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Peng X.-M.,Xinjiang Institute of Traditional Uyghur Medicine | Gao L.,Xinjiang Institute of Traditional Uyghur Medicine | Huo S.-X.,Xinjiang Institute of Traditional Uyghur Medicine | Liu X.-M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yan M.,Xinjiang Institute of Traditional Uyghur Medicine
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2015

Acteoside (verbsacoside), one of the main active phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanche deserticola, is known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective activity, and herbs containing it are used to enhance memory. However, there is relatively little direct experimental evidence to support the use of acteoside in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of acteoside in improving learning and memory, using a mouse model of senescence induced by a combination of d-galactose and AlCl3, and investigate its potential mechanisms compared with the positive controls vitamin E and piracetam. Acteoside was administered intragastrically at doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg/day for 30 days after AD was induced. Memory function was evaluated using a step-down test. The number of neuron was analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining and the number of Nissl bodies by Nissl staining. The expression of caspase-3 protein in hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Nitric oxide and total nitric oxide synthase level in hippocampus were also assessed. Our results showed that the latency of step down was shortened in AD model mice and the number of errors decreased after treatment with all doses of acteoside. Neurons and Nissl bodies in the hippocampus were increased significantly with higher doses (60 and 120 mg/kg/day) of acteoside. The content of nitric oxide, the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the expression of caspase-3 protein were decreased by 120 mg/kg/day acteoside compared with that of the AD model group. Our results support the results obtained previously using the Morris maze test in the same mouse model of senescence, and the use of traditional medicinal herbs containing acteoside for neuroprotection and memory loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Islam R.,Xinjiang Medical University | Islam R.,Xinjiang Institute of Traditional Uyghur Medicine | Mamat Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Traditional Uyghur Medicine | Ismayil I.,Xinjiang Institute of Traditional Uyghur Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2015

The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15?days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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