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Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Wang S.,Shandong Shengfeng Seeds Co. | Li H.,Shandong Shengfeng Seeds Co. | Xin Q.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2015

A common wheat cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP, EC was cloned by RT-PCR method and has been named as TaPAP1. The cDNA of TaPAP1 is 1,173 bp in length and encodes a predicted protein of 391 amino acids with a molecular mass and isoelectric point were 43.9 kDa and 7.94, respectively. Alignment of protein sequence indicated that TaPAP1 was evolutionarily conserved among other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that TaPAP1 was predominantly expressed in seedling roots and up-regulated by various abiotic stresses, such as salt, drought, cold, copper and zinc. Compared to wild type plants, zinc-stressed TaPAP1 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed higher survival rate, the fresh weight, photosynthetic efficiency, proline levels, and PAP activity. Our results suggested that TaPAP1 controlled plant tolerance to zinc stress by means of improving the proline levels and PAP enzyme activity. Subcellular localization analysis showed that protein TaPAP1 is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, a novel cDNA sequence encoding wheat PAP gene was successfully obtained and the results showed that TaPAP1 is involved in the plant response to zinc stress, indicating a potential use in the transgenic breeding to improve heavy metal resistance in crop species. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ge J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science | Shen D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Plant TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) proteins regulate various developmental activities via the auxin signaling pathway. Recently, we elucidated the developmental role of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) NtTTG2 in association with 12 genes that putatively encode AUXIN RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ARF) proteins, including NtARF8, NtARF17, and NtARF19. Here we show that NtTTG2 regulates tobacco growth and development by involving the NtARF8, NtARF17, and NtARF19 genes, with the NtARF8 gene playing a predominant contribution. Results: Independent silencing of the NtARF8 gene more strongly repressed tobacco growth than silencing the NtARF17 or NtARF19 gene and more effectively eradicated the growth enhancement effect of NtTTG2 overexpression. In contrast, plant growth was not affected by silencing additional nine NtTTG2-regulated NtARF genes. In double and triple gene silencing combinations, silencing the NtARF8 gene was more effective than silencing the NtARF17 or NtARF19 gene to repress growth as well as nullify growth enhancement. Therefore, the NtARF8 predominantly cooperated with the NtARF17 and NtAFR19 of the NtTTG2 functional pathway. NtARF8 also contributed to NtTTG2-regulated seed production as concurrent NtTTG2 and NtARF8 overexpression played a synergistic role in seed production quantity, whereas concurrent silencing of both genes caused more severe seed abortion than single gene silencing. In plant cells, the NtTTG2 protein facilitated the nuclear import of NtARF8 as well as increased its function as a transcription activator. Conclusions: NtARF8 is an integral component of the NtTTG2 functional pathway, which regulates tobacco growth and development. © 2016 The Author(s).

Wang L.,Ludong University | Xu H.,Ludong University | Gu L.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science | Han T.T.,Ludong University | And 2 more authors.
Materials Technology | Year: 2016

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become a promising synthetic strategy in nanotechnology in recent years. In this study, the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) root extract was found to have a new application for the synthesis of AgNPs. It is a natural, eco-friendly and low-cost procedure that uses purple sweet potato extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared AgNPs were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the biosynthesized AgNPs showed remarkable broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against eight typical pathogens, including four clinic pathogens and four aquatic pathogens. Thus, the AgNPs synthesized with the help of purple sweet potato extract can be used as a powerful antibacterial agent and have great potential in different applications. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Pang J.-Z.,China Agricultural University | Pang J.-Z.,Northwest University, China | Qiao Y.-H.,China Agricultural University | Sun Z.-J.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Pedosphere | Year: 2012

Earthworms, one of the most important macroinvertebrates in terrestrial ecosystems of temperate zones, exert important influences on soil functions. A laboratory microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida on wheat straw decomposition and nutrient cycling in an agricultural soil in a reclaimed salinity area of the North China Plain. Each microcosm was simulated by thoroughly mixing wheat straw into the soil and incubated for 120 d with earthworms added at 3 different densities as treatments: control with no earthworms, regular density (RD) with two earthworms, and increased density (ID) with six earthworms. The results showed that there was no depletion of carbon and nitrogen pools in the presence of the earthworms. Basal soil respiration rates and metabolic quotient increased with the increase in earthworm density during the initial and middle part of the incubation period. In contrast, concentrations of microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass quotient decreased in the presence of earthworms. Earthworm activity stimulated the transfer of microbial biomass carbon to dissolved organic carbon and could lead to a smaller, but more metabolically active microbial biomass. Concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and NO- 3-N increased significantly with the increase in earthworm density at the end of the incubation (P < 0.05), resulting in a large pool of inorganic nitrogen available for plant uptake. Cumulative net nitrogen mineralization rates were three times higher in the ID treatment than the RD treatment. © 2012 Soil Science Society of China.

Zhu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li B.,Yantai Academy of Agricultural science | Mu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: The phytohormone auxin mediates a stunning array of plant development through the functions of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs), which belong to transcription factors and are present as a protein family comprising 10-43 members so far identified in different plant species. Plant development is also subject to regulation by TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) proteins, such as NtTTG2 that we recently characterized in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum. To find the functional linkage between TTG and auxin in the regulation of plant development, we performed de novo assembly of the tobacco transcriptome to identify candidates of NtTTG2-regulated ARF genes.Results: The role of NtTTG2 in tobacco growth and development was studied by analyzing the biological effects of gene silencing and overexpression. The NtTTG2 gene silencing causes repressive effects on vegetative growth, floral anthocyanin synthesis, flower colorization, and seed production. By contrast, the plant growth and development processes are promoted by NtTTG2 overexpression. The growth/developmental function of NtTTG2 associates with differential expression of putative ARF genes identified by de novo assembly of the tobacco transcriptome. The transcriptome contains a total of 54,906 unigenes, including 30,124 unigenes (54.86%) with annotated functions and at least 8,024 unigenes (14.61%) assigned to plant growth and development. The transcriptome also contains 455 unigenes (0.83%) related to auxin responses, including 40 putative ARF genes. Based on quantitative analyses, the expression of the putative genes is either promoted or inhibited by NtTTG2.Conclusions: The biological effects of the NtTTG2 gene silencing and overexpression suggest that NtTTG2 is an essential regulator of growth and development in tobacco. The effects of the altered NtTTG2 expression on expression levels of putative ARF genes identified in the transcriptome suggest that NtTTG2 functions in relation to ARF transcription factors. © 2013 Zhu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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