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Matsuura T.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Mizuno A.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Tsukamoto T.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Shimizu Y.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951T=LMG 25843T=NCPPB 4475T) is proposed. © 2012 IUMS Printed in Great Britain. Source

Watanabe H.,Tohoku University | Chen X.,Tohoku University | Shoji N.,Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center | Saito R.,Tohoku University | And 7 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2015

It is desirable to produce beef with high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), as this is related to fat softness and palatability. However, the physiology of MUFA synthesis in bovine fat during the fattening process remains to be established. In this study, in order to elucidate the relationship between plasma components and the fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat, we investigated the effect of plasma obtained from fattening cattle on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of the adipogenesis-related gene in a clonal bovine intramuscular preadipocyte line (BIP cells). The mRNA expressions of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, adipocyte Protein 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in BIP cells were significantly higher following treatment with those plasma samples collected from the cattle with the highest diaphragmatic unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids ratio (US/S). Furthermore, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the plasma samples had an inverse correlation with carcass diaphragmatic US/S. These results indicate that cattle with a low ratio of US/S in fat may be discriminated from the population of fattening cattle before slaughter by measuring the effect of their plasma on gene expression in BIP cells as well as their plasma concentration and composition of NEFA. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

Wen X.-P.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Wen X.-P.,Guizhou University | Ban Y.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Inoue H.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | And 3 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Three transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L.) lines with reduced spermidine synthase (SPDS) expression and spermidine (Spd) titers were developed using a construct containing an apple SPDS gene (MdSPDS1) in antisense orientation. After exposure to either salt or cadmium stress, growth inhibition was more severe in the antisense lines than in the wild-type (WT). The antioxidant system, as shown by glutathione (GSH) content, activity of glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and proline accumulation, was not effectively induced under stress in the antisense lines as compared with the WT. The reduction in antioxidant system function in the antisense lines was accompanied by a greater accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Growth inhibition, Spd level, and parameters indicative of the antioxidant system were significantly ameliorated by exogenous Spd application. Under either salt or cadmium stress, GSH content, GR and SOD activity, and proline accumulation were positively correlated with Spd, putrescine (Put), and total polyamine titers. Conversely, MDA level showed a significantly negative correlation with these polyamines under both stress conditions. Thus, the responses to stress treatments were first identified in the SPDS antisense European pears, and the results provide further evidence for the important role of polyamines in both salt and cadmium stress tolerance, in which the polyamines act, at least in part, by influencing the antioxidant system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ardiyanti A.,Tohoku University | Abe T.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Tameoka N.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Kobayashi E.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 5 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Two SNPs, i.e. L127V and T172M, of bovine growth hormone (GH) causing the presence of GH gene haplotypes A, B, and C was previously shown to alter intramuscular fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese Black (JB) heifers. To determine the SNP effect on somatotropic hormone concentration and lipogenesis, we measured plasma GH, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations. We also measured mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD), and sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1) and FA composition in diaphragm tissues. Heifers with genotype CC had the lowest plasma insulin concentration and FASN and SCD mRNA levels among genotypes. FASN mRNA levels in haplotype A tended to positively correlate with saturated FA (SFA) content and negatively correlated with C18:2 and unsaturated FA (USFA) contents. SCD mRNA levels in haplotype A positively correlated with monounsaturated FA (MUFA) contents and negatively correlated with C18:0 content. They also tended to positively correlate with C16:1, C18:1, and USFA contents and USFA/SFA ratio and negatively correlate with SFA content. Taken together, GH gene polymorphism affects the lipogenic genes expression levels and their relationships with fatty acid compositions in diaphragm tissues of JB heifers at 31 months of age. Source

Wen X.-P.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Wen X.-P.,Guizhou University | Ban Y.,University of Tsukuba | Inoue H.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | And 3 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2010

To verify whether spermidine synthase (SPDS) can confer long-term multi-heavy metal tolerance, in vitro shoots of a transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') line #32 overexpressing apple SPDS (MdSPDS1), as well as a wild type (WT) line, were subjected to stress using either CdCl2, PbCl2, ZnCl2, or a combination thereof. Based on either shoot height increment or fresh weight and morphological changes upon heavy metal stress, the performance of the transgenic line #32 was better than that of WT. Although SPDS expression levels and spermidine (Spd) contents in line #32 were higher than those in WT, possibly due to transgene (MdSPDS1) expression, no obvious inductions of SPDS expression and increases in Spd-content were observed by long-term stress treatments in both lines. When the glutathione (GSH) content was compared with or without stress in each line, GSH was significantly depleted in line #32 with stress, but not as much as in WT. The activities of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase and the content of malondialdehyde, an indicator for lipid peroxidation, changed upon stress toward a more favorable status for survival in line #32 than in WT. These antioxidant parameters were positively related to Spd-content. The accumulation of heavy metals tended to be less in line #32 than in WT except for Zn stress, and the Ca content showed an opposite trend. These results suggest that Spd-levels are implicated in enhanced heavy metal tolerance, possibly by exerting an antioxidant activity as well as by the properties of Spd per se including metal chelator. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

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