Pande S.,University of Massachusetts Lowell |
Lakshminarasimhan D.,Xtal Biostructures, Inc. |
Guo H.-C.,University of Massachusetts Lowell
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2017
Glycosylasparaginase (GA) is an amidase that cleaves Asn-linked glycoproteins in lysosomes. Deficiency of this enzyme causes accumulation of glycoasparagines in lysosomes of cells, resulting in a genetic condition called aspartylglycosaminuria (AGU). To better understand the mechanism of a disease-causing mutation with a single residue change from a glycine to an aspartic acid, we generated a model mutant enzyme at the corresponding position (named G172D mutant). Here we report a 1.8. Å resolution crystal structure of mature G172D mutant and analyzed the reason behind its low hydrolase activity. Comparison of mature G172D and wildtype GA models reveals that the presence of Asp 172 near the catalytic site affects substrate catabolism in mature G172D, making it less efficient in substrate processing. Also recent studies suggest that GA is capable of processing substrates that lack a chitobiose (Glycan, N-acetylchiobios, NAcGlc) moiety, by its exo-hydrolase activity. The mechanism for this type of catalysis is not yet clear. l-Aspartic acid β-hydroxamate (β-AHA) is a non-chitobiose substrate that is known to interact with GA. To study the underlying mechanism of non-chitobiose substrate processing, we built a GA-β-AHA complex structure by comparing to a previously published G172D mutant precursor in complex with a β-AHA molecule. A hydrolysis mechanism of β-AHA by GA is proposed based on this complex model. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
Bhol K.C.,Avaxia Biologics, Inc. |
Tracey D.E.,Avaxia Biologics, Inc. |
Lemos B.R.,Avaxia Biologics, Inc. |
Lyng G.D.,Biomodels LLC |
And 7 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, which is currently treated with injected monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We developed and characterized AVX-470, a novel polyclonal antibody specific for human TNF. We evaluated the oral activity of AVX-470m, a surrogate antibody specific for murine TNF, in several well-accepted mouse models of IBD. Methods: AVX-470 and AVX-470m were isolated from the colostrum of dairy cows that had been immunized with TNF. The potency, specificity, and affinity of both AVX-470 and AVX-470m were evaluated in vitro and compared with infliximab. AVX-470m was orally administered to mice either before or after induction of colitis, and activity was measured by endoscopy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative measurement of messenger RNA levels. Colitis was induced using either 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate or dextran sodium sulfate. Results: AVX-470 and AVX-470m were shown to be functionally comparable in vitro. Moreover, the specificity, neutralizing potency, and affinity of AVX-470 were comparable with infliximab. Orally administered AVX-470m effectively reduced disease severity in several mouse models of IBD. Activity was comparable with that of oral prednisolone or parenteral etanercept. The antibody penetrated the colonic mucosa and inhibited TNF-driven mucosal inflammation with minimal systemic exposure. Conclusions: AVX-470 is a novel polyclonal anti-TNF antibody with an in vitro activity profile comparable to that of infliximab. Oral administration of a surrogate antibody specific for mouse TNF is effective in treating mouse models of IBD, delivering the anti-TNF to the site of inflammation with minimal systemic exposure. © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Clark S.A.,Florida State University |
Clark S.A.,Xtal Biostructures, Inc. |
Davulcu O.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Chapman M.S.,Florida State University |
Chapman M.S.,Oregon Health And Science University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012
Arginine kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group between ATP and l-arginine and is a monomeric homolog of the human enzyme creatine kinase. Arginine and creatine kinases belongs to the phosphagen kinase family of enzymes, which consists of eight known members, each of which is specific for its own phosphagen. Here, the source of phosphagen specificity in arginine kinase is investigated through the use of phosphagen analogs. Crystal structures have been determined for Limulus polyphemus arginine kinase with one of four arginine analogs bound in a transition state analog complex: l-ornithine, l-citrulline, imino- l-ornithine, and d-arginine. In all complexes, the enzyme achieves a closed conformation very similar to that of the cognate transition state analog complex, but differences are observed in the configurations of bound ligands. Arginine kinase exhibits no detectable activity towards ornithine, citrulline, or imino- l-ornithine, and only trace activity towards d-arginine. The crystal structures presented here demonstrate that phosphagen specificity is derived neither from a lock-and-key mechanism nor a modulation of induced-fit conformational changes, but potentially from subtle distortions in bound substrate configurations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Song K.,Stryker Biotech. |
Krause C.,Leiden University |
Shi S.,Leiden University |
Patterson M.,Stryker Biotech. |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are used clinically to induce new bone formation in spinal fusions and long bone nonunion fractures. However, large amounts of BMPs are needed to achieve these effects. BMPs were found to increase the expression of antagonists, which potentially limit their therapeutic efficacy. However, the relative susceptibility of osteoinductive BMPs to different antagonists is not well characterized. Here we show that BMP-6 is more resistant to noggin inhibition and more potent in promoting osteoblast differentiation in vitro and inducing bone regeneration in vivo when compared with its closely related BMP-7 paralog. Noggin was found to play a critical role as a negative feedback regulator of BMP-7but not BMP-6-induced biological responses. Using BMP-6/7 chimeras, we identified lysine 60 as a key residue conferring noggin resistance within the BMP-6 protein. A remarkable correlation was found between the presence of a lysine at this position and noggin resistance among a panel of osteoinductive BMPs. Introduction of a lysine residue at the corresponding positions of BMP-2 and BMP-7 allowed for molecular engineering of recombinant BMPs with increased resistance to noggin antagonism. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Birrane G.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center |
Bhyravbhatla B.,Xtal Biostructures, Inc. |
Navia M.A.,Altus Pharmaceuticals
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014
Protease mediated peptide synthesis (PMPS) was first described in the 1930s but remains underexploited today. In most PMPS, the reaction equilibrium is shifted toward synthesis by the aqueous insolubility of product generated. Substrates and proteases are selected by trial and error, yields are modest, and reaction times are slow. Once implemented, however, PMPS reactions can be simple, environmentally benign, and readily scalable to a commercial level. We examined the PMPS of a precursor of the artificial sweetener aspartame, a multiton peptide synthesis catalyzed by the enzyme thermolysin. X-ray structures of thermolysin in complex with aspartame substrates separately, and after PMPS in a crystal, rationalize the reaction's substrate preferences and reveal an unexpected form of substrate inhibition that explains its sluggishness. Structure guided optimization of this and other PMPS reactions could expand the economic viability of commercial peptides beyond current high-potency, low-volume therapeutics, with substantial green chemistry advantages. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
PubMed | Xtal Biostructures, Inc., Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Altus Pharmaceuticals
Type: Journal Article | Journal: ACS medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2014
Protease mediated peptide synthesis (PMPS) was first described in the 1930s but remains underexploited today. In most PMPS, the reaction equilibrium is shifted toward synthesis by the aqueous insolubility of product generated. Substrates and proteases are selected by trial and error, yields are modest, and reaction times are slow. Once implemented, however, PMPS reactions can be simple, environmentally benign, and readily scalable to a commercial level. We examined the PMPS of a precursor of the artificial sweetener aspartame, a multiton peptide synthesis catalyzed by the enzyme thermolysin. X-ray structures of thermolysin in complex with aspartame substrates separately, and after PMPS in a crystal, rationalize the reactions substrate preferences and reveal an unexpected form of substrate inhibition that explains its sluggishness. Structure guided optimization of this and other PMPS reactions could expand the economic viability of commercial peptides beyond current high-potency, low-volume therapeutics, with substantial green chemistry advantages.
PubMed | Albany Molecular Research, Zenith Epigenetics, Xtal Biostructures, Inc. and JFQuinn Consulting
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2015
Bromodomains are key transcriptional regulators that are thought to be druggable epigenetic targets for cancer, inflammation, diabetes and cardiovascular therapeutics. Of particular importance is the first of two bromodomains in bromodomain containing 4 protein (BRD4(1)). Protein-ligand docking in BRD4(1) was used to purchase a small, focused screening set of compounds possessing a large variety of core structures. Within this set, a small number of weak hits each contained a dihydroquinoxalinone ring system. We purchased other analogs with this ring system and further validated the new hit series and obtained improvement in binding inhibition. Limited exploration by new analog synthesis showed that the binding inhibition in a FRET assay could be improved to the low M level making this new core a potential hit-to-lead series. Additionally, the predicted geometries of the initial hit and an improved analog were confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography with BRD4(1).
PubMed | Xtal Biostructures, Inc. and Zenith Epigenetics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2016
Bromodomains are epigenetic readers that specifically bind to the acetyl lysine residues of histones and transcription factors. Small molecule BET bromodomain inhibitors can disrupt this interaction which leads to potential modulation of several disease states. Here we describe the binding properties of a novel BET inhibitor RVX-297 that is structurally related to the clinical compound RVX-208, currently undergoing phase III clinical trials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but is distinctly different in its biological and pharmacokinetic profiles. We report that RVX-297 preferentially binds to the BD2 domains of the BET bromodomain and Extra Terminal (BET) family of protein. We demonstrate the differential binding modes of RVX-297 in BD1 and BD2 domains of BRD4 and BRD2 using X-ray crystallography, and describe the structural differences driving the BD2 selective binding of RVX-297. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data illustrate the related differential thermodynamics of binding of RVX-297 to single as well as dual BET bromodomains.
McLure K.G.,Resverlogix |
Gesner E.M.,Resverlogix |
Tsujikawa L.,Resverlogix |
Kharenko O.A.,Resverlogix |
And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Increased synthesis of Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and HDL is believed to provide a new approach to treating atherosclerosis through the stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport. RVX-208 increases the production of ApoA-I in hepatocytes in vitro, and in vivo in monkeys and humans, which results in increased HDL-C, but the molecular target was not previously reported. Using binding assays and X-ray crystallography, we now show that RVX-208 selectively binds to bromodomains of the BET (Bromodomain and Extra Terminal) family, competing for a site bound by the endogenous ligand, acetylated lysine, and that this accounts for its pharmacological activity. siRNA experiments further suggest that induction of ApoA-I mRNA is mediated by BET family member BRD4. These data indicate that RVX-208 increases ApoA-I production through an epigenetic mechanism and suggests that BET inhibition may be a promising new approach to the treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2013 McLure et al.