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Yale, United Kingdom

McPartland J.C.,Yale Child Study Center
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2016

Purpose of review Despite significant progress in recognizing the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder, diagnosis and treatment rely primarily on subjective evaluation of behavior. This review highlights the challenges unique to neurodevelopmental disorders that have limited biomarker development. Recent findings The field of neurodevelopmental disorders requires objective quantification of biological processes to enable designation of subgroups likely to benefit from specific treatments, index diagnostic status/risk, demonstrate engagement of targeted systems, and provide more rapid assessment of change than traditional clinical observation and caregiver report measures. Summary Useful biomarkers for neurodevelopmental disorders must be reliable across development, evident at the individual level, and specific to a unit of analysis, be it diagnostic status or functional process. The ultimate value of biomarkers for neurodevelopmental disorders will relate to their ease of use, cost, scalability, sensitivity, and methodological objectivity. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source


Diehl J.J.,University of Notre Dame | Paul R.,Yale Child Study Center
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders | Year: 2012

In research, it has been difficult to characterize the prosodic production differences that have been observed clinically in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Moreover, the nature of these differences has been particularly hard to identify. This study examined one possible contributor to these perceived differences: motor planning. We examined the ability of children and adolescents with ASD to imitate prosodic patterns in comparison to a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a typically developing (TD) comparison group. Overall, we found that both the ASD and LD groups were significantly worse at perceiving and imitating prosodic patterns than the TD comparison group. Similar to previous studies using non-imitative speech, participants with ASD showed a significantly longer duration of utterances than the two comparison groups when attempting to imitate an intonation pattern. The implications of differences in duration of utterances are discussed. This study also highlights the importance of using clinical comparison groups in studies of language performance in individuals with ASD. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Eratosthenes came close to a precise estimate of the circumference of the earth around the year 240 BC. His accomplishment depended on a verifiable tenet among his contemporaries: the earth was a sphere. At Syrene, the sun cast no shadow at the summer solstice. On that day, Eratosthenes measured the angle of the sun's shadow in Alexandria over 700 kilometers to north, at 712′ or 1/50th of the circumference of a perfect sphere. Read the full article at doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12461 © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Source


Steiner A.M.,Yale Child Study Center
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions | Year: 2011

Despite the ubiquitous nature of parent education in autism treatment, relatively few studies directly address how parent education should be conducted. Given that the literature on parental well-being suggests that treatments that facilitate positive parental adaptation to their child's disability may be beneficial, this study examined the impact of a strength-based approach to parent education. An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of therapist statements that highlighted the child's deficits versus those that emphasized strengths. These two approaches were evaluated on the following measures: parent affect, parent statements regarding child behavior, and the quality of parent-child interactions. Results indicate that parents displayed improved affect, made more positive statements about their child, and also exhibited more physical affection toward their child during the strength-based approach. Findings have implications for autism programming, parental coping, and parent-child relationships. © 2011 Hammill Institute on Disabilities. Source


Stover C.S.,Yale Child Study Center
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law | Year: 2013

Factors that predict custody and visitation decisions are an important area of research, especially in the context of high-conflict divorce. In these cases, youths are at significantly higher risk for exposure to ongoing conflict, violence, and triangulation in their parents' disputes. What variables courts and evaluation clinics use to make custody decisions and whether they are the most salient requires further study. The work by Raub and colleagues in this issue extends our understanding of important factors considered by the courts and custody evaluators in high-conflict divorce and points to directions for future research in this area. Source

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