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Liu W.,Seoul National University | Kim M.Y.,Seoul National University | Kang Y.J.,Seoul National University | Van K.,Seoul National University | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Since the genetic control of flowering time is very important in photoperiod-sensitive soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), genes affecting flowering under different environment conditions have been identified and described. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in different latitudinal and climatic regions, and to understand how chromosomal rearrangement and genome organization contribute to flowering time in soybean. Recombinant inbred lines from a cross between late-flowering 'Jinpumkong 2' and early-flowering 'SS2-2' were used to evaluate the phenotypic data for days to flowering (DF) collected from Kamphaeng Saen, Thailand (14°01′N), Suwon, Korea (37°15′N), and Longjing, China (42°46′N). A weakly positive phenotypic correlation (r = 0.36) was found between DF in Korea and Thailand; however, a strong correlation (r = 0.74) was shown between Korea and China. After 178 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were placed on a genetic map spanning 2,551.7 cM, four independent DF QTLs were identified on different chromosomes (Chrs). Among them, three QTLs on Chrs 9, 13 and 16 were either Thailand- or Korea-specific. The DF QTL on Chr 6 was identified in both Korea and China, suggesting it is less environment-sensitive. Comparative analysis of four DF QTL regions revealed a syntenic relationship between two QTLs on Chrs 6 and 13. All five duplicated gene pairs clustered in the homeologous genomic regions were found to be involved in the flowering. Identification and comparative analysis of multiple DF QTLs from different environments will facilitate the significant improvement in soybean breeding programs with respect to control of flowering time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Zhao H.,Yanbian University | Yu H.,Yanbian Academy of Agricultural science | Chen D.,Yanbian University | Piao R.,Yanbian University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2015

To develop a biogas fermentation technology with high efficiency and resistance of shock loading, in this study, the simulated molasses wastewater was used as material and the impact of different organic loading(1.7-6.73 kg/(m3·d)) on fixed-bed reactors packed with active carbon fiber was investigated. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, pH, biogas production, methane content, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE), 16S rRNA gene clone library screening, and quantitative PCR et al. were used to analyze the role and contribution of carbon fiber carrier to the colonization of microbial community in the process of resisting the organic load shock. Under different organic loading shocks, four fixed-bed reactors were all started-up successively on the 40th day, and biogas production remained stable at 21 L, effluent pH remained between 6.8-7.5, and COD removal efficiency and the biogas methane content were over 80% and 75%, respectively. The OLR of R2 (COD 5 d increased 5 000 mg/L) was the operational threshold of the fixed-bed anaerobic reactor. Findings revealed that methanogenic archaea were typically dominant in the adhering sludge. Methanomicrobiales which were breeding slowly and attached to the carrier easily were identified in carbon fiber carriers. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of methanogenic archaea was higher in the adhering sludge. The methanosaetaceae and methanomicrobiales were the dominant methanogense in fixed-bed reactors packed with active carbon fiber. Our results indicated that the carbon fiber carriers played a very important role on the colonization of the microorganism, as well as on the improvement of sludge activity and the ability of the reactor to resist shock loading. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Zhang B.,Yanbian University | Zhao H.,Yanbian University | Yu H.,Yanbian Academy of Agricultural science | Chen D.,Yanbian University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

The rational utilization of crop straw as a raw material for natural gas production is of economic significance. In order to increase the efficiency of biogas production from agricultural straw, seasonal restrictions must be overcome. Therefore, the potential for biogas production via anaerobic straw digestion was assessed by exposing fresh, silage, and dry yellow corn straw to cow dung liquid extract as a nitrogen source. The characteristics of anaerobic corn straw digestion were comprehensively evaluated by measuring the pH, gas production, chemical oxygen demand, methane production, and volatile fatty acid content, as well as applying a modified Gompertz model and high-throughput sequencing technology to the resident microbial community. The efficiency of biogas production from fresh straw (433.8 ml/g) was higher than that of production from straw silage and dry yellow straw (46.55 ml/g and 68.75 ml/g, respectively). The cumulative biogas production from fresh straw, silage straw, and dry yellow straw was 365 l-1 g-1 VS, 322 l-1 g-1 VS, and 304 l-1 g-1 VS, respectively, whereas cumulative methane production was 1,426.33%, 1,351.35%, and 1,286.14%, respectively, and potential biogas production was 470.06 ml-1 g-1 VS, 461.73 ml-1 g-1 VS, and 451.76 ml-1 g-1 VS, respectively. Microbial community analysis showed that the corn straw was mainly metabolized by acetate-utilizing methanogens, with Methanosaeta as the dominant archaeal community. These findings provide important guidance to the biogas industry and farmers with respect to rational and efficient utilization of crop straw resources as material for biogas production. © 2016 by The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Qin W.Z.,Chungbuk National University | Qin W.Z.,Yanbian Academy of Agricultural science | Li C.Y.,Yanbian University | Kim J.K.,Chungbuk National University | And 2 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

An in vitro experiment was conducted to examine the effects of defaunation (removal of protozoa) on ruminal fermentation characteristics, CH 4 production and degradation by rumen microbes when incubated with cereal grains (corn, wheat and rye). Sodium lauryl sulfate as a defaunation reagent was added into the culture solution at a concentration of 0.000375 g/ml, and incubated anaerobically for up to 12 h at 39°C. Following defaunation, live protozoa in the culture solution were rarely observed by microscopic examination. A difference in pH was found among grains regardless of defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.01 to 0.001). Defaunation significantly decreased pH at 12 h (p<0.05) when rumen fluid was incubated with grains. Ammonia-N concentration was increased by defaunation for all grains at 6 h (p<0.05) and 12 h (p<0.05) incubation times. Total VFA concentration was increased by defaunation at 6 h (p<0.05) and 12 h (p<0.01) for all grains. Meanwhile, defaunation decreased acetate and butyrate proportions at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.01) and 12 h (p<0.01, p<0.001), but increased the propionate proportion at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h incubation (p<0.01 to 0.001) for all grains. Defaunation increased in vitro effective degradability of DM (p<0.05). Production of total gas and CO 2 was decreased by defaunation for all grains at 1 h (p<0.05, p<0.05) and then increased at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.05) and 12 h (p<0.05, p<0.05). CH 4 production was higher from faunation than from defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.05).

Jiang W.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science and Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute | Lee J.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science and Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute | Chu S.-H.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science and Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute | Ham T.-H.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science and Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute | And 10 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Chilling injury is one of the major environmental stresses in rice cultivation in high-latitude and high-altitude regions. In this study, we cultivated a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Milyang 23 (indica)/Tong 88-7 (japonica) crosses in Kunming (high-altitude location), Yanji (high-latitude location), Chuncheon (cold water irrigation), and Suwon (normal) to evaluate the genotype × environment (G × E) interactions for chilling tolerance. RILs were the most severely damaged under the natural chilling air temperatures in Kunming. Significant G × E interactions in all measured agronomic traits were detected, and thus, the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) statistical model was applied to dissect the G × E interactions. The biplots of grand mean and IPCA1 (interaction principal component axes) of chilling-related traits accounted for most of the total treatment sums of squares. The IPCA scores of spikelet fertility and phenotypic acceptability were relatively smaller in Chuncheon than in Yanji and Kunming, implying that the screening for chilling tolerance with cold water irrigation in Chuncheon was more stable, whereas the Yanji and Kunming plantings were more sensitive to G × E interactions for chilling tolerance. These results demonstrate that multi-locational screening should be the best strategy for developing widely adaptable chilling-tolerant varieties in rice. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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