Yakama Nation Fisheries

Toppenish, WA, United States

Yakama Nation Fisheries

Toppenish, WA, United States
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Reintroducing fish to previously occupied habitats appears promising for recovery of extirpated fish populations in cold water systems. Uncertainty still exists surrounding the ecological effects of reintroductions however, particularly when they involve historically sympatric taxa. We initiated a study to estimate any potential impacts to rainbow/steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that may arise from reintroducing coho salmon (O. kisutch) in Taneum Creek, Washington, following their extirpation approximately 100 years ago. Prior to reintroducing coho salmon into Taneum Creek, we conducted a formal risk assessment to predict potential impacts to rainbow trout that might result from restoring coho salmon natural production in this stream. Following the assessment, adult coho salmon were released to spawn naturally in experimental reaches in Taneum Creek during a five year period, 2008-2012. Rainbow trout abundance, average size, condition, and growth were not reduced in our experimental reaches relative to control locations following the reintroduction of coho salmon; a result predicted from our ecological risk assessment. Our findings validate the utility of the ecological risk assessment for predicting and reducing undesirable effects of reintroductions involving historically sympatric salmonids. © 2017 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

Paquet P.J.,Northwest Power and Conservation Council | Flagg T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Appleby A.,Hatchery Evaluation and Assessment Unit leader | Barr J.,Independent consultant | And 9 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2011

New hatchery management strategies in the Columbia River Basin focus on conservation of naturally spawning populations as an equal priority to providing fish for harvest -a difficult balance to achieve. The Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG) assessed 178 hatchery programs and 351 salmonid populations to determine how to achieve managers' goals for conservation and sustainable fisheries. Modeling determined the best strategy, using an approach based on best available science, goal identification, scientific defensibility, and adaptive management to refocus from an aquaculture paradigm to a renewable natural resource paradigm. We concluded that hatcheries and natural populations must be managed with the same biological principles. HSRG solutions improved the conservation status of many populations (25% for steelhead trout, more than 70% for Chinook and coho salmons) while also providing increased harvest. Natural-origin steelhead trout and coho salmon spawners increased by 6,000 to 10,000; Chinook salmon increased by more than 35,000 compared to current numbers. Hatchery juvenile production decreased slightly, and in most cases production shifted from populations of concern. Overall harvest potential increased from 717,000 to 818,000 fish by focusing on selective fishing and by relocating some in-river harvest closer to where the fish originate. With habitat improvements, often the number of natural-origin fish nearly doubled.

Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat. © 2016, American Fisheries Society.

Waters C.D.,University of Washington | Hard J.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Brieuc M.S.O.,University of Washington | Fast D.E.,Yakama Nation Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2015

Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hatch D.R.,Columbia River Inter Tribal Fish Commission | Fast D.E.,Yakama Nation Fisheries | Bosch W.J.,Yakama Nation Fisheries | Blodgett J.W.,Yakama Nation Fisheries | And 3 more authors.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2013

We evaluated the traits and survival to release of reconditioned kelt steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Yakima River (Washington State, USA). From 2001 to 2011, we captured a total of 9,738 downstream-migrating kelts at an irrigation diversion facility, an average about 27% of each annual wild steelhead return. Captured kelts were reared for 4.5-10 months in an artificial environment, treated for diseases and parasites, and fed both krill and pellets. Surviving reconditioned fish were released into the Yakima River during the peak of the upstream migration of prespawn steelhead. Reconditioned steelhead kelts were predominantly (>92%) female. Annual survival to release ranged from 20% to 62% and averaged 38% over the course of the study, the surviving reconditioned kelts showing increases in FL, weight, and Fulton's K condition factor compared with their preconditioning status. Kelts in good condition and those with bright coloration at the time of collection were more likely to survive than those of poorer status at collection. Postrelease timing of upstream migration by reconditioned kelts was spread over several months and correlated well with the run timing of prespawn migrants upstream. The empirical results we observed demonstrate the potential for kelt reconditioning to provide recovery benefits for repeat spawning imperiled wild populations in highly developed river systems. Received July 17, 2012; accepted March 15, 2013. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Trammell J.L.J.,Yakama Nation Fisheries | Fast D.E.,Yakama Nation Fisheries | Hatch D.R.,Columbia River Inter Tribal Fish Commission | Bosch W.J.,Yakama Nation Fisheries | And 5 more authors.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2016

Steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss are iteroparous, distinguishing them from Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. that are semelparous. In this study we evaluated enhancement techniques that exploit this life history strategy to facilitate species restoration and recovery. In the Columbia River basin, where the natural ecosystem has been substantially altered over several decades due to human influence, all steelhead populations are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. One factor believed to be limiting survival of Columbia River kelt (postspawned) steelhead is poor migration success to the ocean past several dams. We evaluated three treatments for kelts captured in the Yakima River basin from 2002 to 2011: (1) transport and release below Bonneville Dam (to provide unimpeded access to the ocean); (2) short-term reconditioning (holding and feeding in an artificial environment to facilitate gonad maturation) with transport; and (3) long-term reconditioning. These treatments were compared with an in-river migration control group to identify differences in the rate at which kelts survived and returned to Prosser Dam for potential repeat spawning (hereafter repeat spawners). The long-term reconditioning treatment exhibited the highest return rate of repeat spawners (range, 11.5–17.6%). The short-term reconditioning treatment with transport downstream from Bonneville Dam had a 3.2% return rate. The transport only treatment exhibited the lowest return rate (0.9%); this was only one-third of the control group’s return rate (2.7%). Our results indicate that long-term steelhead kelt reconditioning is more successful than either transportation or in-river migration alternatives at increasing potential repeat spawner abundance and providing recovery benefits in river systems that have experienced substantial losses in natural productivity due to loss of habitat and habitat connectivity. Received June 23, 2015; accepted February 27, 2016 Published online July 15, 2016 © American Fisheries Society 2016.

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