Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center

Yamagata-shi, Japan

Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center

Yamagata-shi, Japan
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Matsuura T.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Mizuno A.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Tsukamoto T.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Shimizu Y.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951T=LMG 25843T=NCPPB 4475T) is proposed. © 2012 IUMS Printed in Great Britain.

Mizuno A.,Research Division | Tsukamoto T.,Research Division | Shimizu Y.,Research Division | Ooya H.,Research Division | And 6 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Black lesions on shoots of European pear trees observed in an orchard in Yamagata Prefecture in May 2007 were suspected to be caused by a bacterial pathogen. The surface of the colonies isolated on a high sucrose medium did not have the crater morphology that is characteristic of E. amylovora bvs. 1-3, and a specific DNA fragment was amplified from the isolates in the PCR using the EprpoD primer set. The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene placed the isolates in the genus Erwinia. The isolates differed serologically from E. amylovora biovars and E. pyrifoliae in an Ouchterlony double-diffusion test although their bacterial properties suggested that they are closely related to E. amylovora biovars and E. pyrifoliae. In a DNA-DNA hybridization test, the relatedness between the isolates and E. amylovora biovars or E. pyrifoliae did not exceed 70% level, indicating that they are independent species. Thus, the isolates belongs to the genus Erwnia but are not E. amylovra or E. pyrifoliae. After succulent pear shoots were injected with bacterial suspensions (109, 108, 107 and 106cfu/ml) of the isolates, lesions formed with 109 and 108cfu/ml, but the disease incidence with 108cfu/ml was much lower than with E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae. Virulence of the present isolates is thus thought to be very weak. On the basis of these results, we consider that this is a new shoot disease of European pear. In the 2007 season, all affected trees were pulled out after harvest. No symptoms have been observed in field surveys since the fruitlet season in 2007. © 2009 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.

Oyama-Okubo N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Sakai T.,Keio University | Sakai T.,Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center | Ando T.,Chiba University | And 2 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2013

Emission of floral scent benzenoid/phenylpropanoid compounds in Petunia axillaris increases significantly at night, a change that is primarily determined by the endogenous concentration of these compounds in the corolla. Among wild type P. axillaris plants, there are lines that emit different amounts of scent. To understand how the nocturnal rhythm of floral scent concentrations is controlled, the concentration profiles of metabolites in the scent biosynthetic pathway in two lines of P. axillaris, a strongly scented line and a weakly scented line, are reported. In the strongly scented line, the concentration of a series of compounds from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to the scent compounds changed synchronously. In the weakly scented lines, the concentrations of some metabolites including 6-phosphogluconate (6PG) and downstream metabolites of shikimic acid were remarkably lower, suggesting a reduction in metabolism of G6P to 6PG and the metabolism of shikimic acid in the weakly scented line. Nocturnal increases in the concentrations of sucrose, fructose, and glucose were not found in strongly scented line. Nocturnal increases in concentrations of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and methionine and reductions in the concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methylation donor to benzenoid-skeletons, were observed only in strongly scented line. It is concluded that the biosynthetic regulation of each step from G6P to the volatile scent benzenoids is performed by, at least in part, concentrations of substrates, and the regulation also affects concentrations of SAM cycle compounds. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Inoue K.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Kobayashi M.,Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center | Shoji N.,Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center | Kato K.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan
Animal | Year: 2011

We estimated the genetic parameters related to feed intake (FI), feed efficiency traits (including feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) of digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN)), beef marbling score (BMS), melting point of fat (MP) and fatty acid composition. Fat and meat (Musculus trapezius) samples were taken from the carcasses of 863 Japanese Black steers derived from 65 sires, for determination of the MP and fatty acid composition of the total lipid in intramuscular adipose tissue. Genetic parameters were estimated using uni- and bivariate animal models. In addition, pedigree information for 4841 animals was used. Heritability estimates for BMS, MP, individual fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), the ratio of saturated fatty acids to MUFA (MUS) and the ratio of elongation (ELONG) were generally high. The FI values of TDN and DCP were also high, but FCRs and RFIs of those were low (0.09 to 0.22). Genetic correlation of BMS with MP was -0.34 (favorable) and with C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG values were 0.40, 0.28, 0.29 and 0.37, respectively (favorable). Genetic correlations of MP with C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG were negative (also favorable) and high (-0.85, -0.98, -1.00 (-0.996) and -0.66, respectively). The correlation estimates for feed efficiency traits of DCP were quite similar to those of TDN. Genetic correlations of BMS with FCRs and RFIs of TDN and DCP were all positive (unfavorable; 0.21 to 0.51), and in particular, the correlations with RFIs of those were high. The correlations of C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG with RFIs of TDN and DCP were positive (unfavorable) but low (0.06 to 0.17), whereas the corresponding correlations with FCRs of those were all negative (favorable; -0.38 to -0.10). These results suggest that the quantity and quality of beef fat can be simultaneously improved and that the quality of beef fat (fatty acid composition) can be improved directly or indirectly with MP. Furthermore, selecting MP or fatty acid traits does not significantly affect feed efficiency. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

Alam M.,Yeungnam University | Han K.I.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Lee D.H.,Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center | Ha J.H.,Tohoku University | Kim J.J.,Yeungnam University
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Effective population size (Ne) is an important measure to understand population structure and genetic variability in animal species. The objective of this study was to estimate Ne in Sapsaree dogs using the information of rate of inbreeding and genomic data that were obtained from pedigree and the Illumina CanineSNP20 (20K) and CanineHD (170K) beadchips, respectively. Three SNP panels, i.e. Sap134 (20K), Sap60 (170K), and Sap183 (the combined panel from the 20K and 170K), were used to genotype 134, 60, and 183 animal samples, respectively. The Ne estimates based on inbreeding rate ranged from 16 to 51 about five to 13 generations ago. With the use of SNP genotypes, two methods were applied for N e estimation, i.e. pair-wise r 2 values using a simple expectation of distance and r 2 values under a non-linear regression with respective distances assuming a finite population size. The average pair-wise N e estimates across generations using the pairs of SNPs that were located within 5 Mb in the Sap134, Sap60, and Sap183 panels, were 1,486, 1,025 and 1,293, respectively. Under the non-linear regression method, the average Ne estimates were 1,601, 528, and 1,129 for the respective panels. Also, the point estimates of past Ne at 5, 20, and 50 generations ago ranged between 64 to 75, 245 to 286, and 573 to 646, respectively, indicating a significant N e reduction in the last several generations. These results suggest a strong necessity for minimizing inbreeding through the application of genomic selection or other breeding strategies to increase N e, so as to maintain genetic variation and to avoid future bottlenecks in the Sapsaree population.

Ardiyanti A.,Tohoku University | Abe T.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Tameoka N.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Kobayashi E.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 5 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Two SNPs, i.e. L127V and T172M, of bovine growth hormone (GH) causing the presence of GH gene haplotypes A, B, and C was previously shown to alter intramuscular fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese Black (JB) heifers. To determine the SNP effect on somatotropic hormone concentration and lipogenesis, we measured plasma GH, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations. We also measured mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD), and sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1) and FA composition in diaphragm tissues. Heifers with genotype CC had the lowest plasma insulin concentration and FASN and SCD mRNA levels among genotypes. FASN mRNA levels in haplotype A tended to positively correlate with saturated FA (SFA) content and negatively correlated with C18:2 and unsaturated FA (USFA) contents. SCD mRNA levels in haplotype A positively correlated with monounsaturated FA (MUFA) contents and negatively correlated with C18:0 content. They also tended to positively correlate with C16:1, C18:1, and USFA contents and USFA/SFA ratio and negatively correlate with SFA content. Taken together, GH gene polymorphism affects the lipogenic genes expression levels and their relationships with fatty acid compositions in diaphragm tissues of JB heifers at 31 months of age.

Wen X.-P.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Wen X.-P.,Guizhou University | Ban Y.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Inoue H.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | And 3 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Three transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L.) lines with reduced spermidine synthase (SPDS) expression and spermidine (Spd) titers were developed using a construct containing an apple SPDS gene (MdSPDS1) in antisense orientation. After exposure to either salt or cadmium stress, growth inhibition was more severe in the antisense lines than in the wild-type (WT). The antioxidant system, as shown by glutathione (GSH) content, activity of glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and proline accumulation, was not effectively induced under stress in the antisense lines as compared with the WT. The reduction in antioxidant system function in the antisense lines was accompanied by a greater accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Growth inhibition, Spd level, and parameters indicative of the antioxidant system were significantly ameliorated by exogenous Spd application. Under either salt or cadmium stress, GSH content, GR and SOD activity, and proline accumulation were positively correlated with Spd, putrescine (Put), and total polyamine titers. Conversely, MDA level showed a significantly negative correlation with these polyamines under both stress conditions. Thus, the responses to stress treatments were first identified in the SPDS antisense European pears, and the results provide further evidence for the important role of polyamines in both salt and cadmium stress tolerance, in which the polyamines act, at least in part, by influencing the antioxidant system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Wen X.-P.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Wen X.-P.,Guizhou University | Ban Y.,University of Tsukuba | Inoue H.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | And 3 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2010

To verify whether spermidine synthase (SPDS) can confer long-term multi-heavy metal tolerance, in vitro shoots of a transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') line #32 overexpressing apple SPDS (MdSPDS1), as well as a wild type (WT) line, were subjected to stress using either CdCl2, PbCl2, ZnCl2, or a combination thereof. Based on either shoot height increment or fresh weight and morphological changes upon heavy metal stress, the performance of the transgenic line #32 was better than that of WT. Although SPDS expression levels and spermidine (Spd) contents in line #32 were higher than those in WT, possibly due to transgene (MdSPDS1) expression, no obvious inductions of SPDS expression and increases in Spd-content were observed by long-term stress treatments in both lines. When the glutathione (GSH) content was compared with or without stress in each line, GSH was significantly depleted in line #32 with stress, but not as much as in WT. The activities of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase and the content of malondialdehyde, an indicator for lipid peroxidation, changed upon stress toward a more favorable status for survival in line #32 than in WT. These antioxidant parameters were positively related to Spd-content. The accumulation of heavy metals tended to be less in line #32 than in WT except for Zn stress, and the Ca content showed an opposite trend. These results suggest that Spd-levels are implicated in enhanced heavy metal tolerance, possibly by exerting an antioxidant activity as well as by the properties of Spd per se including metal chelator. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

PubMed | University of Technology of Indonesia, Tohoku University, Bogor Agricultural University, Yamagata University and Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2016

Previous study shown that enzyme treated-rice bran effectively improved hypertension and glucose intolerance in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). However, dual fermentation of rice brans efficacy against metabolic syndrome in SHRSP is still unknown.Fermented rice bran (FRB) was prepared by dual fermentation of rice bran using fungi and lactic acid bacteria. The effect of FRB on metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) was investigated by single and chronic supplementation.Dual fermentation of rice bran enriches the functional value of rice bran. Single-dose oral administration of FRB (2g/kg body weight) reduced systolic blood pressure; however, chronic supplementation with 5% FRB (4weeks) significantly reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. FRB supplementation improved leptin impairment and increased serum adiponectin levels and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Furthermore, FRB supplementation improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as well as serum insulin levels. Lipid profiles were also improved by the regulation of 5 adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation. Moreover, supplementation with FRB reduced the expressions of hepatic transcription factors such as liver X receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein alpha, as well as their target genes. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with FRB may lower hypertension and alleviate metabolic syndrome.Metabolic syndrome was better alleviated with FRB supplementation. We therefore suggest FRB as an alternative medicine to reduce the risks of lifestyle-related diseases.

PubMed | Tohoku University, Aberystwyth University and Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2015

It is desirable to produce beef with high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), as this is related to fat softness and palatability. However, the physiology of MUFA synthesis in bovine fat during the fattening process remains to be established. In this study, in order to elucidate the relationship between plasma components and the fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat, we investigated the effect of plasma obtained from fattening cattle on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of the adipogenesis-related gene in a clonal bovine intramuscular preadipocyte line (BIP cells). The mRNA expressions of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, adipocyte Protein 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in BIP cells were significantly higher following treatment with those plasma samples collected from the cattle with the highest diaphragmatic unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids ratio (US/S). Furthermore, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the plasma samples had an inverse correlation with carcass diaphragmatic US/S. These results indicate that cattle with a low ratio of US/S in fat may be discriminated from the population of fattening cattle before slaughter by measuring the effect of their plasma on gene expression in BIP cells as well as their plasma concentration and composition of NEFA.

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