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Morimoto-Yamashita Y.,Kagoshima University | Matsuo M.,Kagoshima University | Komatsuzawa H.,Kagoshima University | Kawahara K.-I.,Kagoshima University | And 4 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses

The oral cavity is inhabited by over 500 different bacterial species. Dental caries and periodontitis are major bacterial infectious diseases in the oral cavity. Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., which is a variety of Japanese apricot known as Ume in Japanese, has been a traditional Japanese medicine for centuries, and is a familiar and commonly consumed food. The health benefits of Ume are now being widely recognized. Recent studies showed that MK615, an extract of compounds from Ume, has strong anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential role of MK615 in the antimicrobial field remains unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that MK615 has antimicrobial activities against a range of oral bacterial pathogens. Here, we show that MK615 may be a potent inhibitor of the growth of some oral bacteria and an inhibitor of biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiological agent of human dental caries. Our findings suggest that MK615 has potential as a therapeutic agent for treating and preventing oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kikuchi K.,Omuta City General Hospital | Kikuchi K.,Kagoshima University | Kawahara K.-I.,Kagoshima University | Tsuji C.,Omuta City General Hospital | And 16 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

A 77-year-old woman suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest the day after transvenous embolization of dural ateriovenous fistulae. The patient died despite receiving prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Post mortem computed tomography (CT) was performed to determine the cause of death. No lesion was detected on a whole-body plain CT. However, a post mortem contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) performed after the administration of intravenous contrast and cardiac compressions detected pulmonary thromboembolism. Thus, post mortem CECT was useful in determining the cause of sudden death in this case. Source

Chaichalotornkul S.,Mahidol University | Suvitayavat W.,Mahidol University | Sangalangkarn V.,Mahidol University | Nawa Y.,Sapporo Medical University | And 7 more authors.

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases. Source

Kikuchi K.,Yame Public General Hospital | Kawahara K.-I.,Kagoshima University | Miyagi N.,Yame Public General Hospital | Uchikado H.,Kurume University | And 18 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses

Acute stroke, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and acute hemorrhagic stroke, (AHS) is a common medical problem with particular relevance to the demographic changes in industrialized societies. In recent years, treatments for AIS have emerged, including thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Although t-PA is the most effective currently available therapy, it is limited by a narrow therapeutic time window and side effects, and only 3% of all AIS patients receive thrombolysis. Edaravone was originally developed as a potent free radical scavenger and, since 2001, has been widely used to treat AIS in Japan. It was shown that edaravone extended the narrow therapeutic time window of t-PA in rats. The therapeutic time window is very important for the treatment of AIS, and early edaravone treatment is more effective. Thus, more AIS patients might be rescued by administering edaravone with t-PA. Meanwhile, edaravone attenuates AHS-induced brain edema, neurologic deficits and oxidative injury in rats. Although edaravone treatment is currently only indicated for AIS, it does offer neuroprotective effects against AHS in rats. Therefore, we hypothesize that early administration of edaravone can rescue AHS patients as well as AIS patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that edaravone should be immediately administered on suspicion of acute stroke, including AIS and AHS. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kikuchi K.,Yame Public General Hospital | Uchikado H.,Kurume University | Miyagi N.,Yame Public General Hospital | Morimoto Y.,Kagoshima University | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine

Free radicals play major roles in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in many diseases and clinical conditions, and the removal of free radicals may offer a treatment option. Several modulators of free radical scavenger pathways have been developed and some have progressed to clinical trials. One such agent, edaravone, was approved in 2001 in Japan for the treatment of cerebral infarction. It has since been shown that edaravone can diffuse into many organs and, in addition to its effects on hydroxyl radical removal, edaravone modulates inflammatory processes, matrix metalloproteinase levels, nitric oxide production, apoptotic cell death, and necrotic cell death. Edaravone also exerts protective effects in a number of animal models of disease and tissue damage, including models of myocardial, lung, intestinal, liver, pancreatic and renal injury. Together with the proven safety of edaravone following 9 years of use as a modulator of free radical scavenging pathways in neurological disease, these additional effects of edaravone suggest that it may offer a novel treatment for several non-neurological diseases and clinical conditions in humans. Source

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