Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory

Wapato, WA, United States

Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory

Wapato, WA, United States

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Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2013

The influence of media type and moisture on adult development and pupal mortality in western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae), was assessed using the pupal-adult and the larval-pupal stage. Inside containers, a higher percent of flies that emerged from dry loam was deformed (44.2%, 1-cm-depth loam; 84.4%, 5-cm-depth loam) than flies from 16% moist loam and dry and 16% moist lab soil (peat moss-sand mix) (0-14.9%). Percent of flies deformed from dry sand (22.1%, 1-cm depth; 49.5%, 5-cm depth) was greater than from 16% moist sand and dry and 16% moist peat moss (0-10.5%). Percents of flies deformed from 8% moist loam, lab soil, sand, and peat moss (0-5.8%) did not differ. Pupae suffered higher mortality at 7 and 14 d after larvae were dropped onto dry loam and dry sand (68.2-94.0%) than dry lab soil and dry peat moss (3.0-53.0%); respective mortalities at 21 and 28 d were similar (81.3-96.0 versus 64.7-97.9%). Pupal mortality in moist media was lower (0.5-40.3%) than in dry media. In outdoor tests, pupal mortality was also higher in dry loam than other dry media. In nature, 60.9% of pupae in dry sandy loams in late summer were dead. Results suggest R. indifferens has not yet evolved to fully cope with dry soils and that pupation in media with traits similar to those of peat moss or a peat moss-sand mix could reduce negative effects of dry environments on fly survival. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory | Goughnour R.B.,Washington State University
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2011

Four commercial sticky fluorescent yellow rectangle traps differing in shades of yellow, fluorescence, and other features were compared for capturing apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). Traps were the Alpha Scents Yellow Card (Alpha Scents), Pherocon® AM (Pherocon), Multigard® AM (Multigard), and the Stiky™ Strips Insect Trap (Olson, small and large sizes), all baited with the same ammonium bicarbonate lure. L *, a *, and b * color space values indicated that the Alpha Scents trap was whiter (higher L *) and greener (lower a *) than the other traps, less yellow than the Pherocon trap, and more yellow (higher b *) than Multigard and Olson traps. The Pherocon trap had the highest relative fluorescence and was the brightest trap, followed in order by Multigard, Olson, and Alpha Scents traps. Various modified forms of the Alpha Scents trap captured significantly (1.56.4 times) more R. pomonella in choice tests than the Pherocon trap. The Alpha Scents trap captured 1.33.6 times more R. pomonella in paired choice tests than Pherocon, Multigard, and small and large Olson traps, and the Pherocon trap caught 1.4 times more R. pomonella than the Multigard trap (the Olson traps were not compared with these two traps). A combination of color and fluorescence features in the Alpha Scents trap could have contributed to its superior performance. These results suggest the Alpha Scents trap could be an alternative to the other traps tested for monitoring R. pomonella.


Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

Sticky red spheres can be used to capture western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), but red spheres have not been definitively shown to be more attractive than yellow traps. The objective of this study was to compare fly captures on ammonia-baited red spheres and yellow spheres and panels so that sensitive detection traps for fly management can be identified. Nontarget insects could interfere with fly captures, so weights of nontarget insects on traps were also determined. Yellow spheres and panels generally caught more flies than red spheres. More males than females were caught on nearly all red and yellow traps. Saffron Thread, Marigold, Sunny Summer, and Yam Yellow spheres and panels were bright yellow and generally caught more flies, especially females, than Cherry Cobbler Red or Tartar Red spheres. Twenty Carat Yellow and Glorious Gold spheres and panels were less bright and caught fewer flies than bright yellow traps and similar numbers of flies as Tartar Red spheres, respectively. Dry weights of nontarget insects on at least one yellow trap type were greater than on red spheres in only 4 of 10 tests. Results show that bright yellow spheres and panels capture more R. indifferens than red spheres and do not consistently capture greater amounts of nontarget insects than red spheres, suggesting that they should be used instead of red spheres for detecting this fly. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2015

Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). However, no data on the effectiveness of commercial sticky yellow plastic traps against R. indifferens have been reported. In tests conducted in sweet cherry trees [Prunus avium (L.) L.] in Washington state (USA) using ammonium carbonate as the chemical lure, commercial plastic 'Yellow Sticky Strips' made of translucent high-impact polystyrene captured ~two or three times more flies than commercial sticky yellow-folded Pherocon® AM and Alpha Scents boards. Yellow Sticky Strips also minimized captures of non-target flies and bees per surface area compared with Pherocon®AM and/or Alpha Scents boards. Trap size and adhesive type were not factors for greater catches of R. indifferens. However, more flies were caught on the shade-facing side of Yellow Sticky Strips, which was brightly illuminated, than on the shade-facing side of boards, which was darker, suggesting differential light passage was a factor. The Yellow Sticky Strips could be very useful for monitoring R. indifferens in detection programmes and based on the results of this study can replace yellow boards. They are also useful because they are relatively unattractive to non-target insects. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH1394 May 2015.


Davis T.S.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory | Davis T.S.,University of Idaho | Landolt P.J.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2013

We report here a first survey of insect orientation to fungal cultures and fungal volatiles from a community ecology perspective. We tested whether volatiles from a ubiquitous yeast-like fungus (Aureobasidium pullulans) are broadly attractive to insects in an agricultural landscape. We evaluated insect attraction to fungal cultures and synthetic compounds identified in fungal headspace (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol) in a spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantation. Three findings emerged: (1) 1,315 insects representing seven orders and 39 species oriented to traps, but 65 % of trapped insects were Dipterans, of which 80 % were hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae); (2) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 481 % more insects than unbaited control traps on average, and contained more diverse (Shannon's H index) and species rich assemblages than control traps, traps baited with Penicillium expansum, or uninoculated media; and (3) insects oriented in greatest abundance to a 1:1:1 blend of A. pullulans volatiles, but mean diversity scores were highest for traps baited with only 2-phenylethanol or 2-methyl-1-butanol. Our results show that individual components of fungal headspace are not equivalent in terms of the abundance and diversity of insects that orient to them. The low abundance of insects captured with P. expansum suggests that insect assemblages do not haphazardly orient to fungal volatiles. We conclude that volatiles from a common fungal species (A. pullulans) are attractive to a variety of insect taxa in an agricultural system, and that insect orientation to fungal volatiles may be a common ecological phenomenon. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA).


Yee W.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory | Klaus M.W.,21 North 1st Ave.
Pan-Pacific Entomologist | Year: 2013

Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkhausen (Rosaceae), in Washington State, U.S.A Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (Linnaeus) Linnaeus (Rosaceae), but fecundity and longevity of flies from the two hosts did not differ Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare larval development in crabapples and cherries 'Snowdrift' crabapples (Malus × 'Snowdrift') did not produce pupae Percentages of 'Indian Magic'(Malus 'Indian Magic') + 'Radiant' crabapple (Malus 'Radiant') vs sweet cherry replicates that produced pupae did not differ in two no-choice experiments (36.7 vs 41.7% and 13.3 vs 33.5%, respectively) In a choice experiment, the percentage of crabapple replicates that produced pupae (6.7%) was lower than that of cherry replicates (42.2%) Egg to pupal development times in crabapples (18.0-21.2 d) were longer than in cherries (15.4-16.7 d) and pupae from the crabapples were smaller Results suggest crabapples are not optimal developmental hosts for R indifferens but that Chinese and 'Indian Magic' + 'Radiant' crabapples can occasionally allow late-season flies to bridge the gap between one generation and the next when no cherries are available.


Buchman J.L.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory | Buchman J.L.,Washington State University | Sengoda V.G.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory | Munyaneza J.E.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

Successful transmission of plant pathogens by insects depends on the vector inoculation efficiency and how rapidly the insect can effectively transmit the pathogen to the host plant. The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (ulc), has recently been found to transmit "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," a bacterium associated with zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and economically important disease of potato in several parts of the world. Currently, little is known about the epidemiology of ZC and its vector's inoculation capabilities. Studies were conducted in the field and laboratory to 1) assess transmission efficiency of potato psyllid nymphs and adults; 2) determine whether psyllid inoculation access period affects ZC incidence, severity, and potato yield; and 3) determine how fast the psyllid can transmit liberibacter to potato, leading to ZC development. Results showed that adult potato psyllids were highly efficient vectors of liberibacter that causes ZC and that nymphs were less efficient than adults at transmitting this bacterium. It was also determined that inoculation access period had little influence on overall ZC disease incidence, severity, and resulting yield loss. Moreover, results showed that exposure of a plant to 20 adult potato psyllids for a period as short as 1 h resulted in ZC symptom development. Furthermore, it was shown that a single adult potato psyllid was capable of inoculating liberibacter to potato within a period as short as 6 h, thereby inducing development of ZC. This information will help in developing effective management strategies for this serious potato disease. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


Johnson S.A.,Stellenbosch University | Neven L.G.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

Nonchemical, environmentally friendly quarantine treatments are preferred for use in postharvest control of insect pests. Combined high temperature and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for phytosanitary fruit pests Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Schöenherr) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were investigated to determine the potential of such treatments for quarantine security. Field-collected, aestivating M. diplopterus adults and P. callosus adults were treated using a controlled atmosphere waterbath system. This system simulates the controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system (CATTS) used to control a number of phytosanitary pests in the United States and allows for a rapid assessment of pest response to treatment. Insects were treated under regular air conditions and a controlled atmosphere of 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide in nitrogen, at two ramping heat rates, 12 and 24°C/h. Treatment of both species was more effective under both heating rates when the controlled atmosphere condition was applied. Under these conditions of controlled atmospheres, mortality of P. callosus was greater when the faster heating rate was used, but the opposite was true for M. diplopterus. This could be due to the physiological condition of aestivation contributing to metabolic arrest in response to the stresses being applied during treatment. Results indicate that the potential for the development of CATTS treatments for these phytosanitary pests, particularly P. callosus, is promising. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


Munyaneza J.E.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2012

Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), has been documented to occur in commercial potato fields in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. This disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole crops might be rejected because of ZC, often leading to abandonment of entire fields. Plant growth and yield are severely affected by the disease. Additionally, chips or fries processed from ZC-infected tubers exhibit dark stripes that become markedly more visible with frying, and hence are commercially unacceptable. The disease causes serious losses to the fresh market, tablestock and export potato industry as well. ZC-infected tubers usually do not sprout and if they do, produce hair sprouts or weak plants. Finally, there are indications that ZC symptoms might develop in tubers during storage. ZC has been associated with a previously undescribed species of liberibacter, tentatively named "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum", also known as "Ca. L. psyllaurous". The bacterium is transmitted to potato by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc). All commercial potato cultivars appear to be susceptible to ZC, and management tactics targeted against the potato psyllid are currently the only means to effectively manage the disease. Furthermore, there are concerns about quarantine and trade issues in psyllid-affected regions because some countries may require that shipments of potatoes from certain growing regions be tested for the disease before the shipments are allowed entry. ZC history, geographic distribution, biology, epidemiology, and management are discussed herein. © 2012 Potato Association of America.


Johnson S.A.,Stellenbosch University | Neven L.G.,Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Controlled atmosphere/temperature treatment system (CATTS) is an environmentally friendly postharvest mitigation treatment that uses high temperature forced-air combined with a low oxygen and high carbon dioxide atmosphere to control quarantine pests. The development of CATTS treatments is expensive and time-consuming. For a more rapid assessment of different species and life stages' tolerances to heated controlled atmospheres, the controlled atmosphere water bath (CAWB) system can be used to help advance the development of CATTS treatments for pests. The CAWB system was used to test the response of eggs and larval stages of Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Eggs and larvae at different developmental stages were treated under regular air and a modified controlled atmosphere of 1% O2 and 15% CO2, at two ramping heat rates: 12 and 24°C/h. Typically the faster heat rate and modified atmosphere reduced treatment times required to control the different life stages. T. leucotreta larvae were more tolerant of the treatments than eggs. The most tolerant life stage was the fourth instar. Effective treatments against the most tolerant life stage determined by the CAWB system can now be used to develop CATTS technology against T. leucotreta. Further research will focus on developing CATTS treatments using infested fruit to determine effective treatments that maintain fruit quality. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

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