 to 5.1mgCH4m-2h-1 being largest at later growth stages for spring rice and during early growth stages for summer rice. Cumulative CH4 emissions for spring rice ranged from 3.1 to 13.7gCH4m-2 and that for summer rice from 4.3 to 23.5gCH4m-2. 61.7% was emitted during summer rice season and 38.1% from spring rice season. The higher values for summer crops were due to higher availability of fresh organic substrates under higher soil temperature during the early growing period. The average total CH4 emissions from double-cropping paddy rice fields were 14.8gCH4m-2 for cascade 1 and 27.3gCH4m-2 for cascade 2. The higher emission for cascade 2 might be due to the lower soil Eh and higher clay content especially in the lower lying fields. The results highlight that large toposequence differences in CH4 emissions require different site specific management practices for each toposequence position in order to mitigate CH4 emission in paddies in mountainous watersheds. © 2013 The Authors.


Htwe T.N.,University of Kassel | Kywe M.,Yezin Agricultural University | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel | Brinkmann K.,University of Kassel
Journal of Land Use Science | Year: 2015

Inle Lake in Eastern Myanmar is strongly affected by environmental effects of rapid population growth and an increase in the agricultural and tourist sector. To identify land use and land cover changes (LUCC), a post-classification comparison method was employed using historical Corona images (1968) and Landsat data (1989, 2000 and 2009). A supervised classification was performed for the Landsat datasets, whereas a visual interpretation was used for the Corona images.During the last 40 years, the dominant landscape transformation processes were urbanization (+203%), crop expansion (+34%) with a particular increase of floating gardens (+390%), land abandonment (+167%), deforestation (−49%) and wetland losses in marshlands (−83%) and waterbodies (−16%). The main driving forces of LUCC appeared to be population increase, industrial activities, government policies, widespread rural poverty and changes in market prices and access. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.


Bollig K.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Specht A.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Myint S.S.,Yezin Agricultural University | Zahn M.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Horst W.J.,Leibniz University of Hanover
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Vascular wilt caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is a major yield and quality-limiting disease across a broad spectrum of crop plants worldwide. Sulphur-enhanced plant defence mechanisms provide an opportunity to effectively and environmentally safely constrain the wilt disease levels in planta. To evaluate the influence of sulphur nutrition on the protective potential of these mechanisms, two near-isogenic tomato genotypes differing in fungal susceptibility, were treated with low or supra-optimal sulphur supply. Microscopic analysis revealed a significant sulphur-induced decrease in the amount of infected vascular cells in both genotypes. However, plant shoot and severely pathogen-affected root growth did not display this distinct alleviating influence of sulphur nutrition. Rates of leaf photosynthesis were impeded by Verticillium dahliae infection in both genotypes especially under low sulphur nutrition. However, assimilate transport rates in the phloem sap were enhanced by fungal infection more in the resistant genotype and under high sulphur nutrition suggesting a stronger sink for assimilates in infected plant tissues possibly involved in sugar-induced defence. A SYBR Green-based absolute quantitative Real-Time assay using a species-specific primer was developed which sensitively reflected sulphur nutrition-dependent changes in fungal colonization patterns. High sulphur nutrition significantly reduced fungal spread in the stem in both tomato genotypes. Concentrations of selected sulphur-containing metabolites revealed an increase of the major anti-oxidative redox buffer glutathione under high sulphur nutrition in response to fungal colonization. Our study demonstrates the existence of sulphur nutrition-enhanced resistance of tomato against Verticillium dahliae mediated by sulphur-containing defence compounds. © 2012 KNPV.


Min Y.Y.,Yezin Agricultural University | Toyota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Nematology | Year: 2013

A total of 12 soils collected from different agricultural fields, having different backgrounds of organic input, were evaluated for their suppressive potential against Meloidogyne incognita. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita were inoculated into the soils and their survival was evaluated. The number of M. incognita J2 5 days after inoculation differed depending on soil and was significantly lower in two soils, suggesting higher suppressiveness against M. incognita in these soils. This was confirmed by an experiment using tomato as a test plant, in which the gall formation was significantly lower in the two soils than in other soils. To estimate the contribution of below-ground biota to the suppressiveness, numbers of nematodes (predator, omnivore, bacterivore and fungivore) and other soil fauna such as tardigrades and rotifers, were counted. Some soil chemical and biological properties were also measured. Results from multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the number of rotifers, microbial activity, soil pH and total C may be involved in the suppression. The relationship between the suppressiveness and soil chemical and biological parameters is discussed. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Oo A.N.,Yezin Agricultural University | Oo A.N.,Khon Kaen University | Iwai C.B.,Khon Kaen University | Saenjan P.,Khon Kaen University
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of compost and vermicompost as soil conditioners in alleviating salt-affected soils and increasing maize productivity. A greenhouse trial, consisting of seven soil amendment treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications, was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Thailand, during the rainy season of 2011. Plant height and total dry matter of maize increased in treatments with compost and vermicompost application when compared with the control (no fertilizer) in two types of soils (saline and nonsaline) during the growing season. Soil pH and electrical conductivity in saturation paste extracts were decreased by compost and vermicompost amendments with or without earthworms when compared with unamended treatments in the saline soil. Compost and vermicompost amendments improved cation exchange capacity, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus in both soils. These amendments also increased exchangeable K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ while decreasing exchangeable Na+ in the saline soil, which suggested that Ca2+ was exchanged for Na+, exchangeable Na+, then leached out, and soil salinity reduced as a result. Soil microbial activities including microbial C and N and basal soil respiration were improved by the application of compost and vermicompost amendments with or without earthworms when compared with the control in both soils. This experiment showed that the compost and vermicompost were effective in alleviating salinity and improving crop growth. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Iwai C.B.,Khon Kaen University | Oo A.N.,Khon Kaen University | Oo A.N.,Yezin Agricultural University | Topark-ngarm B.,Khon Kaen University
Geoderma | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of salinity on soil property and several indicators of soil microbial activity in existing salt affected areas of Northeast Thailand, and thereby provide information relevant to other salt affected areas with a similar alternating wet-dry tropical climate. Soils collected from nine sites showed distinct variation in soil electrical conductivity (EC e) in saturation paste extracts, ranging from 1.25 to 26.70dSm -1 in the wet season and from 1.80 to 28.60dSm -1 in the dry season. Exchangeable Na + was the dominant cation in all soils. It increased only in the dry season, indicating that salts move up and accumulate on the soil surface during the dry season. In all sites, total soil organic C and N decreased in both seasons with increasing salinity. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was low (less than 10cmol ckg -1) due to sandy texture and low organic matter of the soils. Soil microbial activities declined only in the dry season in all sites. In both seasons, there were significant negative exponential relationships between EC e and indicators of microbial activity, including microbial biomass C, the percentage of soil organic C present as microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, the ratio of microbial biomass N to total N, and basal soil respiration. However, the metabolic quotient (qCO 2) was positively correlated with EC e. These results suggest that salinity influences the soil property and microbial activity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Matsumoto M.,Kyushu University | Aye S.S.,Yezin Agricultural University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Similarity in the cultural characteristics among closely related species of Rhizoctonia creates confusion and uncertainity in diagnosis. The present research was conducted to study the existence of phenotypic groups among isolates of R. oryzae in Myanmar. It was aimed to study the variation in phenotypic and molecular profiles among some isolates of R. oryzae and R. zeae. We found the occurrence of two distinct phenotypic groups of R. oryzae and a group of R. zeae. Ribosomal DNA-ITS sequencing was conducted and the resulting dendrogram agreed with those of the morphological grouping. A genetic distance of 0.064-0.072 wts was found between the R. oryzae and R. zeae groups. A pairwise distance of 0.014 and 0.022 was found between the RO1 and RO2 groups of R. oryzae. Our research revealed the existence of two distinct phenotypes in the isolates of R. oryzae collected from rice sheath in Myanmar and their differentiating features with R. zeae. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Araki T.,Ehime University | Oo T.T.,Yezin Agricultural University | Kubota F.,Kyushu University
Environmental Control in Biology | Year: 2014

The response in growth and gas exchange to a flooding condition was characterized with 8 cultivars of greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Pot-grown plants were subjected to 6-d flooding and 6-d recovery treatment. The flooding treatment had serious effects on the gas exchange and electron transport of 7 cultivars except for cv. KP, while the damages were lenient in cv. KP. KP was characterized by maintaining relatively higher stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, which was attributed to sustaining the CO2 assimilation under flooding stress. KP was also superior in photosynthetic sustainment than other 7 cultivars under recovery treatment, which was attributable to the fact that this cultivar recovered stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, electron transport and the ratio of photorespiration to total carbon assimilation. These results in cv. KP lead to higher plant growth in relation to leaf area extension and dry matter.

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