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Yang H.-Y.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Guo J.-L.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum | Gong D.-C.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
Chung-kuo Tsao Chih/China Pulp and Paper | Year: 2011

When we investigated the ancient papers, a unique phenomenon was found: Some fibers had comparative straight fracture, while some parts of fibers significantly expanded into the shape of a ball when observed by fiber measuring instrument. It was speculated that it may be relevant to cutting and ramming in the papermaking process. Therefore, cutting and ramming were simulated, and the morphology of fibers in the simulated sample was observed with microscope. By comparing with the morphology of ancient samples, speculation was verified and the corresponding relationship between papermaking technology and fiber morphological characteristics was finally established. The ramming traces leading fiber expanding to be the shape of a ball were presented for the first time. It provides a method to judge the paper making technology based on the fiber morphology, hopefully it can provide a new appraisal method to unearthed paper analogues. Source

Chen T.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Chen T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yao S.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum | Merlin M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 11 more authors.
Economic Botany | Year: 2014

Identification of Cannabis Fiber from the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China, with Reference to Its Unique Decorative Utilization: In the Turpan District of Xinjiang, China, large numbers of ancient clay figurines, with representations including equestrians, animals, and actors, have been excavated from the Astana Cemeteries and date from about the 3rd to the 9th centuries C.E. Based on visual inspection, the tails of some of the figurines representing horses are made of plant fibers. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, light microscope examination, and drying-twist tests demonstrated that these fibers were extracted from one or more stalks of hemp (Cannabis) plants. This is a unique report of the utilization of Cannabis bast fibers for figurine decoration in ancient Turpan. © 2014 The New York Botanical Garden. Source

Chen T.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Chen T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu Y.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Wu Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. © 2012 Chen et al. Source

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