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Zhang N.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Zhang N.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Fan X.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Cui F.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | And 21 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2017

Key message: The temporal and spatial expression patterns of stable QTL for plant height and their influences on yield were characterized. Abstract: Plant height (PH) is a complex trait in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that includes the spike length (SL) and the internode lengths from the first to the fifth internode, which are counted from the top and abbreviated as FIRITL, SECITL, THIITL, FOUITL, and FIFITL, respectively. This study identified eight putative additive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for PH. In addition, unconditional and conditional QTL mapping were used to analyze the temporal and spatial expression patterns of five stable QTL for PH. qPh-3A mainly regulated SL, FIRITL, and FIFITL to affect PH during the booting–heading stage (BS–HS); qPh-3D regulated all internode lengths to affect PH, especially during the BS–HS; before HS, qPh-4B mainly affected FIRITL, SECITL, THIITL, and FOUITL and qPh-5A.1 mainly affected SECITL, THIITL, and FOUITL to regulate PH; and qPh-6B mainly regulated FIRITL to affect the PH after the booting stage (BS). qPhdv-4B, a QTL for the response of PH to nitrogen stress, was stable and co-localized with qPh-4B. All five stable QTL, except for qPh-3A, were related to the 1000 kernel weight and yield per plant. Regions of qPh-3A, qPh-3D, qPh-4B, qPh-5A.1, and qPh-6B showed synteny to parts of rice chromosomes 1, 1, 3, 9, and 2, respectively. Based on comparative genomics analysis, Rht-B1b was cloned and mapped in the CI of qPh-4B. This report provides useful information for fine mapping of the stable QTL for PH and the genetic improvement of wheat plant type. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Sun P.,China Agricultural University | Sun P.,State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Sun P.,National Center for Evaluation of Agricultural Wild Plant Rice | Sun P.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and Genome of Ministry of Agriculture | And 25 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

An F8 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for potassium chlorate (KClO3) resistance and low temperature tolerance (LTT), two key physiological traits to distinguish rice subspecies, indica and japonica. Four traits were measured for KClO3 resistance including shoot length, root length, shoot length and root length ratios of treatment and control conditions, and four traits for LTT including shoot length, root length and germination rate in 15° and 28°. A total of six QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2, 4, 7 and 10 for KClO3, including a major QTL qSLratio-2, which accounted for 40% of the phenotypic variance. On the other hand, a total of four QTLs for LTT were identified on chromosomes 2 and 4. These results will be useful in marker-assisted selections for these two important traits.


Fan X.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Fan X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cui F.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Cui F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 14 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2015

Flag leaf-related traits (FLRTs) are determinant traits affecting plant architecture and yield potential in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, a recombinant inbred line population with 188 lines, derived from the cross between Kenong9204 and Jing411, was developed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flag leaf width (FLW), length (FLL), and area (FLA) under both low nitrogen and high nitrogen treatments. A total of 38 QTLs were detected in eight environments (year × location × treatment). Of these, two QTLs for FLW on chromosomes 4B and 6B (qFlw-4B.3 and qFlw-6B.2) and one for FLA on chromosome 5B (qFla-5B) were major stable QTLs. Both phenotypic and QTL mapping analyses indicated that FLW was the major contributor to flag leaf size. To investigate the genetic relationship between FLRTs and yield-related traits (YRTs) at the QTL level, both unconditional and multivariable conditional QTL mapping for YRTs with respect to FLRTs were conducted. Twelve QTL clusters simultaneously controlling FLRTs and YRTs were identified. In comparison with unconditional QTL mapping, conditional QTL mapping analysis revealed that most but not all the QTL for YRTs were improved by FLRTs. At the QTL level, FLA had the greatest contribution to YRTs, followed by FLW and FLL. This study provided a genetic foundation from which to obtain desirable plant architecture and improve yield potential in wheat breeding programs. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Dong Y.-Q.,Xinxiang Academy of Agricultural science | Zhao W.-X.,Henan Academy of Agricultural science | Li X.-H.,Henan Academy of Agricultural science | Liu X.-C.,Xinxiang Academy of Agricultural science | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2016

Haploids and doubled haploids are critical components of plant breeding. This review is focused on studies on haploids and double haploids inducted in cucurbits through in vitro pollination with irradiated pollen, unfertilized ovule/ovary culture, and anther/microspore culture during the last 30 years, as well as comprehensive analysis of the main factors of each process and comparison between chromosome doubling and ploidy identification methods, with special focus on the application of double haploids in plant breeding and genetics. This review identifies existing problems affecting the efficiency of androgenesis, gynogenesis, and parthenogenesis in cucurbit species. Donor plant genotypes and surrounding environments, developmental stages of explants, culture media, stress factors, and chromosome doubling and ploidy identification are compared at length and discussed as methodologies and protocols for androgenesis, gynogenesis, and parthenogenesis in haploid and double haploid production technologies. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Wei X.,Henan Agricultural University | Wei X.,Xinxiang Academy of Agricultural science | Lu X.,Henan Agricultural University | Lu X.,Henan Academy of Agricultural science | And 8 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to dissect the genetic basis of heterosis for grain yield and its components in maize (Zea mays L.). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) and heterotic loci (HL) were analyzed using a set of 203 single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) and its testcross population in three environments. Forty-one QTL were identified as responsible for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, row number, kernel number per row, and 100-kernel weight in the SSSLs population, and 17 QTL were conserved across the three environments. In the heterosis analysis, 36 HL were identified for grain yield and five yield-related traits in the test population in the three environments. Among the HL, only six (16.7 %) for ear length, kernel number per row, 100-kernel weight, and grain yield were consistent with the results of QTL mapping. In addition, 16.7 % of the heterotic loci showed a dominant effect and 83.3 % showed an over-dominant effect. The results implied that dominance and over-dominance were two important components of heterosis in maize grain yield and yield-related traits in the present testcross population. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Wei X.,Henan Agricultural University | Wei X.,Xinxiang Academy of Agricultural science | Wang B.,Henan Agricultural University | Wang B.,Henan University of Science and Technology | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2015

Heterosis has been exploited to increase grain yield, quality, and resistance in many crops, and it plays an important role in plant breeding. However, the genetic mechanism of heterosis remains unclear. To dissect the genetic basis of heterosis, a set of 203 single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) was developed, and its test-cross population was used to identify heterotic loci (HL) for plant morphological traits in maize, including plant height (PH), ear height (EH), leaf number (LN), tassel main axis length (TMAL), and tassel branch number (TBN). A total of 41 QTLs and 37 HL were identified for five morphological traits in the test-cross population derived from the 203 SSSLs and the parent, Xu178. Nine HL for PH, nine HL for EH, seven HL for LN, seven HL for TMAL, and five HL for TBN were detected in three different environments, respectively. Eight HL, ph1a, ph1b, ph2, ph5, eh3a, eh3b, eh10, and tmal1b, were simultaneously detected in the three environments. Among the 37 HL, only 10 (27.03 %; for PH, EH, LN, and TBN) had a corresponding QTL (24.39 %) sharing the same chromosomal region. Of all the HL, 21.4 % showed dominance effects, 76.8 % showed over-dominance effects, and only one (1.8 %) showed a partial-dominance effect. This result illustrated that heterosis and performance was controlled by different genetic mechanisms, and over-dominance effects were the main contributors to heterosis for plant-related traits at the single-locus level in maize. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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