Yale Microbial science Institute

West Haven, CT, United States

Yale Microbial science Institute

West Haven, CT, United States
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Yeom J.,Yale University | Wayne K.J.,Yale University | Groisman E.A.,Yale University | Groisman E.A.,Yale Microbial science Institute
Molecular Cell | Year: 2017

According to the N-end rule, the N-terminal residue of a protein determines its stability. In bacteria, the adaptor ClpS mediates proteolysis by delivering substrates bearing specific N-terminal residues to the protease ClpAP. We now report that the Salmonella adaptor ClpS binds to the N terminus of the regulatory protein PhoP, resulting in PhoP degradation by ClpAP. We establish that the PhoP-activated protein MgtC protects PhoP from degradation by outcompeting ClpS for binding to PhoP. MgtC appears to act exclusively on PhoP, as it did not alter the stability of a different ClpS-dependent ClpAP substrate. Removal of five N-terminal residues rendered PhoP stability independent of both the clpS and mgtC genes. By preserving PhoP protein levels, MgtC enables normal temporal transcription of PhoP-activated genes. The identified mechanism provides a simple means to spare specific substrates from an adaptor-dependent protease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Zwir I.,Yale University | Zwir I.,University of Granada | Zwir I.,University of Washington | Zwir I.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 12 more authors.
mBio | Year: 2014

The histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein binds to horizontally acquired genes in the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, silencing their expression. We now report that overcoming the silencing effects of H-NS imposes a delay in the expression of genes activated by the transcriptional regulator PhoP. We determine that PhoP-activated genes ancestral to Salmonella are expressed before those acquired horizontally. This expression timing reflects the in vivo occupancy of the corresponding promoters by the PhoP protein. These results are surprising because some of these horizontally acquired genes reached higher mRNA levels than ancestral genes expressed earlier and were transcribed from promoters harboring PhoP-binding sites with higher in vitro affinity for the PhoP protein. Our findings challenge the often-made assumption that for genes coregulated by a given transcription factor, early genes are transcribed to higher mRNA levels than those transcribed at later times. Moreover, they provide a singular example of how gene ancestry can impact expression timing.IMPORTANCE: We report that gene ancestry dictates the expression behavior of genes under the direct control of the Salmonella transcriptional regulator PhoP. That is, ancestral genes are transcribed before horizontally acquired genes. This reflects both the need to overcome silencing by the H-NS protein of the latter genes and the architecture of the corresponding promoters. Unexpectedly, transcription levels do not reflect transcription timing. Our results illustrate how a bacterium can exhibit an elaborate temporal expression behavior among genes coregulated by a transcription factor even though the products encoded by the target genes do not participate in a morphological or developmental pathway. © 2014 Zwir et al.

Raghavan V.,Yale University | Raghavan V.,Yale Microbial science Institute | Groisman E.A.,Yale University | Groisman E.A.,Yale Microbial science Institute | Groisman E.A.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2015

The mammalian intestine provides nutrients to hundreds of bacterial species. Closely related species often harbor homologous nutrient utilization genes and cocolonize the gut, raising questions regarding the strategies mediating their stable coexistence. Here we reveal that related Bacteroides species that can utilize the mammalian glycan chondroitin sulfate (CS) have diverged in the manner in which they temporally regulate orthologous CS utilization genes. Whereas certain Bacteroides species display a transient surge in CS utilization transcripts upon exposure to CS, other species exhibit sustained activation of these genes. Remarkably, species-specific expression dynamics are retained even when the key players governing a particular response are replaced by those from a species with a dissimilar response. Bacteroides species exhibiting distinct expression behaviors in the presence of CS can be cocultured on CS. However, they vary in their responses to CS availability and to the composition of the bacterial community when CS is the sole carbon source. Our results indicate that diversity resulting from regulation of polysaccharide utilization genes may enable the coexistence of gut bacterial species using a given nutrient. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.

Pontes M.H.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Pontes M.H.,Yale University | Pontes M.H.,Yale Microbial science Institute | Lee E.-J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Choi J.,Yale University | Groisman E.A.,Yale University | Groisman E.A.,Yale Microbial science Institute
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2016

pH regulates gene expression, biochemical activities and cellular behaviors. A mildly acidic pH activates the master virulence regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The sensor PhoQ harbors an extracytoplasmic domain implicated in signal sensing, and a cytoplasmic domain controlling activation of the regulator PhoP. We now report that, surprisingly, a decrease in Salmonella's own cytoplasmic pH induces transcription of PhoP-activated genes even when the extracytoplasmic pH remains neutral. Amino acid substitutions in PhoQ's cytoplasmic domain hindered activation by acidic pH and attenuated virulence in mice, but did not abolish activation by low Mg2+ or the antimicrobial peptide C18G. Conversely, removal of PhoQ's extracytoplasmic domains prevented the response to the latter PhoQ-activating signals but not to acidic pH. PhoP-dependent genes were minimally induced by acidic pH in the non-pathogenic species Salmonella bongori but were activated by low Mg2+ and C18G as in pathogenic S. enterica. Our findings indicate that the sensor PhoQ enables S. enterica to respond to both host- and bacterial-derived signals that alter its cytoplasmic pH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Pontes M.H.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Pontes M.H.,Yale University | Pontes M.H.,Yale Microbial science Institute | Sevostyanova A.,Yale University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

Abstract Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of living cells. Even though ATP powers virtually all energy-dependent activities, most cellular ATP is utilized in protein synthesis via tRNA aminoacylation and guanosine triphosphate regeneration. Magnesium (Mg2+), the most common divalent cation in living cells, plays crucial roles in protein synthesis by maintaining the structure of ribosomes, participating in the biochemistry of translation initiation and functioning as a counterion for ATP. A non-physiological increase in ATP levels hinders growth in cells experiencing Mg2+ limitation because ATP is the most abundant nucleotide triphosphate in the cell, and Mg2+ is also required for the stabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane and as a cofactor for essential enzymes. We propose that organisms cope with Mg2+ limitation by decreasing ATP levels and ribosome production, thereby reallocating Mg2+ to indispensable cellular processes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Park S.-Y.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Park S.-Y.,Yale Microbial science Institute | Pontes M.H.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Pontes M.H.,Yale Microbial science Institute | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Flagella are multiprotein complexes necessary for swimming and swarming motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella-mediated motility is repressed by the PhoP/PhoQ regulatory system. We now report that Salmonella can move on 0.3% agarose media in a flagella-independent manner when experiencing the PhoP/PhoQ-inducing signal low Mg2+. This motility requires the PhoP-activated mgtA, mgtC, and pagM genes, which specify a Mg2+ transporter, an inhibitor of Salmonella's own F1Fo ATPase, and a small protein of unknown function, respectively. The MgtA and MgtC proteins are necessary for pagM expression because pagM mRNA levels were lower in mgtA and mgtC mutants than in wild-type Salmonella, and also because pagM expression from a heterologous promoter rescued motility in mgtA and mgtC mutants. PagMpromotes groupmotility by a surface protein(s), as a pagM-expressing strain conferred motility upon a pagM null mutant, and proteinase K treatment eliminated motility. The pagM gene is rarely found outside subspecies I of S. enterica and often present in nonfunctional allelic forms in organisms lacking the identified motility. Deletion of the pagM gene reduced bacterial replication on 0.3% agarose low Mg2+ media but not in low Mg2+ liquid media. Our findings define a form of motility that allows Salmonella to scavenge nutrients and to escape toxic compounds in low Mg2+ semisolid environments.

Groisman E.A.,Yale University | Groisman E.A.,Yale Microbial science Institute
Annual Review of Microbiology | Year: 2016

Two-component systems are a dominant form of bacterial signal transduction. The prototypical two-component system consists of a sensor that responds to a specific input(s) by modifying the output of a cognate regulator. Because the output of a two-component system is the amount of phosphorylated regulator, feedback mechanisms may alter the amount of regulator, and or modify the ability of a sensor or other proteins to alter the phosphorylation state of the regulator. Two-component systems may display intrinsic feedback whereby the amount of phosphorylated regulator changes under constant inducing conditions and without the participation of additional proteins. Feedback control allows a two-component system to achieve particular steady-state levels, to reach a given steady state with distinct dynamics, to express coregulated genes in a given order, and to activate a regulator to different extents, depending on the signal acting on the sensor. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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