Brueggemann N.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Puehmeier T.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Fiekens R.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Richardt F.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Salvermoser M.,Xylem Services GmbH
Ozone: Science and Engineering | Year: 2017
The efficiency of ozone generators is determined by many factors. Operating conditions such as feed gas quality and especially cooling conditions are of utmost importance. Cooling of ozone generators is absolutely necessary, since ozone destruction reactions increase exponentially with temperature. The most common way to cool an ozone generator is water flowing in close contact to the electrodes. The heat removal out of the discharge gap depends on different parameters. Electrical input power, cooling water flow conditions, electrode geometry and material properties are some of them. Simultaneously lowering cooling water temperature, applied power density and gap width, leads to a lower gas temperature in the discharge gap and thus to increased ozone production efficiency. Minimizing the temperature difference between the cooling water inlet and outlet improves the ozone production efficiency as well. This measure however results in high cooling water flows and requires additional cooling water chilling, resulting in higher operational costs and capital expenses. Cooling associated costs rise disproportionally with increasing cooling water flow. Simultaneously energy consumption of ozone generators decreases as the average cooling water temperature goes down. As a result, there exists an optimum between the operational and capital expenses for the combination of ozone generator and cooling water system related expenses, offering significant cost savings for the customer. © 2017 Xylem Services GmbH
Cehovin M.,University of Ljubljana |
Cehovin M.,MAK CMC Water Technology Ltd. |
Medic A.,MAK CMC Water Technology Ltd. |
Scheideler J.,Xylem Services GmbH |
And 4 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2017
Natural organic matter in drinking water is causing concern especially due to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by chlorine, as these are proven to have adverse health effects on consumers. In this research, humic acid was used as a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in drinking water (up to 3 mg L−1). The efficiency of DOC removal was studied by applying O3, H2O2/O3, H2O2/UV and O3/UV advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) alone and combined with hybrid hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), generated by an orifice plate, as this technology recently shows promising potential for the treatment of water, containing recalcitrant organic substances. It was observed that the combined treatment by HC could significantly affect the performance of the applied AOPs, with as little as 3–9 passes through the cavitation generators. For O3 and H2O2 dosages up to 2 and 4 mg L−1, respectively, and UV dosage up to 300 mJ cm−2, HC enhanced DOC removal by 5–15% in all combinations, except for O3/UV AOPs. Overall, the potential benefits of HC for DOC removal were emphasized for low ratio between applied oxidants to DOC and high UV absorbance of the sample. Investigated DBPs formation potentials require special attention for H2O2/UV AOPs and combinations with HC. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Yu H.-W.,University of Arizona |
Anumol T.,University of Arizona |
Anumol T.,Agilent Technologies |
Park M.,University of Arizona |
And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2015
A combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds were measured to predict the removal efficiency of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) using low pressure (LP)-UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), engaged with online sensor-based monitoring system. Thirty-nine TOrCs were evaluated in two distinct secondary wastewater effluents in terms of estimated photochemical reactivity, as a function of the rate constants of UV direct photolysis (kUV) and hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation (kOH). The selected eighteen TOrCs were classified into three groups that served as indicator compounds: Group 1 for photo-susceptible TOrCs but with minor degradation by OH oxidation (diclofenac, fluoxetine, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, simazine and sulfamethoxazole); Group 2 for TOrCs susceptible to both direct photolysis and OH oxidation (benzotriazole, diphenhydramine, ibuprofen, naproxen and sucralose); and Group 3 for photo-resistant TOrCs showing dominant degradation by OH oxidation (atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, gemfibrozil, primidone and trimethoprim). The results indicate that TOC (optical-based measurement), UVA254 or UVT254 (UV absorbance or transmittance at 254 nm), and total fluorescence can all be used as suitable on-line organic surrogate parameters to predict the attenuation of TOrCs. Furthermore, the automated real-time monitoring via on-line surrogate sensors and equipped with the developed degradation profiles between sensor response and a group of TOrCs removal can provide a diagnostic tool for process control during advanced treatment of reclaimed waters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: NMP.2012.2.2-6 | Award Amount: 5.12M | Year: 2012
Limpid aims at generating new knowledge on photocatalytic materials and processes in order to develop novel depollution treatments with enhanced efficiency and applicability. The main goal of LIMPID is to develop materials and technologies based on the synergic combination of different types of nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymer host to generate innovative nanocomposites which can be actively applied to the catalytic degradation of pollutants and bacteria, both in air or in aqueous solution. Single component nanocomposites including TiO2 NPs are already known for their photocatalytic activities. LIMPID will aim at going one big step further and include, into one nanocomposite material, oxide NPs and metal NPs in order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency and allow the use of solar energy to activate the process. One of the main challenge of LIMPID is to design host polymers, such as hybrid organic inorganic and fluorinated polymers, since photocatalysts can destroy the organic materials. The incorporation of NPs in polymers will allow to make available the peculiar nano-object properties and to merge the distinct components into a new original class of catalysts. At the same time nanocomposite formulation will also prevent NPs to leach into water and air phase, thus strongly limiting the potential threat associated to dispersion of NPs into the environment. Therefore nanocomposites developed in LIMPID will be used as coating materials and products for the catalytic degradation of pollutants and bacteria in water and air, i.e. deposited onto re-usable micro-particles, or in pollutant degradation reactors, and even onto large surfaces, as a coating or paint. In addition such new class of nanocomposites will be also exploited for the fabrication of porous membranes for water treatment. In order to fulfill its objectives, the LIMPID consortium has been designed to combine leading industrial partners with research groups from Europe, ASEAN Countries and Canada.
PubMed | National University of Singapore, Xylem Services GmbH and University of Arizona
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2015
A combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds were measured to predict the removal efficiency of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) using low pressure (LP)-UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), engaged with online sensor-based monitoring system. Thirty-nine TOrCs were evaluated in two distinct secondary wastewater effluents in terms of estimated photochemical reactivity, as a function of the rate constants of UV direct photolysis (kUV) and hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation (kOH). The selected eighteen TOrCs were classified into three groups that served as indicator compounds: Group 1 for photo-susceptible TOrCs but with minor degradation by OH oxidation (diclofenac, fluoxetine, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, simazine and sulfamethoxazole); Group 2 for TOrCs susceptible to both direct photolysis and OH oxidation (benzotriazole, diphenhydramine, ibuprofen, naproxen and sucralose); and Group 3 for photo-resistant TOrCs showing dominant degradation by OH oxidation (atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, gemfibrozil, primidone and trimethoprim). The results indicate that TOC (optical-based measurement), UVA254 or UVT254 (UV absorbance or transmittance at 254nm), and total fluorescence can all be used as suitable on-line organic surrogate parameters to predict the attenuation of TOrCs. Furthermore, the automated real-time monitoring via on-line surrogate sensors and equipped with the developed degradation profiles between sensor response and a group of TOrCs removal can provide a diagnostic tool for process control during advanced treatment of reclaimed waters.
Scheideler J.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Lee K.-H.,Korea Institute of Water and Enviroment |
Raichle P.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Choi T.,Xylem Water Solutions Korea Co. |
Dong H.S.,Xylem Water Solutions Korea Co.
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2015
The Water Treatment Plant (WTP) located in South Korea is a 101,000 m³/d water treatment plant using floccula-tion/coagulation followed by sedimentation and sand filtration plus a final chlorination step to produce drinking water from a natural reservoir. The seasonal occurrence of taste and odor compounds were driving the need for an advanced treatment step. In 2010 the operator decided to carry out pilot tests to test the possibility of remov-ing this compound with a low or medium pressure ultraviolet-based advanced oxidation process (AOP). The pilot test showed a significant lower electrical energy demand (EED) for the low pressure system (EED ¼ 70 W/m³) compared to the medium pressure system (EED ¼ 144 W/m³) to achieve a 0.5 LOG reduction of 2-methylisobor-neol. The results of the pilot trials were the basis for the design of the full-scale system capable of treating up to 4,419 m³/h of drinking water using low pressure lamps. © IWA Publishing 2015.
Alexander J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
Knopp G.,TU Darmstadt |
Dotsch A.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
Wieland A.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Schwartz T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016
An ozone treatment system was investigated to analyze its impact on clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). A concentration of 0.9 ± 0.1 g ozone per 1 g DOC was used to treat conventional clarified wastewater. PCR, qPCR analyses, Illumina 16S Amplicon Sequencing, and PCR-DGGE revealed diverse patterns of resistances and susceptibilities of opportunistic bacteria and accumulations of some ARGs after ozone treatment. Molecular marker genes for enterococci indicated a high susceptibility to ozone. Although they were reduced by almost 99%, they were still present in the bacterial population after ozone treatment. In contrast to this, Pseudomonas aeruginosa displayed only minor changes in abundance after ozone treatment. This indicated different mechanisms of microorganisms to cope with the bactericidal effects of ozone. The investigated ARGs demonstrated an even more diverse pattern. After ozone treatment, the erythromycin resistance gene (ermB) was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, but simultaneously, the abundance of two other clinically relevant ARGs increased within the surviving wastewater population (vanA, blaVIM). PCR-DGGE analysis and 16S-Amplicon-Sequencing confirmed a selection-like process in combination with a substantial diversity loss within the vital wastewater population after ozone treatment. Especially the PCR-DGGE results demonstrated the survival of GC-rich bacteria after ozone treatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: WATER-1b-2015 | Award Amount: 10.74M | Year: 2016
The AquaNES project will catalyse innovations in water and wastewater treatment processes and management through improved combinations of natural and engineered components. Among the demonstrated solutions are natural treatment processes such as bank filtration (BF), managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and constructed wetlands (CW) plus engineered pre- and post-treatment options. The project focuses on 13 demonstration sites in Europe, India and Israel covering a repre-sentative range of regional, climatic, and hydrogeological conditions in which different combined natural-engineered treatment systems (cNES) will be demonstrated through active collaboration of knowledge and technology providers, water utilities and end-users. Our specific objectives are to demonstrate the benefits of post-treatment options such as membranes, activated carbon and ozonation after bank filtration for the production of safe drinking water to validate the treatment and storage capacity of soil-aquifer systems in combination with oxidative pre-treatments to demonstrate the combination of constructed wetlands with different technical post- or pre-treatment options (ozone or bioreactor systems) as a wastewater treatment option to evidence reductions in operating costs and energy consumption to test a robust risk assessment framework for cNES to deliver design guidance for cNES informed by industrial or near-industrial scale expe-riences to identify and profile new market opportunities in Europe and overseas for cNES The AquaNES project will demonstrate combined natural-engineered treatment systems as sus-tainable adaptations to issues such as water scarcity, excess water in cities and micro-pollutants in the water cycle. It will thus have impact across the EIP Waters thematic priorities and cross-cutting issues, particularly on Water reuse & recycling, Water and wastewater treatment, Water-energy nexus, Ecosystem services, Water governance, and DSS & monitoring.
PubMed | Xylem Services GmbH, RWTH Aachen, Institute for Hygiene and Public Health IHPH, Ruhr University Bochum and 2 more.
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2015
Fecal contamination of water resources is a major public health concern in densely populated areas since these water bodies are used for drinking water production or recreational purposes. A main source of this contamination originates from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in regions with combined sewer systems. Thus, the treatment of CSO discharges is urgent. In this study, we explored whether ozonation or UV irradiation can efficiently reduce pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites in CSOs. Experiments were carried out in parallel settings at the outflow of a stormwater settling tank in the Ruhr area, Germany. The results showed that both techniques reduce most hygienically relevant bacteria, parasites and viruses. Under the conditions tested, ozonation yielded lower outflow values for the majority of the tested parameters.
Zhu I.X.,Xylem Water Solutions Zelienople |
Wang J.,Xylem Services GmbH |
Wieland A.,Xylem Services GmbH
Journal - American Water Works Association | Year: 2015
With climate change, population growth, and water scarcity, there is a growing demand for a sustainable approach to managing water resources. Ozonation followed by biologically active filtration (BAF) recently has drawn interest because of the synergistic effects that enhance performance and reduce operating costs associated with media replacement and ozone dosage. To help guide future process design, a comprehensive pilot study was undertaken to investigate operating parameters of the combined ozonation and BAF process. The study started in January 2014 at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk Wastewater Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden; the process included an ozone contactor and biologically active filters. Anthracite and granular activated carbon (GAC) produced similar results in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal, achieving approximately 50% COD removal and reducing ammonia nitrogen to <0.2 mg/L. Ozone plays an important role in oxidizing micropollutants. GAC demonstrated additional polishing effect for residual micropollutants, whereas anthracite showed additional little removal. © 2015 American Water Works Association.