Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center

Sagae, Japan

Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center

Sagae, Japan
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Itoh M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Itoh M.,Kyoto University | Sudo S.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Mori S.,Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center | And 10 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2011

In order to analyze the mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions and the global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy fields by modifying the adopted water-management technique, we conducted field experiments to measure the CH4 and N2O fluxes at nine sites across Japan. Over 2 years, we tested different water-management strategies such as prolonged midseason drainage (MD) in each site. The CH4 emission rates at each site varied considerably; the rates were dependent on the ratio of reductive and oxidative capacities of the fields. Seasonal CH4 emission was effectively reduced at most sites by prolonging MD beyond its conventional duration, especially at sites where organic matter was added to the soil before the cultivation. We attribute this result to the effective suppression of the CH4 emission peak that occurs early in the cultivation period. Despite the large variation in seasonal CH4 emissions among the sites, the rate of CH4 emission resulting from alternative water-management strategies relative to that resulting from conventional water-management strategies is highly dependent on the degree of drainage during the MD period. N2O emission at most sites, in terms of GWP-based CO2-equivalent, was much smaller than that of CH4 emission. Compared to conventional water-management strategies, the seasonal CH4 emissions and the net 100-year GWPs (CH4+N2O) can be suppressed to 69.5±3.4 (SE)% and 72.0±3.1% while maintaining grain yields as high as 96.2±2.0% by prolonging MD on average by employing the selected alternative water-management strategies that satisfied the following conditions: the percent of CH4 emission of alternative water-management strategies was less than 90% and the grain yield was greater than 85% relative to conventional water-management strategies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Toyomasu T.,Yamagata University | Usui M.,Yamagata University | Sugawara C.,Yamagata University | Otomo K.,Yamagata University | And 15 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2014

A variety of labdane-related diterpenoids, including phytocassanes, oryzalexins and momilactones, were identified as phytoalexins in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Momilactone B was also isolated as an allelochemical exuded from rice roots. The biosynthetic genes of these phytoalexins have been identified, including six labdane-related diterpene cyclase genes such as OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKSL4, OsKSL7, OsKSL8 and OsKSL10. Here we identified an OsCPS4 knockdown mutant, cps4-tos, by screening Tos17 mutant lines using polymerase chain reaction. OsCPS4 encodes a syn-copalyl diphosphate synthase responsible for momilactones and oryzalexin S biosynthesis. Because Tos17 was inserted into the third intron of OsCPS4, the mature OsCPS4 mRNA was detected in the cps4-tos mutant as well as the wild type. Nevertheless, mature OsCPS4 transcript levels in the cps4-tos mutant were about one sixth those in the wild type. The cps4-tos mutant was more susceptible to rice blast fungus than the wild type, possibly due to lower levels of momilactones and oryzalexin S in the mutant. Moreover, co-cultivation experiments suggested that the allelopathic effect of cps4-tos against some kinds of lowland weeds was significantly lower than that of the wild type, probably because of lower momilactone content exuded from cps4-tos roots. A reverse-genetic strategy using the cps4-tos mutant showed the possible roles of momilactones not only as phytoalexins but also as allelopathic substances. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

PubMed | Tohoku University, Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Shonai Area General Branch Administration and Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2014

The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, Tsuyahime, Koshihikari and Koshinokaori showed high whiteness, while Satonoyuki had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from Koyukimochi and Dewanomochi was higher than the whiteness of those made from Himenomochi and Koganemochi. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

PubMed | National Livestock Breeding Center, Kobe University and Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

Genetic parameters were estimated to investigate the relationships between meat quality traits and fatty acid composition from 11855 Japanese Black cattle. The meat quality traits included beef marbling score (BMS), beef color score, firmness of beef (FIR), texture of beef (TEX) and beef fat color score (BFS). The data on fatty acid composition included oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contents, the ratio of MUFA to saturated fatty acids (MUS) and the ratio of elongation. The heritability estimates for meat quality traits ranged from moderate (0.30) to high (0.72). The strong genetic correlations between them were useful for simultaneous genetic improvement. In addition, high heritability estimates of fatty acid composition, ranging from 0.60 to 0.63, indicated that they could also be improved genetically. The genetic correlations of fatty acid composition with BMS, FIR and TEX were weak and negative. In contrast, positive and stronger genetic correlations were found between BFS and fatty acid composition, in particular, related to the level of unsaturation (0.77 and 0.79 for MUFA and MUS, respectively). This implies that improving the level of unsaturation makes fat darker (more yellow) and thus requires balancing with BFS.

Harada T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Torii Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1-DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1-DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening. © 2010 The Author(s).

Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Torii Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Harada T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2011

Flower opening in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is the result of the enlargement of petal cells, which requires sugar metabolism. A cDNA encoding sucrose synthase (DcSUS1) was isolated from carnation petals as a candidate gene acting in the initial step of sugar metabolism in petal cells. DcSUS1 transcripts were detected abundantly in floral tissues of flowering carnation plants; the transcripts accumulated most in the petals and style followed by the ovary, whereas only small accumulation were found in stems, leaves, and calyces. Moreover, nearly constant accumulation of DcSUS1 transcripts was found in the petals during flower opening, fully open, and early senescence periods, whereas decreasing accumulation was detected in petals when senescence progressed. These findings suggested the involvement of DcSUS1 expression in petal cell growth during the opening of carnation flowers. JSHS © 2011.

Isuzugawa K.,Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center | Murayama H.,Yamagata University | Nishio T.,Tohoku University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Fruit size is one of the most important traits in fruit trees. We found a bud sport mutant bearing giant fruits of pear in an orchard in Yamagata prefecture, Japan. The fruit weight of this mutant was more than twice that of an original cultivar 'La France'. The size of the receptacle was already larger in the mutant than in the original cultivar at full bloom, and size differences between the mutant and the original cultivar were observed throughout fruit development. Microscopic observation of fruit cortex cells revealed that the size of cells was larger in the mutant than in the original cultivar, and that the number of cells was comparable between the mutant and the original cultivar. Flow cytometric analysis revealed an increase in the number of cells having doubled amounts of DNA (4C cells) in the fruit cortex, but such an increase was not found in leaves, suggesting chimeric polyploidization or endoreduplication in fruits of the mutant. Mutant fruits exhibited significantly higher titratable acidity and lower firmness than those of the original cultivar. These differences were observed from 110 days after full bloom to 165 days (the commercial harvesting time). However, the concentration of soluble solids was not different between the mutant and the original cultivar. There were no significant differences in polyuronide contents between the mutant and the original cultivar fruits, but hemicellulose content in fruits of the mutant was significantly lower than in those of the original cultivar. © 2014 The Authors.

PubMed | Ritsumeikan University, Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center, Nagoya University and Yamagata University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant & cell physiology | Year: 2016

During their 6 month development, pear (Pyrus communis) fruits undergo drastic changes in their morphology and their chemical composition. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and transport processes active during fruit development, we performed a time-course analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein identification and quantification of fruit flesh tissues. After pre-fractionation of the samples, 2,841 proteins were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples from seven developmental stages into three distinct clusters representing the early, mid and late developmental phase. Over-representation analysis of proteins characteristic of each developmental phase revealed both expected and novel biological processes relevant at each phase. A high abundance of aquaporins was detected in samples from fruits in the cell expansion stage. We were able quantitatively to reconstruct basic metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which indicates sufficient coverage to reconstruct other metabolic pathways. Most of the enzymes that presumably contribute to sugar accumulation in pear fruits could be identified. Our data indicate that invertases do not play a major role in the sugar conversions in developing pear fruits. Rather, sucrose might be broken down by sucrose synthases. Further focusing on sugar transporters, we identified several putative sugar transporters from diverse families which showed developmental regulation. In conclusion, our data set comprehensively describes the proteome of developing pear fruits and provides novel insights about sugar accumulation as well as candidate genes for key reactions and transport steps.

Reuscher S.,Nagoya University | Isuzugawa K.,Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center | Kawachi M.,Nagoya University | Oikawa A.,Yamagata University | Shiratake K.,Nagoya University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The concentrations of macro- and microelements in fruits from European pear trees (Pyrus communis 'La France') were analyzed at seven developmental stages, ranging from two weeks after flowering to ripe fruits. Additionally, wild-type fruits (WT) were compared to a giant fruit bud mutant (GLaF) which sets 1.5 times bigger fruits compared to WT. With proceeding fruit development element concentrations relative to the dry biomass decreased. Differences in the rate and the degree of element concentration reduction were detected. Concentrations of B, K and Na were found to decrease at a slower rate and to a lesser degree compared to other analyzed elements. In comparison to WT fruits, most elements were detected at a lower concentration in GLaF fruits in early stage samples. During GLaF fruit development most element concentrations recovered, with the exception of B and Ca. Our results highlight common and differential element accumulation patterns in developing pear fruits. We suggest that B, K and Ca play key roles in pear fruit development and propose specific homeostasis mechanisms for these elements. Since GLaF fruits are more susceptible to corky spot disorder and B and Ca are important for the proper formation of the cell wall, we suggest that local B and/or Ca deficiency is responsible for corky spot disorder found in GLaF fruits. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Sugimoto M.,Keio University | Kosekl T.,Yamagata Research Institute of Technology | Hirayama A.,Keio University | Abe S.,Keio University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to explore the association between taste and metabolite profiles of Japanese refined sake. Nontarget metabolome analysis was conducted using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Zatsumi, an unpleasant not clear flavor, and sweetness, bitterness, and sourness were graded by four experienced panelists. Regression models based on support vector regression (SVR) were used to estimate the relationships among sensory evaluation scores and quantified metabolites and visualized as a nonlinear relationship between sensory scores and metabolite components. The SVR model was highly accurate and versatile: the correlation coefficients for whole training data, cross-validation, and separated validation data were 0.86, 0.73, and 0.73, respectively, for zatsumi. Other sensory scores were also analyzed and modeled by SVR. The methodology demonstrated here carries great potential for predicting the relevant parameters and quantitative relationships between charged metabolites and sensory evaluation in Japanese refined sake. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

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