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PubMed | Fujieda Municipal General Hospital, Yamamoto Kumiai General Hospital, Saitama Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Yokohama City University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Histopathology | Year: 2016

High-grade fetal adenocarcinoma (H-FLAC) is a rare variant of pulmonary adenocarcinoma; this study aims to elucidate its clinicopathological features and genetic abnormalities.Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and mutational analyses were performed on 20 surgically resected lung cancers that showed H-FLAC histology in various proportions. These tumours predominantly occurred in elderly males and in 10 patients who were heavy smokers. Four cases were pure H-FLAC, and 16 cases were mixed H-FLAC, which were found to be combined with conventional-type adenocarcinoma (15 cases), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (three cases), small-cell carcinoma (one case), enteric adenocarcinoma (two cases), choriocarcinoma (two cases), and a solid-clear cell pattern (seven cases). The fetal phenotype and diverse differentiation were supported by the immunoexpression of -fetoprotein (95%), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) (50%), neuroendocrine markers (30-45%), proneural markers (50-69%), and CDX2 (40%). Except for TTF-1 expression (pure H-FLACs, 0%; mixed H-FLACs, 63%), there were no significant differences in histological or immunohistochemical findings between pure and mixed H-FLACs. EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were identified in 20%, 0%, 0% and 7% of the tumours, respectively.Lung adenocarcinomas with H-FLAC features possess the potential for multidirectional differentiation, and are not strongly associated with known major driver gene mutations.


Nozawa T.,Yamamoto Kumiai General Hospital | Konda R.,Yamamoto Kumiai General Hospital | Ohsawa T.,Yamamoto Kumiai General Hospital | Yoshida M.,Yamamoto Kumiai General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2013

Neoplasms of the epididymis are uncommon, and malignant tumors are extremely rare. We report a case of clear cell papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the epididymis presenting with a long history of painless scrotal mass on the left side. Immunohistochemical markers for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were examined to distinguish between clear cell papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the epididymis and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The present case was positive for cytokeratin-7, PAX2, vinculin, vimentin and carbonic anhydrase IX. Expression of CD10 was focally observed. In contrast, no immunoreactivities for α- methylacyl-CoA racemase, RCC marker, glutathione Stransferase α or C-KIT were detected. The immunophenotypic profile of clear cell papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the epididymis closely resembles that of clear cell papillary RCC, although the immunohistochemical markers tested in this study are useful to make a differential diagnosis between clear cell papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the epididymis and metastatic clear cell RCC.


Teshima K.,Akita University | Nara M.,Akita University | Watanabe A.,Akita University | Ito M.,Akita University | And 6 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

The proto-oncogene BMI1 and its product, Bmi1, is overexpressed in various types of tumors, particularly in aggressive tumors and tumors resistant to conventional chemotherapy. BMI1/Bmi1 is also crucially involved in cancer-initiating cell maintenance, and is recurrently upregulated in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), especially aggressive variants. Recently, side population (SP) cells were shown to exhibit tumor-initiating characteristics in various types of tumors. In this study, we show that recurrent MCL cases significantly exhibit upregulation of BMI1/Bmi1. We further demonstrate that clonogenic MCL SP shows such tumor-initiating characteristics as high tumorigenicity and self-renewal capability, and that BMI1 was upregulated in the SP from recurrent MCL cases and MCL cell lines. On screening for upstream regulators of BMI1, we found that expression of microRNA-16 (miR-16) was downregulated in MCL SP cells by regulating Bmi1 in the SPs, leading to reductions in tumor size following lymphoma xenografts. Moreover, to investigate downstream targets of BMI1 in MCL, we performed cross-linking/chromatin immunoprecipitation assay against MCL cell lines and demonstrated that Bmi1 directly regulated pro-apoptotic genes such as BCL2L11/Bim and PMAIP1/Noxa, leading to enhance anti-apoptotic potential of MCL. Finally, we found that a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which has been recently used for relapsed MCL, effectively induced apoptosis among MCL cells while reducing expression of Bmi1 and increasing miR-16 in MCL SP. These results suggest that upregulation of BMI1 and downregulation of miR-16 in MCL SP has a key role in the disease's progression by reducing MCL cell apoptosis. Our results provide important new insight into the pathogenesis of MCL and strongly suggest that targeting BMI1/Bmi1 might be an effective approach to treating MCL, particularly refractory and recurrent cases. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Nara M.,Akita University | Teshima K.,Akita University | Watanabe A.,Akita University | Ito M.,Akita University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Side population (SP) cells in cancers, including multiple myeloma, exhibit tumor-initiating characteristics. In the present study, we isolated SP cells from human myeloma cell lines and primary tumors to detect potential therapeutic targets specifically expressed in SP cells. We found that SP cells from myeloma cell lines (RPMI 8226, AMO1, KMS-12-BM, KMS-11) express CD138 and that non-SP cells include a CD138-negative population. Serial transplantation of SP and non-SP cells into NOD/Shi-scid IL-2γnul mice revealed that clonogenic myeloma SP cells are highly tumorigenic and possess a capacity for self-renewal. Gene expression analysis showed that SP cells from five MM cell lines (RPMI 8226, AMO1, KMS-12-BM, KMS-11, JJN3) express genes involved in the cell cycle and mitosis (e.g., CCNB1, CDC25C, CDC2, BIRC5, CENPE, SKA1, AURKB, KIFs, TOP2A, ASPM), polycomb (e.g., EZH2, EPC1) and ubiquitin-proteasome (e.g., UBE2D3, UBE3C, PSMA5) more strongly than do non-SP cells. Moreover, CCNB1, AURKB, EZH2 and PSMA5 were also upregulated in the SPs from eight primary myeloma samples. On that basis, we used an aurora kinase inhibitor (VX-680) and a proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) with RPMI 8226 and AMO1 cells to determine whether these agents could be used to selectively target the myeloma SP. We found that both these drugs reduced the SP fraction, though bortezomib did so more effectively than VX-680 due to its ability to reduce levels of both phospho-histone H3 (p-hist. H3) and EZH2; VX-680 reduced only p-hist. H3. This is the first report to show that certain oncogenes are specifically expressed in the myeloma SP, and that bortezomib effectively downregulates expression of their products. Our approach may be useful for screening new agents with which to target a cell population possessing strong tumor initiating potential in multiple myeloma. © 2013 Nara et al.


Shinohara Y.,Akita University | Takahashi N.,Akita University | Nishiwaki K.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Hino M.,Osaka City University | And 19 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2013

Achievement of complete molecular response in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia has been recognized as an important milestone in therapy cessation and treatment-free remission; the identification of predictors of complete molecular response in these patients is, therefore, important. This study evaluated complete molecular response rates in imatinib-treated chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with major molecular response by using the international standardization for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson1 gene. The correlation of complete molecular response with various clinical, pharmacokinetic, and immunological parameters was determined. Complete molecular response was observed in 75/152 patients (49.3%). In the univariate analysis, Sokal score, median time to major molecular response, ABCG2 421C>A, and regulatory T cells were significantly lower in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with complete molecular response than in those without complete molecular response. In the multivariate analysis, duration of imatinib treatment (odds ratio: 1.0287, P=0.0003), time to major molecular response from imatinib therapy (odds ratio: 0.9652, P=0.0020), and ABCG2 421C/C genotype (odds ratio: 0.3953, P=0.0284) were independent predictors of complete molecular response. In contrast, number of natural killer cells, BIM deletion polymorphisms, and plasma trough imatinib concentration were not significantly associated with achieving a complete molecular response. Several predictive markers for achieving complete molecular response were identified in this study. According to our findings, some chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib may benefit from a switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation.


Miyakoshi N.,Akita University | Miyakoshi N.,Akita | Aizawa T.,Akita | Sasaki S.,Higashinaruse National Health Insurance Clinic | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2015

Atypical femoral fracture (AFF) often appears with bisphosphonate use. Teriparatide (TPTD) treatment may promote AFF healing, but few controlled or comparative studies have examined the effects of TPTD on healing of bisphosphonate-associated AFF. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 45 consecutive AFFs in 34 Japanese patients who had received oral bisphosphonates (alendronate or risedronate) for osteoporosis before AFF and had been followed for ≥12 months (range, 12–90 months). Thirty-seven complete or incomplete AFFs (82 %) were treated surgically and eight incomplete AFFs (18 %) were treated conservatively. Bisphosphonates were stopped at diagnosis. Based on TPTD use after fracture, AFFs were divided into non-TPTD (n = 24) and TPTD (n = 21) groups. Time to fracture-healing and frequency of delayed healing or non-union were compared between groups. Because fracture type (complete or incomplete) differed significantly between groups, only subanalyses for all surgically treated AFFs (complete and incomplete), surgically treated complete AFFs, and conservatively treated incomplete AFFs were performed. In subanalyses for all AFFs treated surgically, mean (± standard deviation) time to fracture healing was significantly better in the TPTD group (5.4 ± 1.5 months) than in the non-TPTD group (8.6 ± 4.7 months; P = 0.012), and the frequency of delayed healing or non-union was significantly lower in the TPTD group than in the non-TPTD group (P = 0.014). Subanalyses for surgically treated complete AFFs yielded similar results, but subanalyses for incomplete AFFs treated conservatively showed no significant differences between groups. TPTD treatment appears to significantly shorten the postoperative time to fracture healing and reduce rates of delayed healing or non-union after bisphosphonate-associated AFF. © 2014, The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan.


Nozawa K.,Yamamoto kumiai General Hospital | Nozawa K.,Akita | Sekine A.,Kai Medical | Hozumi S.,Kai Medical | Shimizu T.,Akita University
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2011

The aim of the present 12-week, open-label study was to investigate the effect of olanzapine augmentation in outpatients with depression with melancholic features who demonstrated partial response to standard antidepressants but who were reluctant to change antidepressants. The subjects consisted of 22 outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depression. Olanzapine was initially added at 2.5 mg/day and the dose was adjusted according to the clinical condition. Data were analyzed using an intention-to-treat methodology. A paired t-test was used to compare total Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores before treatment, at baseline (prior to olanzapine), and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after starting olanzapine. Of 22 enrolled patients, 20 completed the trial. The mean (±SD) MADRS score was 17.1 ± 1.0 at baseline and decreased significantly to 8.1 ± 3.2 at 4 weeks after the administration of olanzapine. This significant reduction continued until 12 weeks, when the mean MADRS score was 4.9 ± 2.9, indicating full remission. These results suggest that olanzapine augmentation may be useful for patients with depression in partial remission. A controlled, double-blind trial, however, is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.


Yoshida M.,Akita University | Yoshida M.,Akita | Sho E.,KAI Pharmaceuticals | Nanjo H.,Akita University | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2010

To investigate how cardiomyocytes change their length, echocardiographic and morphological studies were performed on rabbit hearts that were subjected to volume overload, overload removal, and repeated cycles of overload and overload removal. These conditions were created by arterio-venous fistula between the carotid artery and jugular vein, closure of the fistula, and cycles of repeatedly forming and closing fistula, respectively. After overload, hearts dilated and myocytes elongated. Intercalated disks repeatedly broadened and narrowed with a 2-day cycle, which continued for 8 weeks in many animals. The cycle consisted of shifts between five modes characterized by two interdigitation elongation-and-shortenings as follows: (I) flat with short (-1/4 to -1/3 sarcomere long) interdigitations; (II) flat with long (one sarcomere long) interdigitations; (III) grooved with short interdigitations; (IV) grooved with long interdigitations; (V) flat with short interdigitations intermingled by sporadic long interdigitations; and return to (I). After overload removal, hearts contracted and myocytes shortened with similar 2-day broadening and narrowing cycle of intercalated disks, in which the five modes were reversed. Repeated overload and overload removal resulted in the repetition of myocyte elongation and shortening. We hypothesize that a single elongation-and- shortening event creates or disposes one sarcomere layer, and the two consecutive elongation-and-shortenings occur complementarily to each other so that the disks return to their original state after each cycle. Our hypothesis predicts that intercalated disks weave and unravel one sarcomere per myocyte per day. Copyright © American Society for Investigative Pathology.

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