Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Urunchi, China

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Urunchi, China
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Tuohetamu S.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Pang M.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Nuer X.,Xinjiang Medical University | Mahemuti,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2017

Objective This study aimed to understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on seasonal influenza among medical college students in a low-income multiethnic society. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey collected information of KAP related to influenza. A knowledge score was calculated according to the total number of correct points out of 9 questions. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with influenza vaccine uptake. Results 856 valid questionnaires were obtained. The average knowledge score was 14.8 ± 3.1 out of 22 correct points. Han Chinese got higher score than minorities (p < 0.001). Knowledge score increased with grade (p < 0.001). Students majoring in pharmacy had lower score than others. Questions on mode of transmission, symptoms, precautions, high risk groups and vaccination schedule had a correct rate lower than 50%. Hand hygiene was practiced by less than 40% of students after touching objects in public areas or sneezing. The proportion of participants received influenza vaccine in the past 3 y was 4.1%, 9.2% and 6.1% respectively. Willingness to receive free vaccine (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.31∼4.28), and awareness of the vaccine effectiveness (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.08∼2.56) were significantly associated with vaccine uptake, while the general knowledge about influenza, perceived susceptibility and severity, and demographic factors were not. The top 3 reasons for not being vaccinated were poor knowledge of the vaccine (46%), no perceived need due to good health (45%) and worry about adverse reactions (33%). Conclusion Health education is needed to improve the awareness of basic facts about influenza and vaccine, and more attention should be paid to minority groups. The coverage of seasonal influenza vaccine is quite low. Besides individual level behavior change, social and structural factors should be considered to increase the uptake of influenza vaccine. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Feng R.-M.,Peking Union Medical College | Hu S.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhao F.-H.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang R.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2017

Objective: We performed a pooled analysis to examine cigarette smoking and household passive smoke exposure in relation to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+). Methods: Data were pooled from 12 cross-sectional studies for cervical cancer screenings from 10 provinces of China in 1999–2007. A total of 16,422 women were analyzed, along with 2,392 high-risk-HPV (hr-HPV) positive women and 381 CIN2+ cases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for sexual and non-sexual confounding factors. Results: There was an excess risk between active smoking and hr-HPV infection and CIN2+. Adjusted OR for ever smokers vs. never smokers was 1.45 (95% CI=1.10–1.91), for hr-HPV infection and 1.89 (95% CI=1.03–3.44), for CIN2+. Passive smoking had a slightly increased risk on the hr-HPV infection with adjusted OR 1.11 (1.00–1.24), but no statistical association was observed between passive smoke exposure and CIN2+. Compared with the neither active nor passive smokers, both active and passive smokers had a 1.57-fold (95% CI=1.14–2.15) increased risk of HPV infection and a 1.99-fold (95% CI=1.02–3.88) risk of CIN2+. Conclusion: Our large multi-center cross-sectional study found active smoking could increase the risk of overall hr-HPV infection and CIN2+ adjusted by passive smoking and other factors. Passive smoking mildly increased the risk of HPV infection but not the CIN2+. An interaction existed between passive tobacco exposure and active smoking for hr-HPV infection and the CIN2+. © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

Wang X.-H.,Qingdao University | Ma A.-G.,Qingdao University | Han X.-X.,Qingdao University | Gu X.-M.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2015

Background: The prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Xinjiang is higher than in other regions of China, and Beijing/W lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the dominant strain of MTB in Xinjiang. However, information on multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB, particularly the correlation between MDR and the Beijing/W lineage and the correlation between drug resistance and the Beijing/W sublineage strains, is limited. Material/Methods: We conducted a prospective study to describe the prevalence of MDR/XDR TB, Beijing/W lineage and sublineage strains in Xinjiang in China from 2009 to 2013. All MTB underwent drug susceptibility testing to the firstand second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The Beijing/W lineages and sublineages were detected by large-sequence polymorphisms with polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 410 clinical isolates were identified. The overall percentage of MDR and XDR cases in Xinjiang was 13.2% (54/410) and 13.0% (7/54), respectively. Overall, 9.8% (14/143) of the Beijing lineage MTB were MDR patients, and 15.6% (40/257) of the Non-Beijing lineage MTB were MDR patients. In the 143 Beijing MTB lineages, 11.2% isolates were in sublineage 105, 15.4% isolates were in sublineage 207, 69.2% isolates were in sublineage 181, and 4.2% isolates were in sublineage 150. None of the isolates were detected in sublineage 142. Significant differences between the Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W strains were observed regarding INH and EMB resistance, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of the MDR TB in Xinjiang remains high and imposes challenges for TB control. Four Beijing/W sublineage isolates were observed in Xinjiang. There was no correlation between MDR and the Beijing/W lineage and no correlation between drug resistance and the Beijing/W sublineage strains. Surveillance of the clinical isolates of MTB is recommended to strengthen the identification of MDR/XDR TB and sublineages of the Beijing/W strains. © Med Sci Monit, 2015.

PubMed | Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong University and Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) was confirmed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011.A cross-sectional study was conducted prior to supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), immediately after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. In selected prefectures, participants aged 60 years old who visited hospitals at county-level or above to have their blood drawn for reasons not related to the study, were invited to participate in our study. Antibody titers 8 were considered positive.Among the 2,611 participants enrolled, 2,253 (86.3%), 2,283 (87.4%), and 1,989 (76.2%) were seropositive to P1, P2 and P3 respectively, and 1744 (66.8%) participants were seropositive to all the three serotypes. Lower antibody seropositivities and geometric mean titers were observed in children <1 year of age and in adults aged 15-39 years.Serosurveys to estimate population immunity in districts at high risk of polio importation might be useful to gauge underlying population immunity gaps to polio and possibly to guide preparedness and response planning. Consideration should be given to older children and adults during polio risk assessment planning and outbreak response.

Sun Q.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Zhang Y.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Zhu S.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Tian H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Human enterovirus 85 (HEV85), whose prototype strain (Strain BAN00-10353/BAN/2000) was isolated in Bangladesh in 2000, is a recently identified serotype within the human enterovirus B (HEV-B) species. At present, only one nucleotide sequence of HEV85 (the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain) is available in the GenBank database. Principal Findings: In this study, we report the genetic characteristics of 33 HEV85 isolates that circulated in the Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region of China in 2011. Sequence analysis revealed that all these Chinese HEV85 isolates belong to 2 transmission chains, and intertypic recombination was found with the new unknown serotype HEV-B donor sequences. Two HEV85 isolates recovered from a patient presenting acute flaccid paralysis and one of his contacts were temperature-insensitive strains, and some nucleotide substitutions in the non-coding regions and in the 2C or 3D coding regions may have affected the temperature sensitivity of HEV85 strains. Conclusions: The Chinese HEV85 recombinant described in this study trapped a new unknown serotype HEV-B donor sequence, indicating that new unknown HEV-B serotypes exist or circulate in Xinjiang of China. Our study also indicated that HEV85 is a prevalent and common enterovirus serotype in Xinjiang. © 2013 Sun et al.

Wang H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cui H.,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Ding Z.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ba P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 12 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2013

Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with countries where WPV is endemic. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalence among children <15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Individuals < 15 years old who visited hospitals at the prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), P2, and P3 were assayed according to the World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers of ≥8 were considered positive. Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2, and P3, respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3- to 5-year-old subjects had the highest rate of seropositivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age. The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio-free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent type 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Jing M.,Ludong University | Yu H.-T.,National Taiwan University | Bi X.,Ludong University | Lai Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

House mice (Mus musculus) are human commensals and have served as a primary model in biomedical, ecological and evolutionary research. Although there is detailed knowledge of the biogeography of house mice in Europe, little is known of the history of house mice in China, despite the fact that China encompasses an enormous portion of their range. In the present study, 535 house mice caught from 29 localities in China were studied by sequencing the mitochondrial D-loop and genotyping 10 nuclear microsatellite markers distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two evolutionary lineages corresponding to Mus musculus castaneus and Mus musculus musculus in the south and north, respectively, with the Yangtze River approximately representing the boundary. More detailed analyses combining published sequence data from mice sampled in neighbouring countries revealed the migration routes of the two subspecies into China: M. m. castaneus appeared to have migrated through a southern route (Yunnan and Guangxi), whereas M. m. musculus entered China from Kazakhstan through the north-west border (Xinjiang). Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial sequences indicated rapid population expansions in both subspecies, approximately 4650-9300 and 7150-14 300 years ago for M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus, respectively. Interestingly, the migration routes of Chinese house mice coincide with the colonization routes of modern humans into China, and the expansion times of house mice are consistent with the development of agriculture in southern and northern China, respectively. Finally, our study confirmed the existence of a hybrid zone between M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus in China. Further study of this hybrid zone will provide a useful counterpart to the well-studied hybrid zone between M. m. musculus and Mus musculus domesticus in central Europe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PubMed | Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Health Emergency Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2014

In order to understand the distribution of the host animals in Junggar Basin, this study intended to map the spatial distribution and identifying the risk of Rhombomys opimus in the framework of ecological niche theory based on the 3S technology.Data on Rhombomys opimus was obtained through a series of field surveys. Environmental variables were achieved through data from Remote Sensing. Maxent modeling was built to map the potential distribution of Rhombomys opimus, with its risks identified.The prediction model showed ideal accuracy, with the AUC value as 0.968. Probability of Maximum Youden Index was defined as the threshold being used. The sensitivity and specificity showed as 91.4% and 63.3%, respectively. The accuracy was 73.8%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.495. The positive predictive value was 59.7%. The negative predictive value was 92.6%. The predicted high risk area was 37 304 km2, with 6.2% in the whole area, distributed in 18 counties, including Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Urumqi, Karamay and so on. The number of people under high risk would come about 120 000, scattering in the areas of 261 square kilometers.It was feasible to predict the potential distribution of Rhombomys opimus based on the ecological niche theory as well as environmental variables derived from data through remote sensing. More specific high-risk areas could be identified under this technique so as to guide the monitoring programs.

PubMed | Zibo Central Hospital, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Academy of Sciences and Shandong University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncology letters | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, which received low-dose ionizing radiation, on the treatment of osteosarcoma in rats. The cultured UMR-106 cells were inoculated under the anterior chest skin of 24 rats to establish an osteosarcoma model. In addition, the LAK cells from 24 mice were exposed to doses of 0 (control group), 0.65 or 3.25 mGy X-ray radiation. The tritiated thymidine (

PubMed | Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89.

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