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Wapato, WA, United States

Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2013

The influence of media type and moisture on adult development and pupal mortality in western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae), was assessed using the pupal-adult and the larval-pupal stage. Inside containers, a higher percent of flies that emerged from dry loam was deformed (44.2%, 1-cm-depth loam; 84.4%, 5-cm-depth loam) than flies from 16% moist loam and dry and 16% moist lab soil (peat moss-sand mix) (0-14.9%). Percent of flies deformed from dry sand (22.1%, 1-cm depth; 49.5%, 5-cm depth) was greater than from 16% moist sand and dry and 16% moist peat moss (0-10.5%). Percents of flies deformed from 8% moist loam, lab soil, sand, and peat moss (0-5.8%) did not differ. Pupae suffered higher mortality at 7 and 14 d after larvae were dropped onto dry loam and dry sand (68.2-94.0%) than dry lab soil and dry peat moss (3.0-53.0%); respective mortalities at 21 and 28 d were similar (81.3-96.0 versus 64.7-97.9%). Pupal mortality in moist media was lower (0.5-40.3%) than in dry media. In outdoor tests, pupal mortality was also higher in dry loam than other dry media. In nature, 60.9% of pupae in dry sandy loams in late summer were dead. Results suggest R. indifferens has not yet evolved to fully cope with dry soils and that pupation in media with traits similar to those of peat moss or a peat moss-sand mix could reduce negative effects of dry environments on fly survival. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

Sticky red spheres can be used to capture western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), but red spheres have not been definitively shown to be more attractive than yellow traps. The objective of this study was to compare fly captures on ammonia-baited red spheres and yellow spheres and panels so that sensitive detection traps for fly management can be identified. Nontarget insects could interfere with fly captures, so weights of nontarget insects on traps were also determined. Yellow spheres and panels generally caught more flies than red spheres. More males than females were caught on nearly all red and yellow traps. Saffron Thread, Marigold, Sunny Summer, and Yam Yellow spheres and panels were bright yellow and generally caught more flies, especially females, than Cherry Cobbler Red or Tartar Red spheres. Twenty Carat Yellow and Glorious Gold spheres and panels were less bright and caught fewer flies than bright yellow traps and similar numbers of flies as Tartar Red spheres, respectively. Dry weights of nontarget insects on at least one yellow trap type were greater than on red spheres in only 4 of 10 tests. Results show that bright yellow spheres and panels capture more R. indifferens than red spheres and do not consistently capture greater amounts of nontarget insects than red spheres, suggesting that they should be used instead of red spheres for detecting this fly. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2015

Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). However, no data on the effectiveness of commercial sticky yellow plastic traps against R. indifferens have been reported. In tests conducted in sweet cherry trees [Prunus avium (L.) L.] in Washington state (USA) using ammonium carbonate as the chemical lure, commercial plastic 'Yellow Sticky Strips' made of translucent high-impact polystyrene captured ~two or three times more flies than commercial sticky yellow-folded Pherocon® AM and Alpha Scents boards. Yellow Sticky Strips also minimized captures of non-target flies and bees per surface area compared with Pherocon®AM and/or Alpha Scents boards. Trap size and adhesive type were not factors for greater catches of R. indifferens. However, more flies were caught on the shade-facing side of Yellow Sticky Strips, which was brightly illuminated, than on the shade-facing side of boards, which was darker, suggesting differential light passage was a factor. The Yellow Sticky Strips could be very useful for monitoring R. indifferens in detection programmes and based on the results of this study can replace yellow boards. They are also useful because they are relatively unattractive to non-target insects. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH1394 May 2015.


Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory | Klaus M.W.,21 North 1st Ave.
Pan-Pacific Entomologist | Year: 2013

Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkhausen (Rosaceae), in Washington State, U.S.A Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (Linnaeus) Linnaeus (Rosaceae), but fecundity and longevity of flies from the two hosts did not differ Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare larval development in crabapples and cherries 'Snowdrift' crabapples (Malus × 'Snowdrift') did not produce pupae Percentages of 'Indian Magic'(Malus 'Indian Magic') + 'Radiant' crabapple (Malus 'Radiant') vs sweet cherry replicates that produced pupae did not differ in two no-choice experiments (36.7 vs 41.7% and 13.3 vs 33.5%, respectively) In a choice experiment, the percentage of crabapple replicates that produced pupae (6.7%) was lower than that of cherry replicates (42.2%) Egg to pupal development times in crabapples (18.0-21.2 d) were longer than in cherries (15.4-16.7 d) and pupae from the crabapples were smaller Results suggest crabapples are not optimal developmental hosts for R indifferens but that Chinese and 'Indian Magic' + 'Radiant' crabapples can occasionally allow late-season flies to bridge the gap between one generation and the next when no cherries are available.


Johnson S.A.,Stellenbosch University | Neven L.G.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Controlled atmosphere/temperature treatment system (CATTS) is an environmentally friendly postharvest mitigation treatment that uses high temperature forced-air combined with a low oxygen and high carbon dioxide atmosphere to control quarantine pests. The development of CATTS treatments is expensive and time-consuming. For a more rapid assessment of different species and life stages' tolerances to heated controlled atmospheres, the controlled atmosphere water bath (CAWB) system can be used to help advance the development of CATTS treatments for pests. The CAWB system was used to test the response of eggs and larval stages of Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Eggs and larvae at different developmental stages were treated under regular air and a modified controlled atmosphere of 1% O2 and 15% CO2, at two ramping heat rates: 12 and 24°C/h. Typically the faster heat rate and modified atmosphere reduced treatment times required to control the different life stages. T. leucotreta larvae were more tolerant of the treatments than eggs. The most tolerant life stage was the fourth instar. Effective treatments against the most tolerant life stage determined by the CAWB system can now be used to develop CATTS technology against T. leucotreta. Further research will focus on developing CATTS treatments using infested fruit to determine effective treatments that maintain fruit quality. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

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