Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum

Urunchi, China

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum

Urunchi, China

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Shevchenko A.,MPI of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics | Yang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang Y.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Knaust A.,MPI of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Lamp illuminants evidence the exploitation of natural resources, animal and plant domestication, commerce, religious practices and nutrition of ancient populations. However, the physicochemical analysis of their major constituent-burned, degraded and aged mixture of triacylglycerols is imprecise and may lead to ambiguous interpretations. We applied proteomics to analyze fuel deposits from eight lamps dated by 6th to 8th centuries AD that were excavated at the Astana necropolis (Xinjiang, China) and determined their origin by identifying organism-specific proteins. Proteomics evidence corroborated and detailed the assignments of source organism relying upon comparative profiling of intact triacylglycerols by shotgun lipidomics. We found that ruminant (mostly, sheep) fat, cattle ghee and sesame oil were common combustibles in Astana and concluded that sesame as an oilseed appeared in China under Tang Dynasty concomitantly with the expansion of Buddhism. © 2017 Shevchenko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Mai H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jiang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang B.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum | Wang C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Journal of Cultural Heritage | Year: 2017

Headwear research is an integral part of costume study, which is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. In China, the lining of Futou (Chinese traditional male headwear) is called as Jinzi, whose production information is little known. This paper focuses on the analysis of materials and manufacture of Jinzi, found in Astana Cemeteries (dated from about the 3rd to the 9th centuries C.E.), Turpan Basin, Xinjiang, China. The fibers of Jinzi were identified by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Light Microscope Examination and Drying-Twist Test; while the black pigment was characterized through Raman Spectroscopy. Proteomics was conducted to analyze the proteinous glue. The results suggested that three Jinzi samples were made from flax mixed with ramie fibers, and one Jinzi sample was made from silk. All of them were painted with carbon black, and animal glue originated from bovine or caprinae was determined in two Jinzi samples. The different manufacture of Jinzi were probably related to the status of the occupiers of tombs. This is a unique report of the scientific analysis about traditional headwear in ancient Xinjiang. It is not only significant complement to the historical literature, but also the utilization of flax and ramie and the wearing of Jinzi shed light on the exchange of the species and culture in ancient Turpan area. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Chen T.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Chen T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu Y.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Wu Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. © 2012 Chen et al.


Chen T.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Chen T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yao S.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum | Merlin M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 11 more authors.
Economic Botany | Year: 2014

Identification of Cannabis Fiber from the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China, with Reference to Its Unique Decorative Utilization: In the Turpan District of Xinjiang, China, large numbers of ancient clay figurines, with representations including equestrians, animals, and actors, have been excavated from the Astana Cemeteries and date from about the 3rd to the 9th centuries C.E. Based on visual inspection, the tails of some of the figurines representing horses are made of plant fibers. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, light microscope examination, and drying-twist tests demonstrated that these fibers were extracted from one or more stalks of hemp (Cannabis) plants. This is a unique report of the utilization of Cannabis bast fibers for figurine decoration in ancient Turpan. © 2014 The New York Botanical Garden.


Yang H.-Y.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Guo J.-L.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum | Gong D.-C.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
Chung-kuo Tsao Chih/China Pulp and Paper | Year: 2011

When we investigated the ancient papers, a unique phenomenon was found: Some fibers had comparative straight fracture, while some parts of fibers significantly expanded into the shape of a ball when observed by fiber measuring instrument. It was speculated that it may be relevant to cutting and ramming in the papermaking process. Therefore, cutting and ramming were simulated, and the morphology of fibers in the simulated sample was observed with microscope. By comparing with the morphology of ancient samples, speculation was verified and the corresponding relationship between papermaking technology and fiber morphological characteristics was finally established. The ramming traces leading fiber expanding to be the shape of a ball were presented for the first time. It provides a method to judge the paper making technology based on the fiber morphology, hopefully it can provide a new appraisal method to unearthed paper analogues.

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