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Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

Soe M.,Yezin | Sripichitt P.,Kasetsart University | Chanprasert W.,Kasetsart University | Hongtrakul V.,Kasetsart University | Sripichitt A.,King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science

A commercial variety of soybean, Chiangmai 60, which is susceptible to field weathering and two field weathering resistant varieties, GC 10848 and Kalitur, were grown and hybridized in the greenhouse at the Department of Agronomy, Kasetsart University. The F 1 hybrid seeds and their parental varieties were planted in the greenhouse to produce F 2 seeds. Parental varieties, F 1 hybrids and F 2 progenies were grown in an experimental field during the 2008 dry season at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center, Pakchong District, Nakhon Ratchasima province. Individual plots were 3x3 m 2, with six rows, composed of two rows of parents and four rows of F 1 hybrids or F 2 progenies for each cross. The spacing between rows was 50 cm and between hills was 25 cm. At physiological maturity, soybean pods were harvested, threshed and subjected to tests for accelerated aging (AA) and electrical conductivity (EC), and the seed coat percentage was measured. Field weathering resistance of the parental plants, F 1 hybrids and F 2 progenies was evaluated using germination percentages after AA testing and EC values of seed leachate and seed coat percentages. Dominance percentages of F 1 hybrids and the frequency distribution of F 2 progenies for the germination percentages after AA testing and EC values of seed leachate and seed coat percentages of the two soybean crosses revealed that field weathering resistance was controlled by a polygene with partial dominance. Source

Lwin N.W.,Industrial Crops Section | Yu K.H.,Yezin Agricultural University | Thein M.M.,Yezin | Lwin T.,Yezin Agricultural University
International Sugar Journal

Sugarcane smut (Sporisorium scitamineum (Syd.) M. Piepenbr., M. Stoll & Oberw.; formerly named, Ustilago scitaminea Syd.) causes reduction in cane yield and cane juice quality. Seedling progeny of twelve sugarcane families were screened for their smut reaction to assess parental contribution of smut resistance on progeny performance and to identify any associations between smut rating and yield and yield components. The progeny of twelve families were inoculated by dipping two month seedlings in a spore suspension at the concentration of 5 × 106 spores ml-1. Smut incidence was recorded on both plant and ratoon crops. According to the smut incidence in both crops, progeny of cross, F76 (VMC-74/527 × Guitang-11) was highly resistant and F7 (YZSC 02-204 × CO-1148) was resistant reaction. Progeny of cross, F38 (VMC-74/527 × Phil- 74/64) showed resistant reaction in the plant crop and highly resistant reaction in the ratoon crop. Association analysis revealed that the smut rating and stalk length, stalk diameter and sugar concentration were negatively associated but not significant (except for stalk length). In addition, there were no correlation between smut rating and number of millable stalks and cane yield, indicating that selection of moderately resistant varieties with acceptable cane yield and sugar yield should done. Source

Yamanaka S.,University of Tsukuba | Yamanaka S.,National Institute of Biological science | Jatoi S.A.,University of Tsukuba | Jatoi S.A.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | And 4 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology

Myanmar has diverse agronomic landscape and potentially preserves high level of genetic resources for important crop species. However, little study on rice landrace diversity in Myanmar has been done. Genetic and phenotypic variation to characterize rice genetic resource in Myanmar was analyzed using molecular markers as well as common garden experiments. Two populations of rice landraces, a seedbank population maintained by seed-propagation in a genebank for several generations and an "onfarm" population collected from agricultural lands were used. A functional (cytochrome P450 related PBA) and neutral (SSR) markers were used in this study. Phenotypic characteristics of representative agronomic traits in rice, such as culm length, panicle length, number of tillers and days to heading, were measured in both populations. Multivariate analysis suggested that the seed-bank and on-farm population had different genetic bases with both functional and neutral markers. There was no significant relationship between the functional and neutral markers based on Mantel test. In addition, PCA analyses of agronomic traits showed that a variation in the seed-bank population had narrower genetic bases than the on-farm population. Genetic bias caused by 'unconscious selection' during the genebank management processes may have occurred in the landraces. The importance of the conservation on on-farm landraces of Oryza sativa and its wild relatives was proposed in order to ensure the genetic resources for further breeding and conserve biological diversity. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Oo K.S.,Yezin | Oo K.S.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Oo K.S.,Kasetsart University | Khanthong S.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | And 10 more authors.
Rice Science

Paw San Hmwe (PSM) rice has been cultivated in many areas of Myanmar for a long time. Strong aroma, good taste and its elongation during cooking are the key characteristics of PSM rice. Thirty-one PSM accessions were genotypically characterized, and their physical grain and cooking quality traits were studied. We used specific gene markers associated with aroma, apparent amylose content (AAC) and alkali spreading value to determine the alleles carried by different PSM accessions. The results revealed that six PSM accessions (PSM10, PSM12, PSM13, PSM21, PSM22 and PSM30) had a 3-bp insertion in Os2AP gene. Gel consistency (GC) allele was predominant among the PSM accessions for gelatinization temperature (GT), however, the phenotype observed was between low and intermediate GT because of the combination of the GC allele with the presence of low GT allele at heterozygous state from the other loci of the SSIIa gene. Intermediate to high AAC was observed among the PSM accessions corresponding to the haplotype identified for the single nucleotide polymorphism G/T and the (CT)n repeat in the Wx gene. The characterization and grouping data of PSM accessions posted benefits to Myanmar seed banks, and our results will help in maintaining the integrity of PSM rice variety. © 2015 China National Rice Research Institute. Hosting by Elsevier B.V. Source

Rahman M.A.,Bangladesh Rice Research Institute | Rahman M.A.,International Rice Research Institute | Thant A.A.,International Rice Research Institute | Win M.,International Rice Research Institute | And 13 more authors.
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics

The participatory varietal selection approach is the first attempt in Myanmar through collaborative efforts from IRRI-LIFT. Sixteen and 12 varieties/lines were evaluated in the monsoon and dry season, respectively, through PVS in different villages in three townships of the Ayeyarwady Delta. Four varieties/lines (Saltol Sin Thwe Latt, Shwe Pyi Htay, Sin Thu Kha, and Shwe Ta Soke) in the wet season of 2012 and four varieties/lines (IR10T107, IR10T108, IR10T111, and CSR36) in the dry season of 2012-13 were selected by farmers through preference analysis, grain yield and sensory evaluation. After field evaluation, Saltol Sin Thwe Latt was released as a variety in Myanmar. Farmer-managed trials (baby trials) were carried out using the selected lines from the wet season. Based on baby trials in the 2013 wet season, Saltol Sin Thwe Latt (Saltol STL) and Sin Thu Kha (STK) were the first and second most adapted and stable high-yielding varieties for three townships in the Ayeyarwady Delta. PVS has the potential to become one of the best approaches in research for developing a variety based on farmers choice and enhancing their productivity and dissemination, especially in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar, to help resourcepoor farmers in obtaining easy access to rice-based technology for improving their livelihood. © Society for the Advancement of Breeding Research in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO) 2015. Source

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