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New York City, NY, United States

Yeshiva University is a private university in New York City, with four campuses in New York City. Founded in 1886, it is a research university.The university's undergraduate schools—Yeshiva College, Stern College for Women, and Syms School of Business— offer a dual curriculum inspired by Modern-Centrist-Orthodox Judaism's hashkafa of Torah Umadda combining academic education with the study of Torah. Yeshiva is perhaps best known for its secular, highly selective graduate schools, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law. The Forward announced on May 27, 2014 that Yeshiva would be shedding the financial burden of Albert Einstein College of Medicine by initiating an arrangement with Montefiore Hospital.Yeshiva University is an independent institution chartered by New York State. It is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and by several professional agencies. Wikipedia.

Cai D.,Yeshiva University
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Overnutrition-induced diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) involve neural dysregulation of metabolic physiology. Recently, interdisciplinary research in neuroscience and immunology has linked overnutrition to a non-classical onset of inflammation in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus. This neuroinflammation impairs central regulatory pathways of energy balance and nutrient metabolism, and leads to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. This review describes recent findings on the roles of overnutrition-induced hypothalamic inflammation in neurodegeneration and defective adult neurogenesis, as well as in impaired neural stem cell regeneration, and their relevance to obesity and related diseases. In addition, commonalities in terms of neuroinflammation between neurodegenerative diseases and overnutrition-induced metabolic diseases are discussed. Targeting neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration will provide promising approaches for treating obesity and other overnutrition-related diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Frangogiannis N.G.,Yeshiva University
Circulation Research | Year: 2012

Myocardial necrosis triggers an inflammatory reaction that clears the wound from dead cells and matrix debris, while activating reparative pathways necessary for scar formation. A growing body of evidence suggests that accentuation, prolongation, or expansion of the postinfarction inflammatory response results in worse remodeling and dysfunction following myocardial infarction. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and endogenous molecular signals implicated in suppression and containment of the inflammatory response in the infarcted heart. Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils, recruitment of inhibitory monocyte subsets and regulatory T cells, macrophage differentiation and pericyte/endothelial interactions may play an active role in restraining postinfarction inflammation. Multiple molecular signals may be involved in suppressing the inflammatory cascade. Negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling, downmodulation of cytokine responses, and termination of chemokine signals may be mediated through the concerted action of multiple suppressive pathways that prevent extension of injury and protect from adverse remodeling. Expression of soluble endogenous antagonists, decoy receptors, and posttranslational processing of bioactive molecules may limit cytokine and chemokine actions. Interleukin-10, members of the transforming growth factor-β family, and proresolving lipid mediators (such as lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins) may suppress proinflammatory signaling. In human patients with myocardial infarction, defective suppression, and impaired resolution of inflammation may be important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of remodeling and in progression to heart failure. Understanding of inhibitory and proresolving signals in the infarcted heart and identification of patients with uncontrolled postinfarction inflammation and defective cardiac repair is needed to design novel therapeutic strategies. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Schramm V.L.,Yeshiva University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Experimental analysis of enzymatic transition-state structures uses kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) to report on bonding and geometry differences between reactants and the transition state. Computational correlation of experimental values with chemical models permits three-dimensional geometric and electrostatic assignment of transition states formed at enzymatic catalytic sites. The combination of experimental and computational access to transition-state information permits (a) the design of transition-state analogs as powerful enzymatic inhibitors, (b) exploration of protein features linked to transition-state structure, (c) analysis of ensemble atomic motions involved in achieving the transition state, (d) transition-state lifetimes, and (e) separation of ground-state (Michaelis complexes) from transition-state effects. Transition-state analogs with picomolar dissociation constants have been achieved for several enzymatic targets. Transition states of closely related isozymes indicate that the protein's dynamic architecture is linked to transition-state structure. Fast dynamic motions in catalytic sites are linked to transition-state generation. Enzymatic transition states have lifetimes of femtoseconds, the lifetime of bond vibrations. Binding isotope effects (BIEs) reveal relative reactant and transition-state analog binding distortion for comparison with actual transition states. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Frangogiannis N.G.,Yeshiva University
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2014

Myocardial infarction triggers an intense inflammatory response that is essential for cardiac repair, but which is also implicated in the pathogenesis of postinfarction remodelling and heart failure. Signals in the infarcted myocardium activate toll-like receptor signalling, while complement activation and generation of reactive oxygen species induce cytokine and chemokine upregulation. Leukocytes recruited to the infarcted area, remove dead cells and matrix debris by phagocytosis, while preparing the area for scar formation. Timely repression of the inflammatory response is critical for effective healing, and is followed by activation of myofibroblasts that secrete matrix proteins in the infarcted area. Members of the transforming growth factor 2 family are critically involved in suppression of inflammation and activation of a profibrotic programme. Translation of these concepts to the clinic requires an understanding of the pathophysiological complexity and heterogeneity of postinfarction remodelling in patients with myocardial infarction. Individuals with an overactive and prolonged postinfarction inflammatory response might exhibit left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction and might benefit from targeted anti-IL-1 or anti-chemokine therapies, whereas patients with an exaggerated fibrogenic reaction can develop heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and might require inhibition of the Smad3 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) cascade. Biomarker-based approaches are needed to identify patients with distinct pathophysiologic responses and to rationally implement inflammation-modulating strategies. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Ito K.,Yeshiva University | Suda T.,Keio University
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2014

A distinctive feature of stem cells is their capacity to self-renew to maintain pluripotency. Studies of genetically-engineered mouse models and recent advances in metabolomic analysis, particularly in haematopoietic stem cells, have deepened our understanding of the contribution made by metabolic cues to the regulation of stem cell self-renewal. Many types of stem cells heavily rely on anaerobic glycolysis, and stem cell function is also regulated by bioenergetic signalling, the AKT-mTOR pathway, Gln metabolism and fatty acid metabolism. As maintenance of a stem cell pool requires a finely-tuned balance between self-renewal and differentiation, investigations into the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways underlying these decisions hold great therapeutic promise. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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