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Iquitos, Peru

Mayor P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Bowler M.,YAVACUS | Bowler M.,University of St. Andrews | Lopez-Plana C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2012

Functional morphology of the reproductive organs is a key component for the better understanding of reproductive patterns as well to maximize reproductive efficiency and to develop assisted breeding techniques adapted to wildlife. This study examined anatomical and histological characteristics of genital organs of 60 Poeppig's woolly monkey females in the wild in different reproductive stages, collected by rural hunters in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. The endometrium, the endometrial glands, and the myometrium showed a significant increase in size related to the follicular growth. In nonpregnant females in the follicular phase, the endometrium, the endometrial glands, and the myometrium showed a significant increase related to the follicular growth. Nonpregnant females in the luteal phase had a thicker endometrium, a greater proliferation of endometrial glands, and a thicker myometrium, compared to females in the follicular phase. Nonpregnant females with small antral follicles presented high amounts of collagen beneath the endometrial epithelium, a sign of endometrial regeneration after menstruation that could be useful for the diagnosis of the reproductive phase in this species. A larger proportion of secreting cervical glands was observed in pregnant females compared to other females. The cervical mucous secretion occupied the lumen of the endocervical canal, assuring that no material could enter the uterus during gestation. The Poeppig's woolly monkey showed different vaginal epithelium features in accordance with the reproductive state of the female, suggesting that vaginal cytology could be a successful methodology with which to characterize the estrous cycle of wild primates. The present reproductive evaluation of Poeppig's woolly monkey provides important information that could improve the methodologies for the diagnosis of the reproductive phase of females, the assisted reproductive techniques in non-human primates, and could also give us opportunity for comparative studies and an insight into the evolution of animal reproductive biology, including humans. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Mayor P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Bowler M.,YAVACUS | Bowler M.,San Diego Zoo Global Institute for Conservation Research | Bowler M.,University of St. Andrews | Lopez-Plana C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013

Functional morphology may provide important information that could improve methodologies for the diagnosis of the reproductive phase of females, and develop assisted breeding techniques for wildlife. This study examined features of genital organs in 19 Peruvian red uakari monkey (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) females in different reproductive stages, collected from wild animals hunted for food by rural communities in the North-eastern Peruvian Amazon, in order to provide knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this species. The observed mean ovulation rate was 1.4 follicles, and the observed maximal follicle diameter was 0.8cm. After ovulation, the matured follicle luteinizes resulting in functional CL. In case of oocyte fertilization, the pregnancy CL grows to a maximum of 1.2cm in diameter, and luteal volume per female decreases related to the advance of pregnancy. Pregnant females also present follicular activity until late pregnancy, but non-ovulated follicles do not undergo atretic processes and apparently transform to accessory CL, resulting in a contribution of 30% of the total luteal volume. All pregnant females delivered a single fetus at term, resulting in a rate of reproductive wastage of 20% of oocytes or embryos. The endometrium and the endometrial glands in non-pregnant females in the follicular phase show a significant increase related to the follicular growth, reaching a high proliferation in non-pregnant females in the luteal phase. The red uakari monkey showed different vaginal epithelium features in accordance with the reproductive state of the female, suggesting that vaginal cytology could be a successful methodology with which to characterize the estrous cycle of this species. The present reproductive evaluation of the Peruvian red uakari monkey provides important information that could improve the development of assisted reproductive techniques in non-human primates. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Mayor P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Bowler M.,YAVACUS | Bowler M.,Andrews University | Lopez-Plana C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

This study examined ovarian features of 60 Poeppig's woolly monkey females in different reproductive stages, collected from wild animals hunted by rural communities in the North-eastern Peruvian Amazon, to provide knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this species. The observed mean ovulation rate was 1.73 follicles, reaching a maximum diameter of 1.0. cm. After ovulation, the matured follicle luteinizes resulting in functional corpora lutea (CL). In case of oocyte fertilization, the " pregnancy" CL grow to a maximum of 2. cm in diameter, and luteal volume decreases related to the advance of pregnancy. Pregnant females have waves of follicular activity until late pregnancy, but dominant follicles do not attain the maximum diameter of pre-ovulatory follicles. Some non-ovulated follicles of 1. mm maximum diameter do not undergo atretic processes and transform to accessory CL by luteinization of the membrane granulosa, resulting in a contribution of up to 7% of the total luteal volume. All pregnant females delivered at term only 1.00 foetus, resulting in a rate of reproductive wastage of 33.3% of embryos. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Conga D.F.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia | Bowler M.,Institute for Conservation Research | Bowler M.,University of St. Andrews | Tantalean M.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2014

Parasites are important in the management of the health of primate populations. We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Mayor P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Montes D.,YAVACUS | Lopez-Plana C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

This study examines the functional morphology of genital organs of 45 wild female ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua (L., 1766)) in the Peruvian Amazon. The coati shows a seasonal reproductive pattern, with a concentration of births between January and March. The pregnancy rate during the reproductive season was 64.7%. Mean litter size was 4.2 fetuses and mean ovulation rate was 4.5 follicles per pregnant female, resulting in a low rate of embryo or oocyte mortality of 9.8%. The observed vaginal pattern in our study suggests that vaginal cytology could be a useful indicator for the phase of estrus. The present evaluation provides reproductive information that may be a key component in the development of management strategies for both captive and wild coati populations. Source

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