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Okuda M.,Yamaguchi University | Sugiyama S.,Yamaguchi University | Kunitsugu I.,Yamaguchi University | Hinoda Y.,Yamaguchi University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Background: Cutoffs based on percentage overweight (POW) are used for screening students in Japan; however, body mass index (BMI) is more common in the rest of the world. To screen for risk factors related to obesity among Japanese primary and secondary school students, we compared fasting and postprandial values, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the POW and BMI criteria. Methods: The subjects were students aged 10 and 13 years living in Shunan City, Japan between 2006 and 2008 (n = 6566). POW and International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) BMI criteria were used to screen for obesity-related risk factors. The lower (20%, 18-year-old equivalent: 25 kg/m2) and higher (50%, 18-year-old equivalent: 30 kg/m2) cutoffs were examined, and ROC curves were drawn. Results: Fasting cholesterol levels were higher than postprandial levels. The prevalences of overweight/obesity were 6.6% to 10.0% using the lower cutoff and 0.6% to 5.0% using the higher cutoff. Among overweight subjects under fasting conditions, dyslipidemia was present in 12% to 52%, hypertriglyceridemia in 29% to 54%, hyperglycemia in 11% to 21%, and hypertension in 15% to 40%. Although the use of the lower and higher POW cutoffs resulted in lower sensitivity and the higher specicity, the POW and BMI ROC curves largely overlapped. However, for girls aged 10 years, the POW curve for ≥3 risks factors was lower than that of the latter (P = 0.013). Conclusions: For Japanese aged 10 and 13 years, both BMI and POW are useful for risk factor screening. However, subjects may be misclassied with dyscholesterolemia if postprandial blood samples are used. © 2009 by the Japan Epidemiological Association.

Okuda M.,Yamaguchi University | Hinoda Y.,Yamaguchi University | Okayama N.,Yamaguchi University | Suehiro Y.,Yamaguchi University | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Diabetes | Year: 2011

Background: The association between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and a predisposition to obesity is inconsistent in adult Asian populations. We investigated the association of the FTO gene with weight status in Japanese children and adolescents. Design/setting: Nested case-control study and 3-yr longitudinal study - In the Shunan Child Cohort Study, fifth and eighth grade students attending all schools of Shunan completed the questionnaires. Overweight, including obesity, was defined as a percentage of overweight of 20% or in accordance with the International Obesity Task Force. We recruited 133 obese subjects and randomly selected controls from the 2006 cohort. We genotyped three FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs3751812, rs9939609, and rs1558902. Results: The three genotyped SNPs were in tight linkage disequilibrium, with the exception of one case. The minor SNP allele of rs3751812 conferred a predisposition to obesity, and its odds ratio was 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.4] in the additive model and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.6-4.4) in the dominant model (p < 0.001). Although blood parameters and some lifestyle behaviors were significantly different between the cases and controls (p < 0.01), these traits were not significantly different among the genotypes. In addition, we did not find an association between the genotypes and body mass index change during the 3 yr. Conclusion: The FTO gene is associated with the early onset of overweight in the Japanese population as well as in European populations. The results suggest that obesity-related risk factors in fifth and eighth graders appear because of their overweight status. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Hasegawa S.,Yamaguchi University | Hirano R.,Yamaguchi University | Hashimoto K.,Yamaguchi University | Haneda Y.,Yamaguchi University | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2011

The number of human cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection has increased in Japan since April 2009, as it has worldwide. This virus is widespread in the Yamaguchi prefecture in western Japan, where most infected children exhibited respiratory symptoms. Bronchial asthma is thought to be one of the risk factors that exacerbate respiratory symptoms of pandemic H1N1-infected patients, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. We retrospectively investigated the records of 33 children with pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection who were admitted to our hospital between October and December 2009 and analyzed their clinical features. The percentage of children with asthma attack, with or without abnormal findings on chest radiographs (pneumonia, atelectasis, etc.), caused by pandemic H1N1 influenza infection was significantly higher than that of children with asthma attack and 2008-2009 seasonal influenza infection. Of the 33 children in our study, 22 (66.7%) experienced an asthma attack. Among these children, 20 (90.9%) did not receive long-term management for bronchial asthma, whereas 7 (31.8%) were not diagnosed with bronchial asthma and had experienced their first asthma attack. However, the severity of the attack did not correlate with the severity of the pulmonary complications of pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection. The pandemic H1N1 influenza virus greatly increases the risk of lower respiratory tract complications such as asthma attack, pneumonia, and atelectasis, when compared to the seasonal influenza virus. Furthermore, our results suggest that pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection can easily induce a severe asthma attack, pneumonia, and atelectasis in atopic children without any history of either an asthma attack or asthma treatment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Hasegawa S.,Yamaguchi University | Matsushige T.,Yamaguchi University | Inoue H.,Yamaguchi University | Shirabe K.,Yamaguchi Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment | And 2 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2011

Purpose: Since April 2009, the number of patients with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection has been increasing in Japan just as in the rest of the world. Patients with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza-associated encephalopathy (pIE) have also been reported. The common clinical symptoms of this condition are seizures and progressive coma with high-grade fever. We previously reported the possible association between seasonal influenza-associated encephalopathy (sIE) and proinflammatory cytokines. However, the pathogenesis of pIE remains to be elucidated. Results: In pIE patients with a poor outcome, the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (sTNFR1) were significantly higher than those in pIE patients without neurological sequelae. Similarly, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 levels in pIE patients with a poor outcome were significantly higher than those in pIE patients without neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Our results suggest that IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 play important roles in pIE, and that the serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and sTNFR1 and the CSF levels of IL-6 are related to neurological complications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Yoshikawa T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Fukushi S.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Tani H.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Fukuma A.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with a high case fatality risk and is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). A retrospective study conducted after the first identification of an SFTS patient in Japan revealed that SFTS is endemic to the region, and the virus exists indigenously in Japan. Since the nucleotide sequence of Japanese SFTSV strains contains considerable differences compared with that of Chinese strains, there is an urgent need to establish a sensitive and specific method capable of detecting the Chinese and Japanese strains of SFTSV. A conventional one-step reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) (cvPCR) method and a quantitative one-step RT-PCR (qPCR) method were developed to detect the SFTSV genome. Both cvPCR and qPCR detected a Chinese SFTSV strain. Forty-one of 108 Japanese patients suspected of having SFTS showed a positive reaction by cvPCR. The results from the samples of 108 Japanese patients determined by the qPCR method were in almost complete agreement with those determined by cvPCR. The analyses of the viral copy number level in the patient blood samples at the acute phase determined by qPCR in association with the patient outcome confirmed that the SFTSV RNA load in the blood of the nonsurviving patients was significantly higher than that of the surviving patients. Therefore, the cvPCR and qPCR methods developed in this study can provide a powerful means for diagnosing SFTS. In addition, the detection of the SFTSV genome level by qPCR in the blood of the patients at the acute phase may serve as an indicator to predict the outcome of SFTS. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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