Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the "Collegiate School" by a group of Congregationalist ministers and chartered by the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. In 1718, the school was renamed "Yale College" in recognition of a gift from Elihu Yale, a governor of the British East India Company. Established to train Connecticut ministers in theology and sacred languages, by 1777 the school's curriculum began to incorporate humanities and science. During the 19th century Yale gradually incorporated graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph.D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887.Yale is organized into twelve constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Graduate School of Arts & science, and ten professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the University owns athletic facilities in Western New Haven, including the Yale Bowl, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forest and nature preserves throughout New England. The University's assets include an endowment valued at $23.9 billion as of September 27, 2014.Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a system of residential colleges. The Yale University Library, serving all twelve schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Almost all faculty teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I Ivy League.Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 13 living billionaires, and many foreign heads of state. In addition, Yale has graduated hundreds of members of Congress and many high-level U.S. diplomats, including former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and current Secretary of State John Kerry. Fifty-two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University as students, faculty, or staff, and 230 Rhodes Scholars graduated from the University. Wikipedia.
Transimmune AG and Yale University | Date: 2017-05-10
The present invention relates to methods for producing immuno-stimulatory autologous dendritic cells. The present invention further relates to the use of such cells for treating patients suffering from hyper-proliferative disease such as cancer.
Yale University | Date: 2017-01-26
Conductivity-selective lateral etching of III-nitride materials is described. Methods and structures for making vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with distributed Bragg reflectors via electrochemical etching are described. Layer-selective, lateral electrochemical etching of multi-layer stacks is employed to form semiconductor/air DBR structures adjacent active multiple quantum well regions of the lasers. The electrochemical etching techniques are suitable for high-volume production of lasers and other III-nitride devices, such as lasers, HEMT transistors, power transistors, MEMs structures, and LEDs.
Yale University | Date: 2017-01-11
The invention provides a method of preparing fructose from glucose using a calcium salt and an organic base. The invention further provides a method of preparing fructose from mannose using a calcium salt and an organic base. In certain embodiments, the method comprises contacting an aqueous solution of the sugar with a calcium salt and an organic base to form a system, wherein fructose is formed in the system. In other embodiments, the system is free of organic solvents. In yet other embodiments, the system comprises one or more water-soluble organic solvents.
Yale University | Date: 2017-03-15
Core-shell particles and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. The core is formed of or contains one or more hydrophobic materials or more hydrophobic materials. The shell is formed of or contains hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG). The HPG coating can be modified to adjust the properties of the particles. Unmodified HPG coatings impart stealth properties to the particles which resist non-specific protein absorption and increase circulation in the blood. The hydroxyl groups on the HPG coating can be chemically modified to form functional groups that react with functional groups and adhere the particles to tissue, cells, or extracellular materials, such as proteins.
Yale University | Date: 2017-03-22
The present invention includes compositions comprising PMCA4b activator and methods for detecting, treating and preventing renal and pancreatic diseases and disorders.
Yale University | Date: 2017-02-01
The invention includes compositions and methods useful for the diagnosis, assessment, and characterization of endometriosis in a subject in need thereof, based upon the expression level of at least one miRNA that is associated with endometriosis.
Romberg N.,Yale University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014
Upon detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, innate immune receptors initiate inflammatory responses. These receptors include cytoplasmic NOD-like receptors (NLRs) whose stimulation recruits and proteolytically activates caspase-1 within the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex. Caspase-1 mediates the production of interleukin-1 family cytokines (IL1FCs), leading to fever and inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis). Mutations that constitutively activate these pathways underlie several autoinflammatory diseases with diverse clinical features. We describe a family with a previously unreported syndrome featuring neonatal-onset enterocolitis, periodic fever, and fatal or near-fatal episodes of autoinflammation. We show that the disease is caused by a de novo gain-of-function mutation in NLRC4 encoding a p.Val341Ala substitution in the HD1 domain of the protein that cosegregates with disease. Mutant NLRC4 causes constitutive IL1FC production and macrophage cell death. Infected macrophages from affected individuals are polarized toward pyroptosis and exhibit abnormal staining for inflammasome components. These findings identify and describe the cause of a life-threatening but treatable autoinflammatory disease that underscores the divergent roles of the NLRC4 inflammasome. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Humphrey J.D.,Yale University
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2014
Soft connective tissues at steady state are dynamic; resident cells continually read environmental cues and respond to them to promote homeostasis, including maintenance of the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that are fundamental to cellular and tissue health. The mechanosensing process involves assessment of the mechanics of the ECM by the cells through integrins and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and is followed by a mechanoregulation process, which includes the deposition, rearrangement or removal of the ECM to maintain overall form and function. Progress towards understanding the molecular, cellular and tissue-level effects that promote mechanical homeostasis has helped to identify key questions for future research. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Bogan J.S.,Yale University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2012
To enhance glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells, insulin stimulates the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular membranes to the cell surface. This response requires the intersection of insulin signaling and vesicle trafficking pathways, and it is compromised in the setting of overnutrition to cause insulin resistance. Insulin signals through AS160Tbc1D4 and Tbc1D1 to modulate Rab GTPases and through the Rho GTPase TC10α to act on other targets. In unstimulated cells, GLUT4 is incorporated into specialized storage vesicles containing IRAP, LRP1, sortilin, and VAMP2, which are sequestered by TUG, Ubc9, and other proteins. Insulin mobilizes these vesicles directly to the plasma membrane, and it modulates the trafficking itinerary so that cargo recycles from endosomes during ongoing insulin exposure. Knowledge of how signaling and trafficking pathways are coordinated will be essential to understanding the pathogenesis of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and may also inform a wide range of other physiologies. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Crabtree R.H.,Yale University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012
Work done in the field of resolving heterogeneity problems and impurity artifacts in operationally homogeneous transition metal catalysts are discussed. Unintended heterotopy with loss of all the ligands initially present in the precatalyst are found to nullify the effect of sophisticated ligand design such as in the multifunctional ligands. Narayanan et al. have shown that nanoparticle shape and size can strongly affect activity. Finke and co-workers have now modified their conclusions for the Maitlis catalyst and find in operando X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), kinetic, and kinetic poisoning evidence for the predominant species and active catalyst being subnanometer Rh 4 clusters. Conlon and co-workers studied the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction catalyzed by Pd/C by estimating the solution levels of Pd by hot filtration followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis for the organics and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis for the palladium.