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Kurose D.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Misawa T.,Hokkaido Research Organization | Suzui T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Ichikawa K.,Yamanashi Prefectural Agritechnology Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Most of the many Stemphylium species on record as plant pathogens in Japan have been identified by morphology. Using molecular phylogenetic analysis of four loci (rDNA-ITS, EF-1α, GPD, and vmaA-vpsA) combined, we re-examined the taxonomy of 31 Stemphylium strains that had been identified morphologically before or after their deposit in the NIAS Genebank, Japan. In the present study, these Japanese strains were separated into three groups (Groups A, C, and E). Sixteen Japanese strains formed a new subgroup (designated Subgroup C2) that contained no type or ex-type strains of existing species. Four of the strains had been identified correctly, whereas the other 27 strains appear to have been misidentified based on our phylogenetic analysis. We examined the conidial morphology of four representative misidentified strains selected from each clade. While the morphological characteristics of a strain isolated from Welsh onion resembles those of the S. vesicarium type, this strain belongs to Subgroup C2 rather than Subgroup C1 and, therefore, could not be identified at the species level. Conversely, three pathogenic strains isolated from aster, asparagus, and Chinese chive were re-identified based on our combined morphological and phylogenetic data. We propose the scientific names of the aster leaf spot pathogen as S. lycopersici, and the asparagus Stemphylium leaf spot and Chinese chive brown leaf blight pathogens as S. herbarum. © 2015, The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan. Source

Ohmido N.,Kobe University | Ishimaru A.,Kobe University | Kato S.,Yamanashi Prefectural Agritechnology Center | Sato S.,Kazusa DNA Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chromosome Research | Year: 2010

To construct a high-resolution pachytene chromosome map, we used the chromosome image analyzing system version 3 and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two ribosomal RNA genes (45S rDNA and 5S rDNA), two major tandem repeat DNAs (LjTRl and. LJTR2), two major retroelements (LjREl and LJRE2), and 27 transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were physically localized on Lotus japonicus (Miyakojima MG-20, 2n=12) chromosomes. The distributions of heterochromatin and euchromatin along six chromosomes were compared based on the linkage map. Distortion between the recombination frequencies and physical chromosomal distance was recognized where the centromeric heterochromatic regions and constitutive heterochromatin are composed of the highest copy tandem repeat LjTRl on the interstitial specific regions. Our study shows that the heterochromatin are composed of the specific repeated sequences, and the discrepancy between the recombination frequency and cytological information detected in L. japonicus chromosomes is due to the heterochromatin. Source

Hirose Y.,Yamanashi University | Fujita T.,Shinshu University | Ishii T.,Yamanashi Prefectural Agritechnology Center | Ueno N.,Yamanashi Prefectural Agritechnology Center
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

To evaluate the nutritional advantages of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivated in Japan, antioxidative properties and flavonoid composition were determined and compared to corresponding data for conventionally-used cereals and pseudo-cereals, including quinoa seeds from South America. The antioxidant activities of these grains against DPPH radicals were strongly associated with the total phenolic content of the tested samples. The crude extracts of quinoa seeds cultivated in Japan exhibited higher antioxidative effects than those from South America and other cereals, excluding buckwheat. Four flavonol glycosides were isolated and identified from the Japanese quinoa seeds, and the chemical composition of the flavonoids - quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranosides (1 and 4), quercetin 3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside (2), and quercetin 3-O-(2″-O-β-apiofuranosyl-6″-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside (3) - was evaluated through quantitative determination. Trioside 2 was isolated for the first time from quinoa seeds. These glycosides were not detected in extracts from any of the tested grains except quinoa. The aglycone quercetin content of the Japanese quinoa seeds is higher than in the seeds from South America and buckwheat. The amounts of quercetin and kaempferol formed via acidic hydrolysis in quinoa are much higher than those of conventionally-used edible plants. The quinoa seeds cultivated in Japan are the most effective functional foodstuff - in terms of being a source of antioxidative and bioactive flavonoids - among cereals and pseudo-cereals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kataoka R.,Kobe University | Hara M.,Kobe University | Kato S.,Yamanashi Prefectural Agritechnology Center | Isobe S.,Kazusa DNA Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2012

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a forage legume and an allogamous diploid plant (2n = 14; 440 Mb). Here, we examine the 7 prometaphase chromosomes of red clover using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal RNA sequences, pericentromeric and telomeric repeats, as well as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Position of hybridization signals and chromosome condensation patterns were quantified by the help of the chromosome image analysis system ver. 4.0 (CHIAS IV). Fourteen BAC clones belonging to linkage groups (LG) 1-7 hybridized to individual chromosomes 4, 2, 6, 5, 1, 7, and 3, respectively. Quantitative analysis of FISH mapping and chromosome analysis using CHIAS IV allowed us to construct a quantitative idiogram that constitutes the comprehensive chromosome map of red clover. Chromosomal positions of the 26S rDNA locus were detected at a heterozygous locus on chromosome 6 in the variety HR, and polymorphisms of rDNA loci were observed in other varieties, although chromosomal positions of some BAC clones did not vary among HR and other varieties. These results demonstrate chromosomal collinearity among allogamous red clover varieties. This integration of genetic linkage and quantitative chromosome maps should provide valuable insight into allogamous legume genetics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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