Kofu-shi, Japan

Yamanashi Gakuin University

Kofu-shi, Japan

Yamanashi Gakuin University is a university in KōfuYamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Wikipedia.

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Zushi A.,University of Tsukuba | Kariyama Y.,Yamanashi Gakuin University | Zushi K.,University of Tsukuba
Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine | Year: 2017

We aimed to investigate the characteristics of lower-limb strength and power used for lower-limb mechanical variables in rebound jump (RJ) test by using a new system (Quick Motion Analysis System), which calculates mechanical variables in real time. Thirty-three Male jumpers performed the RJ test. The performance (RJ index, contact time, and jump height) and joint kinetics (joint work and joint contribution) in RJ were calculated. IAAF Scoring Tables of Athletics were used to calculate jump event performance (IAAF score). IAAF score was positive correlated with RJ index, jump height, and joint work at the ankle and hip joints. Elite jumpers achieved higher RJ performance by larger ankle and hip joint work. As performance variables, jumping height and contact time were converted to T scores, and evaluation method was proposed to use the relative merits of these values to classify athletes into four types. The IAAF score showed no differences among the four types. These results indicate that there is no relation among jump events performance and characteristics of the four types. Moreover, focusing on stiffness, based on the contact time and jump height, jumpers with a longer contact time and higher jump height type showed lower stiffness (compliant spring characteristics), whereas those with the opposite features showed higher stiffness (stiffer spring characteristics). Therefore, for evaluating lower-limb strength and power characteristics, the use of performance and joint kinetics are effective, in addition to focusing on type characteristics based on the contact time and jump height in RJ.

Kodama S.,Mito Kyodo General Hospital | Kodama S.,Niigata University | Horikawa C.,Niigata University | Fujihara K.,Mito Kyodo General Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

This meta-analysis quantified the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) preceded by body weight (BW) gain in the general population. Systematic literature searches retrieved 15 eligible studies. The BW gain was divided into early weight-gain, which was defined as BW gain from early adulthood (18-24 years of age) to cohort entry (≥25 years of age), and late weight-gain, which was defined as BW gain from cohort entry. The pooled relative risk (RR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of T2DM for an increment of BW gain standardized into a 5-kg m-2 increment in the body mass index (BMI) was 3.07 (2.49-2.79) for early weight-gain and 2.12 (1.74-2.58) for late weight-gain. When limiting analysis to studies that concurrently examined T2DM risk for current BMI (defined in both groups as BMI at cohort entry), a larger magnitude of T2DM risk was revealed for early weight-gain compared with current BMI (RR [95% CI], 3.38 [2.20-5.18] vs. 2.39 [1.58-3.62]), while there was little difference between late weight-gain (RR [95% CI], 2.21 [1.91-2.56]) and current BMI (RR [95% CI], 2.47 [1.97-3.30]). The meta-analysis suggested that BW gain was a quantifiable predictor of T2DM, as well as current obesity in adults. Particularly, BW gain in early rather than middle-to-late adulthood played an important role in developing T2DM. © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

PubMed | Health Science University, University of Tsukuba, Niigata University, Seigakuin University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2016

Epidemiological longitudinal investigations of the association between not eating three meals regularly and changes in BMI and weight are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not regularly eating three meals was associated with changes in BMI and weight in young Japanese men and women.Study participants were 1241 men and 897 women aged 19.01.2 and 18.80.8years, respectively, who underwent health checkups at a university in Japan in 2001 as the baseline and subsequently in 2003. Weight and height were measured at baseline and 2years later. Whether an individual ate three meals regularly was determined by a self-report questionnaire in 2001.During the 2-year follow-up, the BMI gain was 0.347 for men and 0.067 for women. In the logistic regression analysis, for men, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI gain (OR 1.60, CI 1.11-2.30), 6% BMI gain (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.63), 4kg weight gain (OR 2.01, CI 1.29-3.13), 6kg weight gain (OR 1.86, CI 1.02-3.37), and incidence of obesity (BMI 25)(OR 2.96, CI 1.22-7.17). For women, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI loss (OR 1.99, CI 1.01-3.94), 6% BMI loss (OR 2.79, CI 1.29-6.03), 4kg weight loss (OR 3.85, CI 1.62-9.12), 6kg weight loss (OR 7.65, CI 2.06-28.46), and the incidence of underweight (OR 3.95, CI 1.32-11.89).The current results suggested that eating three meals irregularly was associated with subsequent BMI and weight gains for men and subsequent BMI and weight losses for women; both groups were around 20years of age. Self-reported eating behavior in this study might be used to screen and evaluate young Japanese men and women at high risk for changes in BMI and weight in a practical clinical setting.

PubMed | Seigakuin University, University of Tsukuba, Yamanashi Gakuin University and Niigata University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) | Year: 2016

Resistance training (RT) is effective for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, the characteristics of an RT program that will maximize its effect and those of patients that will especially benefit from RT are unknown.The objectives of this systematic review were to identify via a comprehensive meta-analysis the characteristics of an RT program for patients with T2DM that might increase the patients improvement in glycemic control and the characteristics of patients that will benefit from RT.Electronic-based literature searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE entries from 1 January 1966 to 25 August 2014 were conducted to identify clinical trials examining the effect of RT on glycemic control among patients with T2DM. Study keywords were text words and thesaurus terms related to RT and T2DM.Studies were included if they (1) were clinical trials consisting of two groups with and without RT exercise intervention; (2) had an intervention period of at least 5 weeks; (3) clarified that all patients had T2DM; and (4) reported or made it possible to estimate the effect size [i.e., change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the RT group minus that in the control group] and its corresponding standard error.The effect size in each study was pooled with a random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by several key characteristics of the patients and RT exercise programs; meta-regression analysis was then used to detect a difference in the effect size among strata within each factor. Linear regression analyses were added by entering each of the following profiles: patients baseline characteristics [mean baseline age, body mass index (BMI), and HbA1c levels] and exercise characteristics (total sets per week, total sets per bout of exercise, frequency, and intensity).There were 23 eligible studies comprising 954 patients with T2DM. The pooled effect size (95% confidence interval) was -0.34% (-0.53 to -0.16). A program with multiple sets (21 vs. <21) per one RT bout was associated with a large effect size (P = 0.03); however, the linear correlation between the number of sets and effect size was not significant (P = 0.56). A larger effect size was observed in studies with participants with diabetes of a relatively short duration (<6 vs. 6 years; P = 0.04) or a high baseline HbA1c [7.5% (58 mmol/mol) vs. <7.5 %; P = 0.01] while a smaller effect size was observed in studies with a particularly high mean baseline BMI value (32 vs. <32 kg/m(2); P = 0.03). Linear regression analyses predicted that each increment of 1% in the baseline HbA1c would enlarge the effect size by 0.036%, while each increment of 1 kg/m2 in the baseline BMI decreased it by 0.070% in the range between 22.3 and 38.8 kg/m2.In terms of glycemic control, RT could be recommended in the early stage of T2DM, especially for patients with relatively poor glycemic control. More benefit would be elicited in less obese patients within a limited range of the BMI. A substantial amount of exercise might be required to stimulate post-exercise glucose uptake, although the dose-dependency was not specifically clarified.

Takata J.,University of Hong Kong | Okazaki A.T.,Hokkai Gakuen University | Nagataki S.,Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics | Naito T.,Yamanashi Gakuin University | And 6 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Temporal changes of X-ray to very high energy gamma-ray emissions from the pulsar-Be-star binary PSRB1259-63/LS 2883 are studied based on three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of pulsar wind interaction with Be-disk and wind. We focus on the periastron passage of the binary and calculate the variation of the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emissions using the simulated shock geometry and pressure distribution of the pulsar wind. The characteristic double-peaked X-ray light curve from observations is reproduced by our simulation under a dense Be-disk condition (base density ∼10 -9 g cm-3). We interpret the pre- and post-periastron peaks as being due to a significant increase in the conversion efficiency from pulsar spin-down power to the shock-accelerated particle energy at orbital phases when the pulsar crosses the disk before periastron passage, and when the pulsar wind creates a cavity in the disk gas after periastron passage, respectively. On the contrary, in the modelTeV light curve, which also shows a double-peak feature, the first peak appears around the periastron phase. The possible effects of cooling processes on theTeV light curve are briefly discussed. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Hayasaki K.,Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute | Sohn B.W.,Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute | Sohn B.W.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Okazaki A.T.,Hokkai Gakuen University | And 3 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on a circular orbit. Such a circumbinary disk is subject to not only tidal torques due to the binary gravitational potential but also radiative torques due to radiation emitted from an accretion disk around each black hole. We find that a circumbinary disk initially aligned with the binary orbital plane is unstable to radiation-driven warping beyond the marginally stable warping radius, which is sensitive to both the ratio of vertical to horizontal shear viscosities and the mass-to-energy conversion efficiency. As expected, the tidal torques give no contribution to the growth of warping modes but tend to align the circumbinary disk with the orbital plane. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping modes in the inner part of circumbinary disk, the circumbinary disk starts to be warped at radii larger than the marginally stable warping radius. If the warping radius is of the order of 0.1 pc, a resultant semi-major axis is estimated to be of the order of 10-2 pc to 10-4 pc for 107 M black hole. We also discuss the possibility that the central objects of observed warped maser disks in active galactic nuclei are binary supermassive black holes with a triple disk: two accretion disks around the individual black holes and one circumbinary disk surrounding them. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Hayasaki K.,Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute | Sohn B.W.,Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute | Sohn B.W.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Okazaki A.T.,Hokkai Gakuen University | And 3 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating, circumbinary disk around young binary stars on an eccentric orbit. Such a disk is subject to both the tidal torques due to a time-dependent binary potential and the radiative torques due to radiation emitted from each star. The tilt angle between the circumbinary disk plane and the binary orbital plane is assumed to be very small. We find that there is a radius within/beyond which the circumbinary disk is unstable to radiation-driven warping, depending on the disk density and temperature gradient indices. This marginally stable warping radius is very sensitive to viscosity parameters, a fiducial disk radius and the temperature measured there, the stellar luminosity, and the disk surface density at a radius where the disk changes from optically thick to thin for the irradiation from the central stars. On the other hand, it is insensitive to the orbital eccentricity and binary irradiation parameter, which is a function of the binary mass ratio and luminosity of each star. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping in the inner part of the circumbinary disk, the disk starts to be warped in the outer part. While the circumbinary disks are most likely to be subject to the radiation-driven warping on an AU to kilo-AU scale for binaries with young massive stars more luminous than 104 L, the radiation-driven warping does not work for those around young binaries with the luminosity comparable to the solar luminosity. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Matsui H.,Nagoya University | Ohgomori T.,Nagoya University | Natori T.,Yamanashi Gakuin University | Miyamoto K.,Kinki University | And 5 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is an animal model of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an inflammatory demyelination disease of the peripheral nervous system. Although this disease has been extensively studied on peripheral nerves, the pathology of the central nervous system has not been fully understood. Previous studies demonstrate that expression of keratan sulfate (KS), the sugar chain of proteoglycan, is associated with activated microglia/macrophages accumulated after neuronal injuries. Unexpectedly, we found here that KS is rather diminished in rat EAN. KS was restrictively expressed in microglia in the spinal cord of normal rats. KS was positive in 50% microglia in the ventral horn and 20% in the dorsal horn. In EAN, microglia increased in number and expressed the activation marker CD68, but KS expression was abolished. Concomitantly, pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, were increased in the spinal cord of EAN rats, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, were decreased. In addition, silencing of KSGal6ST attenuated KS expression on the primary cultured microglia and upregulated expression of some activation markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS) under the stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ. This study demonstrates for the first time a close association of EAN and disappearance of KS on microglia. KS expression could be a useful marker to evaluate the status of polyneuropathy. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Tsukuba, Yamanashi Gakuin University, Kyoto University and Niigata University
Type: | Journal: Journal of diabetes investigation | Year: 2017

This meta-analysis aimed to clarify the association of unstable body weight with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an association that has been controversial among longitudinal studies.Electronic literature search using EMBASE and MEDLINE was followed up to Aug. 31, 2016. The relative risks (RRs) of T2DM in individuals with unstable body weight were pooled using the inverse variance method.Eight studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Median duration of measurements of weight change and follow-up years for ascertaining T2DM were 13.5 and 9.4 years, respectively. The pooled RR (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the least vs. most stable category was 1.33 (1.12-1.57). Between-study heterogeneity was statistically significant (P=0.048). Whether T2DM was ascertained by blood testing explained 66.0% of the variance in the logarithm of RR (P=0.02). In 3 studies in which blood testing was performed, T2DM risk was not significant (RR (95% CI), 1.06 (0.91-1.25)). Moreover, publication bias that inflated T2DM risk was statistically detected by Eggers test (P=0.09).Unstable body weight might be modestly associated with the elevated risk of T2DM although serious biases such as diagnostic suspicion bias and publication bias made it difficult to assess this association. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Rafieyan V.,Yamanashi Gakuin University
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016

One of the most problematic perspectives of translation phenomenon is the cultural gap between the source language and the target language (Yang, 2010). This gap can be ideally filled through telecollaboration which provides internationally dispersed language learners in parallel language classes with cost-effective access to, and engagement with, peers who are expert speakers of the language under study (Belz, 2005). To investigate the effect of telecollaboration on the quality of translation of culture-bound texts, the current study was conducted on 64 Iranian undergraduate students of English translation at a university in Iran. Instruments used in the study consisted of three texts containing news excerpts from Voice of America (VOA). The study consisted of three phases: 1) assessing quality of translation of culture-bound texts, 2) random assignment of participants to two groups: one merely receiving cultural instruction while the other being linked to native English speakers through LinkedIn alongside receiving cultural instruction, and 3) assessing quality of translation of culture-bound texts immediately and two months following treatment. The results of mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance revealed the significant positive effect of telecollaboration on developing quality of translation of culture-bound texts and sustaining the attained knowledge. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of cultural components of source language society into translation courses and providing opportunities for translation students to be exposed to authentic and intensive source language culture through telecollaboration. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.

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