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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Fuke Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Hishinuma M.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Namikawa M.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Oishi Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Matsuzaki T.,Yakult Central Institute
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2014

6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a popular spice in Japan. 6-MSITC has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. We inoculated 30 female Balb-nu/nu mice with MDA-MB-231 or-453 cells, and orally administered varying concentrations of 6-MSITC for 12 days following tumor growth. The tumor volumes and tumor weights from mice inoculated with MDA-MB-231 cells, and the tumor volumes of MDA-MB-453 cells were significantly inhibited by 6-MSITC on Days 9 and 11 after drug administration. DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder, and caspase 3/7 activity performed in vitro revealed that 6-MSITC induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, nuclear factor-B (NF-B) expression in the nuclei and phosphorylation of inhibitor B (IB) was downregulated by 6-MSITC in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this activity was not observed in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, this downregulation of phosphorylated IB by 6-MSITC in MDA-MB-231 and-453 cells supports its inhibitory effects on NF-B activity. The expression of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) reduced by 6-MSITC was confirmed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, we conclude that 6-MITC promotes apoptosis of breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kB and therefore releasing its control of the PI3K/AKT pathway. © 2014 Copyright © 2014, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Umesaki Y.,Yakult Central Institute
Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Symbiosis between intestinal microbiota and the host animal plays an important role in the homeostasis of host physiology. Since the first production of germ-free rodents in 1945, it has become increasingly clear that the intestinal immune system and the biochemical characteristics of epithelial cells differ greatly between conventional and germ-free rodents. However, questions remain about the types of microbes involved and the precise mechanism by which these microbes affect the host physiology. Here, we review experiments designed to answer these questions with the use of gnotobiotic mice. We have determined suitable biochemical and immunological markers for monitoring microbial effects in these mice. Using these markers, we have found clear differences in epithelial cell glycolipid biosynthesis and intraepithelial lymphocyte dynamics between germ-free and conventional mice. Furthermore, we have identified a key microbe that activates the mucosal immune system in the small intestine. This indigenous bacteria, called segmented filamentous bacteria, is a key symbiont in the host-microbiota interplay, including Th17 cell-inducing activity. © 2014 The Japan Academy. Source

Teng F.,University of Arizona | Klinger C.N.,University of Arizona | Felix K.M.,University of Arizona | Bradley C.P.,University of Arizona | And 4 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2016

Gut microbiota profoundly affect gut and systemic diseases, but the mechanism whereby microbiota affect systemic diseases is unclear. It is not known whether specific microbiota regulate T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, whose excessive responses can inflict antibody-mediated autoimmunity. Using the K/BxN autoimmune arthritis model, we demonstrated that Peyer's patch (PP) Tfh cells were essential for gut commensal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB)-induced systemic arthritis despite the production of auto-antibodies predominantly occurring in systemic lymphoid tissues, not PPs. We determined that SFB, by driving differentiation and egress of PP Tfh cells into systemic sites, boosted systemic Tfh cell and auto-antibody responses that exacerbated arthritis. SFB induced PP Tfh cell differentiation by limiting the access of interleukin 2 to CD4+ T cells, thereby enhancing Tfh cell master regulator Bcl-6 in a dendritic cell-dependent manner. These findings showed that gut microbiota remotely regulated a systemic disease by driving the induction and egress of gut Tfh cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Michelini S.,University of Bologna | Modesto M.,University of Bologna | Oki K.,Yakult Central Institute | Stenico V.,University of Bologna | And 5 more authors.
Anaerobe | Year: 2015

Ninety-two bifidobacterial strains were obtained from the faeces of 5 baby common marmosets, three known species Bifidobacterium aesculapii, Bifidobacterium callithricos and Bifidobacterium reuteri and 4 novel putative bifidobacterial species were retrieved. The occurrence of bifidobacteria in non-human primate babies is described for the first time. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Goto Y.,Institute of Medical science | Goto Y.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Goto Y.,RIKEN | Obata T.,Institute of Medical science | And 28 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation. Source

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