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Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

Yezin Agricultural University , located in Yezin about 18 km north of Pyinmana in Naypyidaw, is the only institution of higher learning in agriculture in Myanmar. The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation administered university offers primarily a four-year Bachelor of Agricultural Science program in addition to small master's and doctorate programs. Starting from the 2009 academic year, third-year and fourth-year undergraduate students have to select one crop as a specialized subject and study off campus at one of seven designated farms of the Myanmar Agricultural Service.YAU produces more than 200 graduates both for bachelor and postgraduates each year. The university has already produced more than 9000 bachelor degree holders together with numbers of postgraduate degrees up to 2012. Wikipedia.

Win N.K.K.,Kyungpook National University | Win N.K.K.,Yezin Agricultural University | Lee S.-Y.,Kyungpook National University | Bertaccini A.,University of Bologna | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology

A phytoplasma was identified in naturally infected wild Balanites triflora plants exhibiting typical witches' broom symptoms (Balanites witches' broom: BltWB) in Myanmar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that BltWB phytoplasma had the highest similarity to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi' and it was also closely related to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi'. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the BltWB phytoplasma clustered as a discrete subclade with Elm yellows phytoplasmas. RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene including the 16S-23S spacer region differentiated the BltWB phytoplasma from 'Ca. P. ziziphi', 'Ca. P. ulmi' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii'. Analysis of additional ribosomal protein (rp) and translocase protein (secY) gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis of BltWB showed that this phytoplasma was clearly distinguished from those of other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa. Taking into consideration the unique plant host and the restricted geographical occurrence in addition to the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the BltWB phytoplasma is proposed to represent a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae'. © 2013 IUMS. Source

Min Y.Y.,Yezin Agricultural University | Toyota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

A total of 12 soils collected from different agricultural fields, having different backgrounds of organic input, were evaluated for their suppressive potential against Meloidogyne incognita. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita were inoculated into the soils and their survival was evaluated. The number of M. incognita J2 5 days after inoculation differed depending on soil and was significantly lower in two soils, suggesting higher suppressiveness against M. incognita in these soils. This was confirmed by an experiment using tomato as a test plant, in which the gall formation was significantly lower in the two soils than in other soils. To estimate the contribution of below-ground biota to the suppressiveness, numbers of nematodes (predator, omnivore, bacterivore and fungivore) and other soil fauna such as tardigrades and rotifers, were counted. Some soil chemical and biological properties were also measured. Results from multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the number of rotifers, microbial activity, soil pH and total C may be involved in the suppression. The relationship between the suppressiveness and soil chemical and biological parameters is discussed. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. Source

Oo A.Z.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Nguyen L.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | Win K.T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Win K.T.,Yezin Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.

Understanding the spatial and temporal variations in toposequential methane (CH4) emission is essential for assessing and mitigating CH4 emission from rice cascades in mountainous watersheds. To assess the toposequential variation in CH4 emission among different field positions, two cascades of double-cropping paddy rice fields were investigated in Yen Chau district, Northwest Vietnam. The cascades were divided into fertilized and non-fertilized parts and CH4 measurements at 10days intervals were conducted at top, middle and bottom fields of each part. The results showed that the rate and cumulative amount of CH4 emissions in non-fertilized part were higher than that of fertilized one in both spring and summer rice seasons due to the stimulation of CH4 oxidation by urea and sulfate containing fertilizers. The spatial variation in CH4 emissions among the field positions was high in both cropping seasons with the highest emissions in the bottom fields and the lowest emissions were found in the top fields (i.e. bottom field CH4 emissions 1.8-3.0 times higher than the top field). The differences among field positions were influenced by clay content, total nitrogen and total carbon content which showed toposequential differences. The average CH4 fluxes ranged from 1.0 to 5.1mgCH4m-2h-1 being largest at later growth stages for spring rice and during early growth stages for summer rice. Cumulative CH4 emissions for spring rice ranged from 3.1 to 13.7gCH4m-2 and that for summer rice from 4.3 to 23.5gCH4m-2. 61.7% was emitted during summer rice season and 38.1% from spring rice season. The higher values for summer crops were due to higher availability of fresh organic substrates under higher soil temperature during the early growing period. The average total CH4 emissions from double-cropping paddy rice fields were 14.8gCH4m-2 for cascade 1 and 27.3gCH4m-2 for cascade 2. The higher emission for cascade 2 might be due to the lower soil Eh and higher clay content especially in the lower lying fields. The results highlight that large toposequence differences in CH4 emissions require different site specific management practices for each toposequence position in order to mitigate CH4 emission in paddies in mountainous watersheds. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Oo A.N.,Yezin Agricultural University | Oo A.N.,Khon Kaen University | Iwai C.B.,Khon Kaen University | Saenjan P.,Khon Kaen University
Land Degradation and Development

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of compost and vermicompost as soil conditioners in alleviating salt-affected soils and increasing maize productivity. A greenhouse trial, consisting of seven soil amendment treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications, was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Thailand, during the rainy season of 2011. Plant height and total dry matter of maize increased in treatments with compost and vermicompost application when compared with the control (no fertilizer) in two types of soils (saline and nonsaline) during the growing season. Soil pH and electrical conductivity in saturation paste extracts were decreased by compost and vermicompost amendments with or without earthworms when compared with unamended treatments in the saline soil. Compost and vermicompost amendments improved cation exchange capacity, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus in both soils. These amendments also increased exchangeable K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ while decreasing exchangeable Na+ in the saline soil, which suggested that Ca2+ was exchanged for Na+, exchangeable Na+, then leached out, and soil salinity reduced as a result. Soil microbial activities including microbial C and N and basal soil respiration were improved by the application of compost and vermicompost amendments with or without earthworms when compared with the control in both soils. This experiment showed that the compost and vermicompost were effective in alleviating salinity and improving crop growth. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Iwai C.B.,Khon Kaen University | Oo A.N.,Khon Kaen University | Oo A.N.,Yezin Agricultural University | Topark-ngarm B.,Khon Kaen University

The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of salinity on soil property and several indicators of soil microbial activity in existing salt affected areas of Northeast Thailand, and thereby provide information relevant to other salt affected areas with a similar alternating wet-dry tropical climate. Soils collected from nine sites showed distinct variation in soil electrical conductivity (EC e) in saturation paste extracts, ranging from 1.25 to 26.70dSm -1 in the wet season and from 1.80 to 28.60dSm -1 in the dry season. Exchangeable Na + was the dominant cation in all soils. It increased only in the dry season, indicating that salts move up and accumulate on the soil surface during the dry season. In all sites, total soil organic C and N decreased in both seasons with increasing salinity. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was low (less than 10cmol ckg -1) due to sandy texture and low organic matter of the soils. Soil microbial activities declined only in the dry season in all sites. In both seasons, there were significant negative exponential relationships between EC e and indicators of microbial activity, including microbial biomass C, the percentage of soil organic C present as microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, the ratio of microbial biomass N to total N, and basal soil respiration. However, the metabolic quotient (qCO 2) was positively correlated with EC e. These results suggest that salinity influences the soil property and microbial activity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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