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Yaoundé, Cameroon

Fokou M.,Yaounde General Hospital
Annals of vascular surgery | Year: 2012

To assess the frequency and characteristics of complications of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and their effect on fistula outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 628 AVFs constructed from November 2002 to October 2010 to record the complications and their management options. The association between age, sex, comorbidities (HIV, hypertension, and diabetes), fistula type, and complications was sought. Most patients were males (73.7%). The mean age was 45.3 years. Comorbidities seen included diabetes mellitus (22.12%), hypertension (83.12%), and HIV infection (9.87%). AVFs constructed were mainly radiocephalic (68%) and brachiocephalic (24.9%). The median follow-up period was 275 days. The cumulative patency rate was 76% and 51% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Altogether, 211 complications occurred in 16% of the AVFs. Among them, 36.96% were severe, 25.11% moderate, and 43.91% minor. With respect to the time of occurrence, 63.98% were late complications, 12.79% immediate, and 23.22% early. Aneurysms, failure to mature, and thrombosis were the most frequent complications occurring in 26.54%, 14.69%, and 12.79% of cases, respectively. The management options for the complications included the creation of a new access in 36.96%, a temporary catheter before a new AVF in 10.52%, and nonoperative management in 43.12%. We found no adverse effect of comorbid factors such as diabetes mellitus (χ(2) = 3.58, P > 0.05) or HIV-positive status (χ(2) = 0.64, P > 0.05) on the complication rate. This study shows an overall frequency of complications of 16%. These results show the potential for low complication rate of AVF in selected population. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Kaze F.F.,University of Yaounde I | Ashuntantang G.,University of Yaounde I | Kengne A.P.,University of Cape Town | Hassan A.,Yaounde General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Hemodialysis International | Year: 2012

Little is known about the challenges of routine renal replacement therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the fatal and nonfatal acute hemodialysis (HD) complications in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in two main dialysis centers in Cameroon. 1000 consecutive HD sessions incurred over a 4-month period by 129 patients (96 men, 74%) with ESRD, receiving two weekly HD sessions of 4 hours each, were considered. Personal and clinical profiles before, during, and within 24 hours after HD sessions were used to diagnose complications. Participants were aged 7 to 80 years (mean 46 years). In all, 452 acute complications were recorded in 411 (41%) of the 1000 HD sessions. Of the 11 types of complications, hypotension (25%), muscular cramps (22%), hypertensive crisis (14%), pruritus (10%), and fever (7%) were the most frequent. Three hundred and six complications (67.7%) occurred during understaffed nighttime. The vascular access was the main bleeding site with 64%. Being diabetic and ultrafiltration rate >1000mL/h were associated with hypotension and muscle cramps. The shorter duration in dialysis was associated with the risk of bleeding and the disequilibrium syndrome while longer duration was associated with muscle cramps. Four deaths (three from bleeding and one from disequilibrium syndrome) occurred, all during nighttime. Nearly half of dialysis sessions in these settings are associated with acute complications, some of which are fatal. Those complications occurred mostly during understaffed periods. Urgent strategies are needed to quickly solve the human capital crisis in the health care sector. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis. Source

Bain L.E.,Military Hospital of Garoua | Mintom P.,Yaounde General Hospital
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2014

Pulmonary embolism is a complication of pulmonary tuberculosis that has received little emphasis in the literature. We describe a 52 year old male, with no risk factors for thromboembolic disease referred to our service for an in depth clinical review for cardiomegaly and dyspnea on exertion. Echocardiography and CT scans revealed dilated heart cavities and bilateral proximal pulmonary emboli respectively and a cavitation in the apical lobe of the right lung. Bronchial aspirate and culture revealed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. There was no evidence of malignancy. Elsewhere, a clinical review and a lower limb ultrasound showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis. Clinical course on anti - tuberculosis and anti - coagulant therapies was remarkably favorable. Clinicians need to be conscious of the risk of developing thromboembolic disease in patients treated for tuberculosis, in especially high prevalence settings like ours. Source

Dzudie A.,Douala General Hospital | Dzudie A.,University of Buea | Kengne A.P.,University of Cape Town | Ba H.,Yaounde General Hospital | And 11 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Objectives: Hypertension has been established as a major public health problem in Africa, but its specific contributions to disease burden are still incompletely understood. We report the prevalence and determinants of hypertension, detection, treatment and control rates among adults in major cities in Cameroon. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings: Community-based multicentre study in major cities in Cameroon. Participants: Participants were self-selected urban dwellers from the Center, Littoral, North-West and West Regions, who attended on 17 May 2011 a screening campaign advertised through mass media. Primary and secondary outcomes measures: Hypertension defined as systolic (and/or diastolic) blood pressure (BP)≥ 140 (90) mm Hg, or ongoing BP-lowering medications. Results: In all, 2120 participants (1003 women) were included. Among them, 1007 ( prevalence rate 47.5%) had hypertension, including 319 (awareness rate 31.7%) who were aware of their status. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age overall and by sex and region. Among aware hypertensive participants, 191 (treatment rate 59.9%) were on regular BP-lowering medication, and among those treated, 47 (controlled rate 24.6%) were at target BP levels (ie, systolic (and diastolic) BP<140 (90) mm Hg). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, male gender, advanced age, parental history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elevated waist and elevated body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of hypertension. Likewise, male gender, high BMI and physical inactivity were associated with poor control. Conclusions: High prevalence of hypertension with low awareness, treatment and control were found in this urban population; these findings are significant and alarming with consideration to the various improvements in the access to healthcare and the continuing efforts to educate communities over the last few decades. Source

Fokou M.,Yaounde General Hospital | Eyenga V.C.,Yaounde General Hospital | Chichom Mefire A.,Limbe General Hospital | Guifo M.L.,Yaounde General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa | Year: 2012

Axillary artery pseudoaneurysms are rare. We report on a 30-year-old patient with a 6.5-cm post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the left axillary artery two months after a knife stab wound of the shoulder. The patient showed axillary fullness and signs of severe brachial plexus compression. A surgical repair was undertaken. The aneurysm was excluded and a saphenous vein interposition was performed. The early and late postoperative periods were uneventful. This is probably not only the largest axillary artery pseudoaneurysm ever reported, but also the first secondary to a stab wound. Source

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