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Harada T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Torii Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1-DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1-DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Toyomasu T.,Yamagata University | Usui M.,Yamagata University | Sugawara C.,Yamagata University | Otomo K.,Yamagata University | And 15 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2014

A variety of labdane-related diterpenoids, including phytocassanes, oryzalexins and momilactones, were identified as phytoalexins in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Momilactone B was also isolated as an allelochemical exuded from rice roots. The biosynthetic genes of these phytoalexins have been identified, including six labdane-related diterpene cyclase genes such as OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKSL4, OsKSL7, OsKSL8 and OsKSL10. Here we identified an OsCPS4 knockdown mutant, cps4-tos, by screening Tos17 mutant lines using polymerase chain reaction. OsCPS4 encodes a syn-copalyl diphosphate synthase responsible for momilactones and oryzalexin S biosynthesis. Because Tos17 was inserted into the third intron of OsCPS4, the mature OsCPS4 mRNA was detected in the cps4-tos mutant as well as the wild type. Nevertheless, mature OsCPS4 transcript levels in the cps4-tos mutant were about one sixth those in the wild type. The cps4-tos mutant was more susceptible to rice blast fungus than the wild type, possibly due to lower levels of momilactones and oryzalexin S in the mutant. Moreover, co-cultivation experiments suggested that the allelopathic effect of cps4-tos against some kinds of lowland weeds was significantly lower than that of the wild type, probably because of lower momilactone content exuded from cps4-tos roots. A reverse-genetic strategy using the cps4-tos mutant showed the possible roles of momilactones not only as phytoalexins but also as allelopathic substances. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society. Source


Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Torii Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Harada T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2011

Flower opening in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is the result of the enlargement of petal cells, which requires sugar metabolism. A cDNA encoding sucrose synthase (DcSUS1) was isolated from carnation petals as a candidate gene acting in the initial step of sugar metabolism in petal cells. DcSUS1 transcripts were detected abundantly in floral tissues of flowering carnation plants; the transcripts accumulated most in the petals and style followed by the ovary, whereas only small accumulation were found in stems, leaves, and calyces. Moreover, nearly constant accumulation of DcSUS1 transcripts was found in the petals during flower opening, fully open, and early senescence periods, whereas decreasing accumulation was detected in petals when senescence progressed. These findings suggested the involvement of DcSUS1 expression in petal cell growth during the opening of carnation flowers. JSHS © 2011. Source


Inoue K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Shoji N.,Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center | Honda T.,Kobe University | Oyama K.,Kobe University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2016

Genetic parameters were estimated to investigate the relationships between meat quality traits and fatty acid composition from 11855 Japanese Black cattle. The meat quality traits included beef marbling score (BMS), beef color score, firmness of beef (FIR), texture of beef (TEX) and beef fat color score (BFS). The data on fatty acid composition included oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contents, the ratio of MUFA to saturated fatty acids (MUS) and the ratio of elongation. The heritability estimates for meat quality traits ranged from moderate (0.30) to high (0.72). The strong genetic correlations between them were useful for simultaneous genetic improvement. In addition, high heritability estimates of fatty acid composition, ranging from 0.60 to 0.63, indicated that they could also be improved genetically. The genetic correlations of fatty acid composition with BMS, FIR and TEX were weak and negative. In contrast, positive and stronger genetic correlations were found between BFS and fatty acid composition, in particular, related to the level of unsaturation (0.77 and 0.79 for MUFA and MUS, respectively). This implies that improving the level of unsaturation makes fat darker (more yellow) and thus requires balancing with BFS. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Sugimoto M.,Keio University | Kosekl T.,Yamagata Research Institute of Technology | Hirayama A.,Keio University | Abe S.,Keio University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to explore the association between taste and metabolite profiles of Japanese refined sake. Nontarget metabolome analysis was conducted using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Zatsumi, an unpleasant not clear flavor, and sweetness, bitterness, and sourness were graded by four experienced panelists. Regression models based on support vector regression (SVR) were used to estimate the relationships among sensory evaluation scores and quantified metabolites and visualized as a nonlinear relationship between sensory scores and metabolite components. The SVR model was highly accurate and versatile: the correlation coefficients for whole training data, cross-validation, and separated validation data were 0.86, 0.73, and 0.73, respectively, for zatsumi. Other sensory scores were also analyzed and modeled by SVR. The methodology demonstrated here carries great potential for predicting the relevant parameters and quantitative relationships between charged metabolites and sensory evaluation in Japanese refined sake. © 2009 American Chemical Society. Source

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