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LI Z.-X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | NIE J.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | YAN Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | XU G.-F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2015

The presence of pesticide residues in pears is a serious health concern. This study presents the results from a 2-year investigation (2013-2014) that used gas chromatography, GS/MS and UPLC/MS-MS to measure the levels of 104 pesticides in 310 pear samples. In 93.2% of the samples, 43 pesticides were detected, of which the maximum residue levels (MRLs) were exceeded in 2.6% of the samples. Multiple residues (two to eight compounds) were present in 69.7% of the samples; one sample contained nine pesticides and one sample contained 10. Only 6.8% of the samples did not contain residues. To assess the health risks, the pesticide residue data have been combined with daily pear consumption data for children and adult populations. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures based on the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) method. A potential acute risk was demonstrated for children in the case of bifenthrin, which was found to be present at 105.36% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) value. The long-term exposure of the Chinese consumer to pesticide residues through the consumption of raw pears was far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) criterion. Additionally, the matrix ranking scheme was used to classify risk subgroups of pesticides and pear samples. In general, 95.5% of samples were deemed to be safe and nine pesticides were classified as being of a relatively high risk. The findings indicated that the occurrence of pesticide residues in pears should not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is required for vulnerable consumer groups, especially children. Continuous monitoring of pesticides in pears and tighter regulation of pesticide residue standards are recommended. © 2015 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

PubMed | Yantai Academy of Agricultural science, China Institute of Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

In the present study, the long-term and short-term cumulative risks of pyrethroids exposured for the Chinese general population and children through fruits consumption were evaluated. A total of 1450 fruit samples and seven pyrethroids were included based on the pesticide residues monitoring programme of China from 2013 to 2015. The exposure was estimated using both deterministic approach and semi-probabilistic model for comparison. The hazard index approach was used to assess cumulative risk. 26% of samples contained pyrethroid residues with concentrations ranged from 0.0050mg/kg to 1.2mg/kg, of which 30% simultaneously with 2-4 mixture residues. Results demonstrated that the cumulative health risks were extremely low for both general population and children (1-6 years old) of China in the long term. Acute risk estimations calculated by deterministic method were several or many times overestimated than the results based on semi-probabilistic method. Acute cumulative exposure of children to pyrethroid compounds in 0.76% samples were exceeded 1 in worst case scenario. More detailed assessments with adequate data in the future use probabilistic method is expected to reduce the uncertainties of cumulative dietary exposure.

PubMed | Shandong Peanut Research Institute, Yantai Academy of Agricultural science and Southwest University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Tillage intensities largely affect soil compaction dynamics in agro-ecosystems. However, the contribution of tillage intensities on compaction changes in underground peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields has not been quantified. We thus aimed to better understand the role of soil tillage intensities in mitigation of compaction stress for peanuts. Using three field tillage experiments in major Chinese peanut producing areas, we quantified the effects of (1) no tillage, (2) shallow (20cm) plowing, (3) deep (30cm) plowing and (4) deep (30cm) loosening on changes in soil bulk density at 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cm depths, roots and pods growth, and nutrient accumulation. Results showed that tillage management effectively mitigated soil compaction stress for peanut growth and production. Greater beneficial improvement for the underground growth of roots and pods, and N accumulation ranked as deep plowing > shallow plowing and deep loosening. Respective increases of 7.5% and 4.6% in root biomass productions and peanut yields were obtained when soil bulk density was decreased by 0.1gcm

Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Wang S.,Shandong Shengfeng Seeds Co. | Li H.,Shandong Shengfeng Seeds Co. | Xin Q.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2015

A common wheat cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP, EC was cloned by RT-PCR method and has been named as TaPAP1. The cDNA of TaPAP1 is 1,173 bp in length and encodes a predicted protein of 391 amino acids with a molecular mass and isoelectric point were 43.9 kDa and 7.94, respectively. Alignment of protein sequence indicated that TaPAP1 was evolutionarily conserved among other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that TaPAP1 was predominantly expressed in seedling roots and up-regulated by various abiotic stresses, such as salt, drought, cold, copper and zinc. Compared to wild type plants, zinc-stressed TaPAP1 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed higher survival rate, the fresh weight, photosynthetic efficiency, proline levels, and PAP activity. Our results suggested that TaPAP1 controlled plant tolerance to zinc stress by means of improving the proline levels and PAP enzyme activity. Subcellular localization analysis showed that protein TaPAP1 is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, a novel cDNA sequence encoding wheat PAP gene was successfully obtained and the results showed that TaPAP1 is involved in the plant response to zinc stress, indicating a potential use in the transgenic breeding to improve heavy metal resistance in crop species. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wang Y.-G.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Wang S.-P.,Shandong Shengfeng Seeds Co. | Li H.-J.,Shandong Shengfeng Seeds Co. | Xin Q.-G.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2014

Allene oxide synthase (AOS, EC is the first specific jasmonate biosynthetic pathway gene. In this study, a full-length cDNA of AOS gene was cloned from common wheat nannong 9918. The gene contains an open reading frame (1,446 bp) encoding 418 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatic analysis revealed that the deduced protein of TaAOS was highly homologous to AOSs from other plant species. The transcript of TaAOS was found to be abundantly expressed in the flag leaves, and was up-regulated by the inoculation of B. Graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. Tritici (Bgt) in wheat leaves. In addition, it was also induced by high concentration of NaCl and ZnCl2. When TaAOS was overexpressed in tobacco leaves via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection, the transgenic tobacco plants displayed stronger tolerance to ZnCl2 stress compared to transgenic GFP plants. Taken together, the above facts demonstrated that TaAOS may play a role in response to diverse stresses in plants. © 2014 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Ge J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science | Shen D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Plant TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) proteins regulate various developmental activities via the auxin signaling pathway. Recently, we elucidated the developmental role of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) NtTTG2 in association with 12 genes that putatively encode AUXIN RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ARF) proteins, including NtARF8, NtARF17, and NtARF19. Here we show that NtTTG2 regulates tobacco growth and development by involving the NtARF8, NtARF17, and NtARF19 genes, with the NtARF8 gene playing a predominant contribution. Results: Independent silencing of the NtARF8 gene more strongly repressed tobacco growth than silencing the NtARF17 or NtARF19 gene and more effectively eradicated the growth enhancement effect of NtTTG2 overexpression. In contrast, plant growth was not affected by silencing additional nine NtTTG2-regulated NtARF genes. In double and triple gene silencing combinations, silencing the NtARF8 gene was more effective than silencing the NtARF17 or NtARF19 gene to repress growth as well as nullify growth enhancement. Therefore, the NtARF8 predominantly cooperated with the NtARF17 and NtAFR19 of the NtTTG2 functional pathway. NtARF8 also contributed to NtTTG2-regulated seed production as concurrent NtTTG2 and NtARF8 overexpression played a synergistic role in seed production quantity, whereas concurrent silencing of both genes caused more severe seed abortion than single gene silencing. In plant cells, the NtTTG2 protein facilitated the nuclear import of NtARF8 as well as increased its function as a transcription activator. Conclusions: NtARF8 is an integral component of the NtTTG2 functional pathway, which regulates tobacco growth and development. © 2016 The Author(s).

Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Xin Q.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2015

Galactinol synthase (GolS, EC, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), plays roles in plant growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of GolS in plant responses against heavy metal stress are not well clarified. In the present study, a suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library has been constructed using RNA extracted from wheat cultivar Jinan 18 treated with ZnCl2 as the tester and RNA from untreated seedlings as the driver. Sixteen expressed sequence tags (ESTs) highly homologous with known proteins associated with stress tolerance have been obtained. Among these, a 1000-bp cDNA sequence encoding GolS protein has been isolated and designated as TaGolS3. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that TaGolS3 was mainly expressed in young roots and upregulated by exogenous ABA treatment and several abiotic stresses, such as ZnCl2, CuCl2, low temperature, and NaCl. Subcellular localization analysis showed that TaGolS3 protein is a nuclear-localized protein. A detailed analysis of Arabidopsis and rice transgenic plants overexpressing TaGolS3 gene displayed that transgenic plants exhibited increased lateral root number, primary root length, plant survival rate, and plant height. Moreover, in comparison with the wild-type (WT) plants, the TaGolS3-overexpressing lines showed a higher expression of ROS-scavenging genes, activities of antioxidative enzymes, proline contents, and a lower level of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and electrolyte leakage under zinc stress. These results confirmed the positive roles of TaGolS3 in improving plant tolerance to heavy metal stress, indicating a potential resource in the transgenic breeding to enhance heavy metal stress tolerance in crop plants. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Wang L.,Ludong University | Xu H.,Ludong University | Gu L.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science | Han T.T.,Ludong University | And 2 more authors.
Materials Technology | Year: 2016

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become a promising synthetic strategy in nanotechnology in recent years. In this study, the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) root extract was found to have a new application for the synthesis of AgNPs. It is a natural, eco-friendly and low-cost procedure that uses purple sweet potato extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared AgNPs were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the biosynthesized AgNPs showed remarkable broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against eight typical pathogens, including four clinic pathogens and four aquatic pathogens. Thus, the AgNPs synthesized with the help of purple sweet potato extract can be used as a powerful antibacterial agent and have great potential in different applications. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Zhu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science | Mu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: The phytohormone auxin mediates a stunning array of plant development through the functions of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs), which belong to transcription factors and are present as a protein family comprising 10-43 members so far identified in different plant species. Plant development is also subject to regulation by TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) proteins, such as NtTTG2 that we recently characterized in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum. To find the functional linkage between TTG and auxin in the regulation of plant development, we performed de novo assembly of the tobacco transcriptome to identify candidates of NtTTG2-regulated ARF genes.Results: The role of NtTTG2 in tobacco growth and development was studied by analyzing the biological effects of gene silencing and overexpression. The NtTTG2 gene silencing causes repressive effects on vegetative growth, floral anthocyanin synthesis, flower colorization, and seed production. By contrast, the plant growth and development processes are promoted by NtTTG2 overexpression. The growth/developmental function of NtTTG2 associates with differential expression of putative ARF genes identified by de novo assembly of the tobacco transcriptome. The transcriptome contains a total of 54,906 unigenes, including 30,124 unigenes (54.86%) with annotated functions and at least 8,024 unigenes (14.61%) assigned to plant growth and development. The transcriptome also contains 455 unigenes (0.83%) related to auxin responses, including 40 putative ARF genes. Based on quantitative analyses, the expression of the putative genes is either promoted or inhibited by NtTTG2.Conclusions: The biological effects of the NtTTG2 gene silencing and overexpression suggest that NtTTG2 is an essential regulator of growth and development in tobacco. The effects of the altered NtTTG2 expression on expression levels of putative ARF genes identified in the transcriptome suggest that NtTTG2 functions in relation to ARF transcription factors. © 2013 Zhu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wang Q.-H.,Academy of Forestry | Liu X.-H.,Academy of Forestry | Duan C.-H.,Academy of Forestry | Niu S.-G.,Academy of Forestry | Zhang W.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Walnut anthracnose disease is a kind of serious disease of walnut all over the world. In China, this disease is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which is hard to control. The long-term abusing of chemical fungicides will certainly pollute the soil and water, so it is urgent to find a new safe and effective method. Here, we describe the identification of antagonistic bacterial strain SDF-005 and its control efficacy. Based on morphology, physiological and biochemical characterizations and sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and gyrB, the strain SDF-005 could be classified as a strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The vitro antagonistic assay showed that this strain could distinctively suppress the growth of C. gloeosporioides and the inhibition zone diameter was 16.17 mm, with the inhibitive efficacy of 82.04%. In the normal condition, the inhibition rate of culture solution was 74.07%, but after the treatment in hot water of 85°C for 2 h, the inhibition rate decreased to 72.96%. However, there was no significant difference (P<0.01) between them. So, the antifungal substance of the strain had good heat-stability. After being treated at 121°C for 30 min, it still had the inhibition effect with the rate of 34.05%, which reduced significantly compared with above results. This showed that the strain of SDF-005 could generate some low content of bioactive compounds with small molecular and stable structure, which could inhibit the growth of mycelium. Affected by the metabolites, the structure of mycelium was destroyed, the hypha was enlarged, aberrant, twisted and the mycelial walls disintegrated. We also studied the control efficacy against the walnut anthracnose disease in the field, which showed that the control efficiency was both above 75% when diluting to 400 and 600 times. Therefore, the strain SDF-005 has a good application prospect on the biological control of walnut anthracnose disease.

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