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Sanders M.J.,Quinnipiac University | Reynolds J.,Yale Center for Analytical science | Bagatell N.,Quinnipiac University | Treu J.A.,Yale Griffin Prevention Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2015

Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of a multidisciplinary train-the-trainer model for improving fitness and food label literacy in third-grade students. Design: University student trainers taught ABC for Fitness and Nutrition Detectives, established programs to promote physical activity and nutrition knowledge, to 239 third-grade students in 2 communities over a 6-month period. A total of 110 children were in the intervention group and 129 children in the control group (2 schools each). Outcomes included the Food Label Literacy and Nutrition Knowledge test and the fitness measures of curl-ups, push-ups, 0.5-mile run, and sit and reach. Focus groups were conducted as process feedback. Setting: Four public schools in 2 different communities. Participants: A total of 200 third-grade students. Intervention: ABC for Fitness and Nutrition Detectives. Main Outcome Measures: Food Label Literacy and Nutrition Knowledge test and the fitness measures of curl-ups, push-ups, 0.5-mile run, and sit and reach. Results: Nutrition knowledge increased in the intervention group by 25.2% (P <.01). Fitness measures in the intervention schools showed greater improvement than those in the controls for curl-ups (P <.01), push-ups (P <.01), sit and reach left (P =.07), and 0.5-mile run (P =.06). Process feedback from 3 teachers and 60 students indicated satisfaction with the program. Conclusion: Adaptation of the train-the-trainer approach for Nutrition Detectives and ABC for Fitness was effective for delivering these health-related programs. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Belfer I.,University of Pittsburgh | Segall S.K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Lariviere W.R.,University of Pittsburgh | Smith S.B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 10 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2013

The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamine neurotransmitters involved in a number of physiological functions, including pain perception. Both human and mouse COMT genes possess functional polymorphisms contributing to interindividual variability in pain phenotypes such as sensitivity to noxious stimuli, severity of clinical pain, and response to pain treatment. In this study, we found that the effects of Comt functional variation in mice are modality specific. Spontaneous inflammatory nociception and thermal nociception behaviors were correlated the most with the presence of the B2 SINE transposon insertion residing in the 3′UTR mRNA region. Similarly, in humans, COMT functional haplotypes were associated with thermal pain perception and with capsaicin-induced pain. Furthermore, COMT genetic variations contributed to pain behaviors in mice and pain ratings in humans in a sex-specific manner. The ancestral Comt variant, without a B2 SINE insertion, was more strongly associated with sensitivity to capsaicin in female vs male mice. In humans, the haplotype coding for low COMT activity increased capsaicin-induced pain perception in women, but not men. These findings reemphasize the fundamental contribution of COMT to pain processes, and provide a fine-grained resolution of this contribution at the genetic level that can be used to guide future studies in the area of pain genetics. © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Alexander V.N.,Yale University | Northrup V.,Yale Center for Analytical science | Bizzarro M.J.,Yale University
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine whether duration of antibiotic exposure is an independent risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Study design: A retrospective, 2:1 control-case analysis was conducted comparing neonates with NEC to those without from 2000 through 2008. Control subjects were matched on gestational age, birth weight, and birth year. In each matched triad, demographic and risk factor data were collected from birth until the diagnosis of NEC in the case subject. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess associations between risk factors and NEC. Results: One hundred twenty-four cases of NEC were matched with 248 control subjects. Cases were less likely to have respiratory distress syndrome (P =.018) and more likely to reach full enteral feeding (P =.028) than control subjects. Cases were more likely to have culture-proven sepsis (P <.0001). Given the association between sepsis and antibiotic use, we tested for and found a significant interaction between the two variables (P =.001). When neonates with sepsis were removed from the cohort, the risk of NEC increased significantly with duration of antibiotic exposure. Exposure for >10 days resulted in a nearly threefold increase in the risk of developing NEC. Conclusions: Duration of antibiotic exposure is associated with an increased risk of NEC among neonates without prior sepsis. © 2011 Mosby Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Ho C.,Yale University | Yao X.,Yale University | Yao X.,Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center | Tian L.,Yale University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the amount of hemophagocytosis in 64 marrow core biopsy specimens and aspirates from 58 patients with clinical suspicion for secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or reported findings of hemophagocytosis. Methods: A review of medical records assigned patients to a low-risk (45 patients) or high-risk (13 patients) HLH group, and association with histologic findings was examined using the Fisher exact test. Results: The amount of hemophagocytosis in aspirate or the core biopsy specimen did not correlate with disease probability (P = .17 and P = .63, respectively). Of the clinical/laboratory criteria assessed, the most significant correlations with HLH were highly elevated ferritin (P = .01), cytopenias (P = .02), and fever (P = .009). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that marrow histologic findings alone do not reliably predict the probability of HLH, and an isolated finding of hemophagocytosis, even when present in a high amount, lacks specificity for HLH. © American Society for Clinical Pathology. Source


Johnson K.M.,Yale University | Johnson B.K.,Yale Center for Analytical science
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to present a visual conceptual framework for important statistical concepts in radiology, and to provide an online application to facilitate this visualization. CONCLUSION. Statistical measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values are ubiquitous in medical literature, yet thinking fluidly about these concepts is not always easy. The 2 x 2 diagram is a helpful guide. © American Roentgen Ray Society. Source

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