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Jamshedpur, India

Venugopal P.,XLRI
International Journal of Rural Management | Year: 2012

Demand for consumer goods in rural markets in the emerging economies is increasing, and these markets are being targeted by multinational companies marketing consumer goods. While all companies are designing distribution strategies to reach the existing rural retail outlets and the periodic markets, a few companies are also developing innovative modes of distribution. Despite the availability of a product in the rural retail formats, some rural consumers were found to make their purchases from a nearby town. This article studied the outshopping behaviour of rural consumers and identified that the decision of what and where to purchase consumer goods could be inferred by identifying their urban orientation. A 'person-situation' framework is used to segment the rural market based on the rural consumers' urban orientation. This framework would help marketers plan their distribution for the rural consumers. The article also suggests a good promotional strategy should support the distribution strategies. © 2012 Institute of Rural Management.

Galati G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Leonardi M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Piracci E.G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Petrochilos N.,University of Reims | Samanta S.,XLRI
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine | Year: 2014

The secondary surveillance radar (SSR), that is an evolution of the military identification friend-or-foe systems, is widely used by air traffic control service providers to localize and identify co-operating aircraft equipped with a standard transponder [1]. The ground SSR installation transmits interrogations, from a rotating, narrow azimuthal beam antenna. The airborne transponders, once they have received an interrogation, transmit at a 1,090-MHz carrier a reply signal containing the requested data, i.e., identity (mode A reply) or fight level (mode C reply). Azimuth and range of the aircraft are measured by the interrogator, based on the delay of the reply and on the antenna pointing angle. The current SSR standard is based on the use of selective interrogations and replies and is called mode S: to reduce the interferences, the mode S protocol is based on a message format that includes the unique address of the aircraft. The airborne segment of the SSR is composed of the transponder and a pair of antennas on top and on the bottom of the fuselage. As the aircraft antennas are omnidirectional, many ground stations can receive the replies. This allowed the development of multilateration (MLAT) systems for the aircraft localization based on 1,090-MHz signals [2]. A typical MLAT system is composed of a distributed network of 1,090-MHz sensors, an interconnecting facility, and a central processor for the fusion of the sensor data. The data fusion relies on the estimation of the signals arrival time at the different stations and on hyperbolic localization. To identify the emitters, the processing is done with mode A replies or mode S replies that contain the emitter identity. A transponder with mode S capability can also transmit a particular downlink format message, called squitter, containing the aircraft's unique address and other information. The squitter signals are not elicited by the SSR interrogation, but they are spontaneously emitted at pseudoperiodical intervals. They are the basis of the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) concept [3]: the ADS-B OUT function periodically transmits information (identity, position, state, etc.) about the aircraft, and the ADS-B IN function receives the messages from nearby traffic. On the airborne side, the ADS-B OUT broadcasts data with onboard equipment using the squitter signals. The airborne ADS-B IN equipment provides to the pilot the traffic scenario, receiving the messages from ground and nearby aircraft ADS-B OUT. Moreover, the ADS-B IN can receive other ground services: the traffic information services-broadcast (TIS-B) and the fight information services-broadcast (FIS-B) [3]. Airport vehicles can be equipped with an ADS-B OUT, a simplified, nonflyable device transmitting 1,090-MHz squitter signals containing the identity and the position. As a matter of fact, there are various users of the 1,090-MHz channel: 1) SSR transponder replies (modes A, C, S); 2) ADS-B OUT messages; 3) MLAT systems with interrogation capability; and 4) TIS-B. © 1986-2012 IEEE.

Saldanha J.P.,West Virginia University | Mello J.E.,Arkansas State University | Knemeyer A.M.,Ohio State University | Vijayaraghavan T.A.S.,XLRI
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2015

Supply chain technology (SCT) facilitates information transfer within and across firm boundaries. However, institutional environments in emerging markets give rise to challenges that inhibit the implementation of SCT and the consequent realization of its benefits. Unfortunately, there is a lack of understanding as to the nature or the extent of these implementation challenges. We undertook a grounded theory study in the emerging market of India to investigate how SCT is implemented when subjected to prevailing institutional pressures. Based on an analysis of interviews with 50 supply chain managers, we find that early adopters of SCT experience significant and numerous unmet expectations associated with SCT implementation. These unmet expectations arise from competing institutional logics with the resultant isomorphic pressure causing the juxtaposition of two incompatible supply chains in India. A key finding of this study contradicts extant research, supporting recent work in emerging markets, to suggest a need to reassess our mental models developed in the West and conceptualize de novo models that are sensitive to the institutional environments of emerging markets. © 2014 Institute for Supply Management, Inc.

Mital M.,XLRI | Pani A.K.,XLRI | Damodaran S.,XLRI | Ramesh R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Computers in Industry | Year: 2015

In this study, the implementation of cloud based smart community management and control system was undertaken. SmartComunity.in is a flexible platform to manage and control the affairs of a condominium or society with thorough participation, visibility and transparency. Our research is the first attempt to study one such real life system of cloud based control and management in a smart housing community in India. There is a dearth of exploratory studies that explain the diffusion and adoption of cloud computing in different contexts and from a multiple stakeholder perspective. So, the main contribution of our research is to understand the framework of cloud computing based smart community services in India and the emerging cloud computing ecosystems. This research has wide ranging implications on the future of Internet of Things, and can be extended to elderly health and support, energy efficient systems and smart cities. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mital M.,XLRI | Pani A.K.,XLRI | Damodaran S.,XLRI | Ramesh R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
20th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2014 | Year: 2014

The purpose of the study is to investigate the existence of network governance in the software as a service value network. The study analyzes the processes of Software as a Service (SaaS) solution implementation through case study methodology. The study analyzes how the existence of four conditions: uncertain demand with stable supply, customized exchange high in human asset specificity, complex task under intense time pressure and frequent exchange among parties, lead to the emergence of network governance. The study found that network governance enabled coordination, control and safeguarding through social mechanisms of restricted access, macrocultures, collective sanctions and reputation. The main contribution of the study is to empirically investigate the emergence of network governance in a real life context of the software as a service value network.

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