Uno Y.,Mitsubishi Group |
Morita T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences |
Luijten M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM |
Beevers C.,Covance |
And 4 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2015
At the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), the liver micronucleus test working group discussed practical aspects of the in vivo rodent liver micronucleus test (LMNT). The group members focused on the three methodologies currently used, i.e., a partial hepatectomy (PH) method, a juvenile/young rat (JR) method, and a repeated-dose (RD) method in adult rodents. Since the liver is the main organ that metabolizes chemicals, the LMNT is expected to detect clastogens, especially those that need metabolic activation in the liver, and aneugens. Based on current data the three methods seem to have a high sensitivity and specificity, but more data, especially on non-genotoxic but toxic substances, would be needed to fully evaluate the test performance. The three methods can be combined with the micronucleus test (MNT) using bone marrow (BM) and/or peripheral blood (PB). The ability of the PH method to detect both clastogens and aneugens has already been established, but the methodology is technically challenging. The JR method is relatively straightforward, but animal metabolism might not be fully comparable to adult animals, and data on aneugens are limited. These two methods also have the advantage of a short testing period. The RD method is also straightforward and can be integrated into repeated-dose (e.g. 2 or 4 weeks) toxicity studies, but again data on aneugens are limited. The working group concluded that the LMNT could be used as a second in vivo test when a relevant positive result in in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity tests is noted (especially under the condition of metabolic activation), and a negative result is observed in the in vivo BM/PB-MNT. The group members discussed LMNT protocols and reached consensus about many aspects of test procedures. However, data gaps as mentioned above remain, and further data are needed to fully establish the LMNT protocol. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Takasawa H.,Mitsubishi Group |
Takashima R.,Mitsubishi Group |
Hattori A.,Mitsubishi Group |
Narumi K.,Mitsubishi Group |
And 5 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2013
Detecting genotoxicity in the liver is considered an effective approach for predicting hepatocarcinogenicity, as many genotoxic chemicals in vivo may act as hepatocarcinogens in rodents. Here, a genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH), and a genotoxic (Ames positive) noncarcinogen, 2,6-diaminotolunene (2,6-DAT), were administered orally to rats for up to 28 days, and liver samples were then examined in a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (MN) assay, and additionally tested in the bone marrow (BM) MN assay concurrently. We recently established a simple method to isolate hepatocytes without in situ liver perfusion procedures, and applied this method in the liver MN assay. As a result, 1,2-DMH increased the proportion of micronucleated hepatocytes in both a dose- and duration-dependent manner at relatively low-dose levels that are routinely used in repeated-dose toxicity studies. In contrast to 1,2-DMH, 2,6-DAT did not have a detectable effect. In addition to these two chemicals, two genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogens, diethylnitrosamine and 2,4-diaminotoluene, which gave positive responses in the liver MN assay in our previous investigation [Narumi et al., Mutat. Res. 747 (2012) 234-239], were subjected to the BM MN assay and histopathological evaluation. All four test chemicals gave negative responses in the BM MN assay. Furthermore, the three hepatocarcinogens displayed hepatotoxicity, including hepatocellular hypertrophy and anisokaryosis, but no abnormal findings were observed in the liver of rats treated with 2,6-DAT. Taken together, the present results indicate that the liver MN assay is effective for predicting hepatocarcinogenicity and may be integrated into repeated-dose toxicity studies without disturbing routine examinations, such as histopathology. Furthermore, with repeat-dose treatment protocols, our findings indicate that the liver MN assay is superior to the BM MN assay for detecting genotoxic or carcinogenic chemicals in rats. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..
Kato-Kataoka A.,Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research |
Sakai M.,Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research |
Ebina R.,Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research |
Nonaka C.,Yakult Honsha Co. |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2010
Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine (Soy-PS) is a phosphatidylserine made from soybean lecithin by enzymatic reaction with L-serine. A double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted to investigate the effects of Soy-PS on the cognitive functions of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. Seventy-eight elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (50-69 years old) were randomly allocated to take Soy-PS (100 mg, 300 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months. As a result, there was no difference in blood markers and vital signs during Soy-PS treatment and any side effect caused by Soy-PS treatment was not observed. Neuropsychological test scores were similarly increased in all groups including placebo group. However, in the subjects with relatively low score at baseline, the memory scores in PS treated groups were significantly increased against the baseline, while those of placebo group remained unchanged. And the memory improvements in Soy-PS-treated groups were mostly attributed to the increase in delayed verbal recall, a memory ability attenuated in the earliest stage of dementia. In conclusion, Soy-PS used in this study is considered as safety food ingredient and 6 months of Soy-PS supplementation could improve the memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints.
Harada K.,Yakult Honsha Co.
Bunseki Kagaku | Year: 2016
Food was originally for human beings to obtain nutrition necessary for life activity. However, with westernization of the dietary habits and changes of the lifestyle, food becomes an onset factor of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes, recently. For prevention of the lifestyle-related diseases, it is necessary to improve the eating habits, furthermore, the prevention is possible by the intake of “functional foods”. Thus, “functional foods” have been energetically developing with the view to prevent life-style diseases by the use of potential functions (“tertiary functions”) that foods fundamentally possess. In developing “functional foods”, scientific evidences in functionality, safety and quality are required, and analytical chemistry is in heavily used. For example, to identify any claimed health benefit, separation-purification and high sensitivity detection technology can identify a function ingredient from the food that very many components are mixed, thus, these techniques make contribution for the determination of effective amount. In this review, I would like to explain about the FOSHU (food for specified health use) system, and to introduce functional evaluation of the purple sweet potato anthocyanin, as an example of the current situation about analysis of functional components in a beverage. © 2016 The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.
Tsuji H.,Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research |
Oozeer R.,Danone Research Center for Specialised Nutrition |
Matsuda K.,Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research |
Matsuki T.,Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research |
And 7 more authors.
Beneficial Microbes | Year: 2012
The faecal microbiota of 166 healthy Japanese newborns was analysed periodically from day 1 after birth until the age of 3 years by using the reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Faecal pH and the organic acid concentration were also examined. Colonisation by both facultative anaerobes and strict anaerobes was confirmed in 95% of the meconium tested. Bifidobacterium-predominant microbiota was established subsequently in most of the infants by 3 months after birth. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium catenulatum group and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the species mainly detected. Intergroup correlation analysis revealed that the bifidobacterial population levels, but not other strict anaerobe groups, were found to be negatively correlated with those of the Enterobacteriaceae from 7 days until 3 months after birth. Faecal pH was maintained at about 6 until 6 months after birth and reached 6.6 at 3 years after birth. The initial concentration of faecal organic acids (19 μM/g of faeces) just after birth increased until 3 years after birth to the level of 111 μM/g of faeces. Early start of feeding formula milk promoted colonisation by obligate anaerobes such as the Clostridium coccoides group, the Clostridium leptum subgroup, Prevotella, and Atopobium cluster during the 3 months after birth. Population levels of the bifidobacteria until 1 month after birth and those of the Bacteroides fragilis group until 6 months after birth were lower in infants delivered by Caesarean section than in those delivered normally. The results suggested that both earlier start of feeding of formula milk and the mode of infant delivery were found to be important in the development of intestinal microbiota in early infancy. © 2012 Wageningen Academic Publishers.