Xstrata Technology

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Xstrata Technology

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Van Der Westhuizen A.P.,University of Cape Town | Govender I.,University of Cape Town | Mainza A.N.,University of Cape Town | Rubenstein J.,Xstrata Technology
Minerals Engineering | Year: 2011

Stirred milling is continually gaining acceptance in the mineral processing industry. The IsaMill™ is a high intensity stirred mill with a horizontal configuration and internal classification. The present work describes the use of Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) to trace the motion of a media bead in a simplified IsaMill™ rig. The rig has the same inner dimensions and disc sizes as the real M20 IsaMill™ but is a closed unit without any flow through, no product separator and only three discs. The PEPT system has the advantage of being able to obtain detailed charge motion measurements in opaque and aggressive environments such as those encountered in grinding processes. Glass beads (3 mm) and ceramic media (3.5 mm) were tracked over a range of volumetric fillings and rotational speeds. An analysis of the resultant trajectory fields in terms of media location (occupancy), velocity, and acceleration is presented. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jayasundara C.T.,University of New South Wales | Yang R.Y.,University of New South Wales | Guo B.Y.,University of New South Wales | Yu A.B.,University of New South Wales | And 4 more authors.
Minerals Engineering | Year: 2011

The IsaMill™ is a high speed stirred mill with a horizontal configuration that offers advantages such as energy efficiency and an inert grinding environment. A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) approach was developed to investigate the particle and fluid flows inside a simplified IsaMill™. The configuration of the mill was simpler than that of an actual IsaMill™ and no feed flow or rotor was considered. The CFD-DEM model is a progression from earlier DEM only models of "dry" systems which did not account for the fluid phase. The properties of flows at a macroscopically steady state, such as velocity field, distributions of particle velocity and acceleration in the radial direction and power draw, were analysed. Detailed comparisons were carried out between the simulation results and Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) measurements under similar conditions. The comparisons showed reasonable agreements, confirming that both techniques can capture the key features of the flow. The discrepancies between simulated and measured results were discussed. The findings indicated that the proposed model can be used to generate microdynamic information that is useful in leading to a better understanding of the underpinning physics of flow inside mills. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jayasundara C.T.,University of New South Wales | Yang R.Y.,University of New South Wales | Yu A.B.,University of New South Wales | Rubenstein J.,Xstrata Technology
International Journal of Mineral Processing | Year: 2010

IsaMill™ is a high-speed stirred mill used in the mineral industry for a range of milling duties from ultra-fine to coarse grinding. In this work, numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM) were performed to investigate the particle flow in a dry stirred mill with a similar configuration to that of an IsaMill™. The effects of operational variables such as mill loading and rotation speed on flow properties such as flow velocity, power draw, collision frequency, collision energy and total impact energy were analysed. The results showed that increasing mill loading or mill speed increases impact energy between particles. Moreover, physical experiments were conducted to quantify grinding performance under similar conditions. The experimental results showed that the grinding in the mill follows the first order kinetics, and the rate constant can be correlated to impact energy. The findings are useful to understand and optimise the particle flow and grinding behaviour of IsaMills™. The proposed methodology may also apply to other stirred mills. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jayasundara C.T.,University of New South Wales | Yang R.Y.,University of New South Wales | Yu A.B.,University of New South Wales | Curry D.,Xstrata Technology
Minerals Engineering | Year: 2011

Mill wear is a critical issue in mineral industries. It affects mill performance and the cost of replacing worn parts is high. Understanding wear and its effect would provide a useful insight for process optimisation. This paper combines the discrete element method (DEM) with a commonly used wear model to predict the wear pattern of stirring discs in a model IsaMill. The results show that wear is more severe at the outer face of discs and the lifting side of holes. The simulated wear pattern has been compared with those observed in practice. The effect of disc wear on the flow of grinding media is also examined, showing that with the increasing wear, impact energy increases while power draw shows a mix of slight increase and decrease. The findings would be useful to the improvement in the design and control of IsaMills. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kulikov Y.V.,TOMS institute Ltd. | Senchenko A.Y.,TOMS institute Ltd. | Rahbani R.,Xstrata Technology
IMPC 2014 - 27th International Mineral Processing Congress | Year: 2014

The relevancy of complex minerals treatment is constantly increasing taking into account mineral resources depletion. Different refractory ores and concentrates, oxidized and polymetallic ores, as well as metallurgical products (slags) can be assigned to such mineral type. The treatment of such products via conventional flowsheets requires considerable capital and operational costs and does not always provide high recovery level of valuable components into a saleable product. Therefore, considerable amount of ores and metallurgical products are not treated, or treated inefficiently. One of the most promising approaches that allows economic treatment of refractory products is their ultrafine grinding down to 5-20 μm with subsequent processing or hydrometallurgy. Horizontal bead mills - the IsaMill™, developed by Xstrata Technology, received their wide application in mining industry. Standard testing is performed under laboratory conditions in an M4 IsaMill™ (volume - 4 liters) to define the parameters of fine grinding. This mill completely simulates the operation of full scale industrial mills up to 50 m3 in volume (up to 8000 kW motor). The paper describes fine grinding technology performed in bead mills, and the importance of testing according to a certified method for industrial equipment selection. The paper contains description of promising directions of fine grinding technology application for several projects in Russia and Kazakhstan.


Alvear Flores G.R.F.,Xstrata Technology | Nikolic S.,Xstrata Technology | Mackey P.J.,P.J. Mackey Technology Inc.
JOM | Year: 2014

As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed. © 2014 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.


David D.,AMEC Minproc | Larson M.,Xstrata Technology | Li M.,Grange Resources
METPLANT 2011 - Metallurgical Plant Design and Operating Strategies | Year: 2011

The development of Western Australian magnetite deposits has lead to the design of some of the largest grinding mills and plants in the world. One of the projects demonstrates the efficiency gains possible by developing a simple yet thorough test program for circuit design. By drawing on the experience of current magnetite operations in Australia and the Mesabi and Marquette iron ranges in the United States, a basic flowsheet was developed. Through comprehensive testwork with AG, ball and stirred milling the flowsheet was optimized to take full advantage of each grinding mill's strengths to reach the required final grind size. Laboratory work was verified in the pilot plant to optimize the energy efficiency of each grinding step while ensuring adequate liberation at each step for sufficient gangue rejection. By using three stages of grinding, the ball mill can best be employed in ensuring all top size gangue material is liberated and removed in the second magnetic separation step. The inclusion of the IsaMill, with its inherent steep product size distribution, as the tertiary grinding stage ensured that maximum grade was achieved and simplified the downstream process while giving further improvements in total grinding capital and operating costs. In this way the combination of the two technologies downstream from the AG mill is far more efficient than either would be on its own by reducing the total installed power by 1/3 and annual grinding media cost by 2/3.


Rule C.,Anglo American Platinum Ltd. | De Waal H.,Xstrata Technology
METPLANT 2011 - Metallurgical Plant Design and Operating Strategies | Year: 2011

In 2003, Anglo Platinum, in a joint development with Xstrata Technology, installed the world's first 10 000 litre IsaMill™ in a concentrate regrind duty at the Western Limb Tailings Re-treatment Plant. The success of that installation was the enabling event for Anglo Platinum to proceed with a substantial investment in horizontal stirred milling technology. Since 2006 an additional three IsaMills™ in concentrate regrind duties and a further 18 IsaMills™ in the more technically challenging coarse grinding mainstream applications, have been commissioned in group Concentrator operations - bringing the total number of IsaMills™ installed in Anglo Platinum plants to 22. A collaborative approach between Anglo Platinum and Xstrata Technology towards improving milling efficiency and reducing operating costs, through internal mill component wear optimization and operating recipe development, has resulted in further improvements in the overall success of IsaMills™ in the flow sheets of many Anglo Platinum operations. The addition of IsaMills™ in the Anglo Platinum flow sheets has improved plant PGM recoveries by as much as 5%. This paper explores the improvements made to the IsaMills™ flow sheet and mill internal design and shares some of the operating experience with IsaMills™ technology in Anglo Platinum.


Alvear F G.R.F.,Xstrata Technology | Nikolic S.,Xstrata Technology
TMS Annual Meeting | Year: 2013

Metals are essential for modern lifestyles. As standards of living improve and metal consumption increases, it is evident that raw materials are becoming scarcer. The recycling of metals is essential if we are to build a more sustainable society. ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance (TSL) technology can enable plant operators to recycle metals efficiently. The implementation of the ISASMELT™ technology for the recycling of valuable metals at Umicore Precious Metals Refining in Belgium and Aurubis AG in Germany are both good examples of how ISASMELT™ technology can be used to recycle a range of metals. Visionary people motivated by the need for a technological breakthrough have developed novel processes for recycling complex materials incorporating the ISASMELT™ technology. This paper describes how the ISASMELT™ technology is used to recycle a range of materials. It highlights one of the most important strengths of the technology: its versatility and capacity to be incorporated into new, innovative applications.


Bakker M.L.,Xstrata Technology | Nikolic S.,Xstrata Technology | Alvear G.R.F.,Xstrata Technology
JOM | Year: 2011

The ISASMELT™ process is a top submerged lance (TSL) bath smelting technology which has been developed and optimized over the last 25 years. By the end of 2011, the total installed capacity of the ISASMELT technology will exceed 9,000,000 tonnes per year of feed materials in copper and lead smelters around the world. Commercial plants, operating in Belgium and Germany, are also batch converting copper materials in ISASMELT furnaces. This TSL technology is equally effective for continuous converting processes, whereupon it is called ISACONVERT™. Xstrata Technology (XT) has recently patented a new ISACONVERT process for the continuous converting of nickel/platinum group metal (PGM) mattes using the calcium ferrite slag system. This paper outlines the development of this new process and presents a conceptual flowsheet for how it can be integrated into an existing nickel/PGM smelter.

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