Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

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Chaix G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Monteuuis O.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Garcia C.,Yayasan Sabah Group | Alloysius D.,Yayasan Sabah Group | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2011

Introduction As a forest species, genetic variability is high in teak (Tectona grandis) and domestication of the species is very recent. The selection effect among qualitative and quantitative traits is therefore expected to be strong. Native provenances and clonal seed orchard families were compared in this study. • Materials and methods Forty-one genetic origins of teak, including 26 open-pollinated families from a clonal seed orchard in Ivory Coast, were planted in 1997 in a replicated trial at Taliwas, Sabah, East Malaysia. • Results and discussion The mortality rate and early measurements of height, and diameter at breast height varied substantially between treatments. The largest height (>18 m) and diameter (>21 cm) values recorded after 104 months were mostly from the clonal seed orchard families, while the lower performances were mainly observed for the native provenances. Narrow sense heritabilities, assessed for the clonal seed orchard families only, increased gradually with age, reaching relatively high values, especially for height at 104 months (h2=0.76). There were also some highly significant differences between the 41 genetic origins for six qualitative traits observed from 25 to 104 months. Overall, the clonal seed orchard families were marginally less crooked and grew more vertically than the other sources. • Conclusions These findings provide further evidence of the usefulness of a clonal seed orchard phase in the genetic improvement of teak and the beneficial influence of a wet tropical climate on major economic traits. © INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Ewers R.M.,Imperial College London | Didham R.K.,University of Western Australia | Didham R.K.,CSIRO | Didham R.K.,University of Canterbury | And 12 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah,Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification. © 2011 The Royal Society.


PubMed | Yayasan Sabah Group, Laboratoire Communications Of Microbiologie, CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development and IRD Montpellier
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2014

Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices.


Goh D.K.S.,Yayasan Sabah Group | Monteuuis O.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Bois et Forets des Tropiques | Year: 2012

During the early 1990's in Sabah (East Malaysia), the Company Yayasan Sabah Group Biotech ("YSG Biotech"), jointly with CIRAD (France) Forest department scientists, has developed an efficient method for mass cloning superior teak trees, Tectona grandis, of any age by rooted cuttings and by micropropagation. The first clones were produced from eight superior ("Plus") trees initially selected on phenotypic traits and growth in Sabah under 2,500 mm/yr of rainfall without a distinct dry season. The outstanding field behaviour of the clonal offspring assessed locally rapidly led to their mass propagation to meet local and international demands. Since then, millions of clonal offspring have been produced from the eight "Plus" trees and the demands keep increasing due to the attractiveness of these materials. This context has prompted us to compile the information available on the field behaviour of these clones during their early stages of development in the different countries where they have been planted. The first observations indicated that the eight clones adapt surprisingly well to a wide range of environmental conditions, outperforming all other teak sources in terms of productivity and qualitative traits in every location where they had been planted. These include places with annual rainfall of 1,000 mm and eight months of dry season, which is in total contrast to the conditions of their selection in Sabah. Nonetheless, sites with high rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year are observed to be more suitable to guarantee the best true-totype development of these clones. One of their main assets is the early and rapid production of a long and straight clear bole with minimal lateral branching which helps to alleviate costly silvicultural practices such as pruning, while encouraging their utilization in agroforestry. The availability of these clonal materials has boosted large-scale establishment of clonal teak plantations in many tropical countries.


Inoue Y.,University of Tokyo | Sinun W.,Yayasan Sabah Group | Okanoya K.,University of Tokyo | Okanoya K.,RIKEN
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2016

Activity budget, travel distance, sleeping time and height of activity of two wild East Bornean grey gibbon (Hylobates funereus) groups and travel order of one group were investigated during the dry and wet season at the Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. One male showed seasonal change in his behaviors between the dry season (August) and wet season (December). He spent more time engaged in moving, playing and grooming, traveled longer and entered the sleeping tree later in the dry season when fruit was abundant but did the opposite in wet season. On the other hand, another male gibbon whose family had a new-born baby did not show a similar seasonal behavioural change between the dry season (May-June) and wet season (December). Fruit availability and gibbon family composition, especially whether the family had a new-born baby, may have an influence on the activity budget, movement and sleeping time of East Bornean grey gibbons. Early night-tree entry may be influenced by combined factors such as fruit availability, predator avoidance and fruit competition with other animals. The female gibbon’s activities occurred at greater height above the ground compared to that of males in the early morning and the late afternoon. Similar to other gibbons, the female East Bornean grey gibbon led the group more often than the male. In addition, a rare observation was made of infant carrying by the adult male when the infant was 29 months old. © National University of Singapore.


Gustafsson M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Gustafsson L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Alloysius D.,Yayasan Sabah Group | Falck J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2016

Rainforest restoration is an important application in today's multipurpose management of secondary forest. However, our knowledge of tree species' traits and responses to treatment is insufficient for foresters to make good decisions for sustainable management. The aim of our study was to see whether it is possible to predict tree species' responses to increased light based on species' traits, and to relate these responses to a possible pioneer-climax continuum of life history traits, also among species with presumed climax properties. We examined 33 taxa (including 19 from the dipterocarp family) replicated 20 times and randomly planted in lines over a 3. ha area in the interior of Sabah, Borneo. Four years after establishment we performed a canopy reduction treatment to increase the light conditions up to levels present in tree gaps in the forest. We created a PLS (Partial Least Square Regressions) model with the two predicted variables HGR (height growth response) and Q3 HGR (the 75 percentile of a species' HGR, interpreted as the potential HGR). The model captured 47% of the variation for the predicted variables. We found significant tree species' responses in height growth to the increased light. High specific leaf area, strong early height growth, high foliar N content, high leaved stem length and large crown were linked to fast growth, while high wood density and high foliar K content were associated with slow growth. We also found a trade-off between growth response and survival among the species. We conclude that climax tree species have specific life history adaptations along a pioneer-climax continuum, which can be predicted from species' traits. The importance of easily observed or extracted traits such as initial growth rate, specific leaf area and wood density for predicting growth suggests the possibility of fast screening of species with unknown characteristics, which could be of great value in practical forest management. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Monteuuis O.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Goh D.K.S.,Yayasan Sabah Group | Garcia C.,Yayasan Sabah Group | Alloysius D.,Yayasan Sabah Group | And 3 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2011

Forty-two different genetic origins of teak (Tectona grandis) comprising 26 open-pollinated families from a clonal seed orchard (CSO) were planted in a replicated trial under 2,500 mm of annual rainfall and no distinct dry season, in 1997, in Sabah, East Malaysia. The trees were measured or scored for various traits at 13, 35, 49, 61, 72, 85, 96, and 106 months after planting. Mortality rate, height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), volume (V), and fork height (FH) varied strongly among populations and origins. The best population means after 106 months for growth H (21. 1 m), DBH (21. 1 cm), and V (278 dm 3) were for the CSO families. Narrow sense heritabilities for the CSO families increased gradually with age but remained lower after 106 months for DBH (h 2 = 0. 24) and V (h 2 = 0. 34) than for H (h 2 = 0. 51) and FH (h 2 = 0. 56). Overall, the CSO families were also straighter, less forked, and grew more vertically than the native provenance and seed-derived sources. Such differences did not exist for flowering ability, and at 106 months, the great majority of the trees of the various origins had not yet entered the flowering stage. Overall, at 106 months, the phenotypic correlations between the various quantitative and qualitative traits were weak, except between straightness and bending with values higher than 0. 50. These findings confirm the usefulness of CSO for teak improvement and demonstrate the beneficial influence of wet tropical conditions on traits of major economical importance for this species. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Monteuuis O.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Galiana A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Goh D.,Yayasan Sabah Group
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis hybrids have gained an increasing interest in reafforestation programs under the humid tropical conditions, mainly for pulpwood production. This is due to their impressive growth on acid and degraded soils, as well as their capability to restore soil fertility thanks to their natural nitrogen-fixing ability. It is crucial to develop efficient methods for improving the genetic quality and the mass production of the planting stocks of these species. In this regard, in vitro micropropagation is well suited to overcome the limitations of more conventional techniques for mass propagating vegetatively selected juvenile, mature, or even transgenic genotypes. Micropropagation of A. mangium either from seeds or from explants collected from outdoors is initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA. Microshoot cultures produced by axillary budding are further developed and maintained by regular subcultures every 60 days onto fresh MS culture medium added with 2.2 μM BA + 0.1 μM NAA. This procedure enhances the organogenic capacity for shoot multiplication by axillary budding, with average multiplication rates of 3-5 every 2 months, as well as for adventitious rooting. The rooting is initiated on Schenk and Hildebrandt culture medium containing 4 μM IAA. The maintenance of shoot cultures in total darkness for 3 weeks increases the rooting rates reaching more than 70%. The hybrid A. mangium × A. auriculiformis genotypes are subcultured at 2-month intervals with an average multiplication rate of 3 and rooting rates of 95-100% on a half-strength MS basal medium containing 1.1 μM NAA. The rooted microshoots are transferred to ex vitro controlled conditions for acclimatization and further growth, prior to transfer to the field, or use as stock plants for cost-effective and true-to-type mass production by rooted cuttings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Monteuuis O.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Goh D.K.S.,Yayasan Sabah Group
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2014

Teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) clonal forestry has lately become a reality thanks to the development of efficient techniques for mass clonally propagating true-to-type teak trees of various ages. Field trials were set up to assess the influence of teak genotypes of different ages and three clonal propagation techniques on field growth performances of teak clones. Significant differences (P < 0.0001) in height (H, from 11.9 to 17.5 m), diameter at breast height (D, from 11.8 to 18.9 cm), and volume (V, from 67.9 to 194.7 dm3) were observed 5 years after planting for clones produced by microcuttings from 6-month-old to 70-year-old teak ortets, regardless of their age. After 6.5 years of testing, H, D, and V performances of clones produced by rooted cuttings and microcuttings from 7-year-old teak trees were similar, notwithstanding clone × propagation method interactions. Five years after planting, clones produced by meristem culture from 7-year-old ortets had larger diameters and volumes than clones produced by microcuttings, whereas H varied according to clone × propagation method interaction. The various propagation methods used had no significant effect on mortality (<10%). The pros and cons of these techniques for mass clonally propagating teak genotypes of different ages were discussed. © 2015 National Research Council of Canada. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Yayasan Sabah Group
Type: | Journal: Data in brief | Year: 2016

The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article Life history traits predict the response to increased light among 33 tropical rainforest tree species [3]. We show basic growth and survival data collected over the 6 years duration of the experiment, as well as data from traits inventories covering 12 tree traits collected prior to and after a canopy reduction treatment in 2013. Further, we also include canopy closure and forest light environment data from measurements with hemispherical photographs before and after the treatment.

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