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Li Y.P.,North China Electrical Power University | Huang G.H.,North China Electrical Power University | Chen X.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography
Applied Energy

Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are expected to continue to rise due to the ever-increasing use of fossil fuels and ever-boosting demand for energy. This leads to inevitable conflict between satisfying increasing energy demand and reducing GHG emissions. In this study, an integrated fuzzy-stochastic optimization model (IFOM) is developed for planning energy systems in association with GHG mitigation. Multiple uncertainties presented as probability distributions, fuzzy-intervals and their combinations are allowed to be incorporated within the framework of IFOM. The developed method is then applied to a case study of long-term planning of a regional energy system, where integer programming (IP) technique is introduced into the IFOM to facilitate dynamic analysis for capacity-expansion planning of energy-production facilities within a multistage context to satisfy increasing energy demand. Solutions related fuzzy and probability information are obtained and can be used for generating decision alternatives. The results can not only provide optimal energy resource/service allocation and capacity-expansion plans, but also help decision-makers identify desired policies for GHG mitigation with a cost-effective manner. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang W.,Inner Mongolia University | Feng Z.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography
Earth-Science Reviews

Based on the review of 26 high-standard Holocene climatic reconstructions (mainly pollen-based) from the Mongolian Plateau and its surrounding areas, temporal and spatial patterns of the Holocene moisture evolution are synthesized. The regionally-averaged moisture history from the summer monsoon-influenced semiarid belt in China (i.e., Region A) demonstrates that the moisture index curve is broadly in agreement with the synthesized East Asian Monsoon Strength curve, both following the general trend of the West Tropical Pacific SST that is in turn the delayed response to the northern hemispheric summer solar insolation. The regionally-averaged moisture indices from the winter monsoon-dominated southern Siberia including Lake Baikal area and the Altai Mountains (i.e., Region B) exhibit a general declining trends since 10.6-9.6. cal. kyr BP, being largely consistent with the trends of the annual precipitation and the warm-season temperature in the Russian Plain. The consistency might be attributable to the Holocene declining trend of the warm-season temperature in North Atlantic region. The predominant feature of the regionally-averaged moisture index from the westerlies-affected northern Xinjiang (i.e., Region C) is a persistent increasing trend since ~. 8. cal. kyr BP. The wetting trend of northern Xinjiang during the past 8000. years might be attributable to the increasing trend of winter insolation and to the associated increasing trend of cold-season temperature in northwestern Europe. The chronological correspondences between dry phases and warm intervals in the arid areas of the Mongolian Plateau (i.e., northern Mongolian Plateau within Mongolia and southern Mongolian Plateau within China, Region D) lend a support to the proposal that the mid-Holocene dry phase was most likely the result of mid-Holocene high warm-season temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Xiao W.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Xiao W.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences | Santosh M.,Kochi University
Gondwana Research

The architecture of accretionary orogens is a key to understand continental growth. Here we present an overview of the orogenic components and their amalgamation in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The CAOB records the convergence and interactions among various types of orogenic components including the Japan-type, Mariana-type, and Alaska-Aleutian-type arc systems, as well as the active marginal sequences of the Siberia Craton, which incorporated wide accretionary complexes and accreted arcs and terranes. During construction of the CAOB, the Kazakhstan arc chain was characterized by multiple subduction, whereas the northern fringe of the Tarim Craton remained mostly as a passive margin. The multiple convergence and accretions among these various orogenic components generated huge orogenic collages in the late Paleozoic and even in the early Triassic, involving parallel amalgamation, circum-microcontinent amalgamation and oroclinal bending. The preservation of trapped basins played a significant role in orogenesis with some parts of the oceanic plate being subducted and others behaving as rigid units. The orogenesis in the CAOB was long-lived, lasting for more than 800. m.y., involving multiple-subduction and long, continuous accretion, and featuring the complexity of accretionary orogenesis and continent growth. © 2014 International Association for Gondwana Research. Source

Wang Q.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Wang Q.,University of California at Riverside | Chen X.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Jha A.N.,University of Plymouth | Rogers H.,University of Oxford
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Extraction of natural gas from shale rock in the United States (US) is one of the landmark events in the 21st century. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing can extract huge quantities of natural gas from impermeable shale formations, which were previously thought to be either impossible or uneconomic to produce. This review offers a comprehensive insight into US shale gas opportunities, appraising the evolution, evidence and the challenges of shale gas production in the US. The history of US shale gas in this article is divided into three periods and based on the change of oil price (i.e., the period before the 1970s oil crisis, the period from 1970s to 2000, and the period since 2000), the US has moved from being one of the world's biggest importers of gas to being self-sufficient in less than a decade, with the shale gas production increasing 12-fold (from 2000 to 2010). The US domestic natural gas price hit a 10-year low in 2012. The US domestic natural gas price in the first half of 2012 was about $2 per million British Thermal Unit (BTU), compared with Brent crude, the world benchmark price for oil, now about $ 80-100/barrel, or $14-17 per million BTU. Partly due to an increase in gas-fired power generation in response to low gas prices, US carbon emissions from fossil-fuel combustion fell by 430 million ton CO2 - more than any other country - between 2006 and 2011. Shale gas also stimulated economic growth, creating 600,000 new jobs in the US by 2010. However, the US shale gas revolution would be curbed, if the environmental risks posed by hydraulic fracturing are not managed effectively. The hydraulic fracturing is water intensive, and can cause pollution in the marine environment, with implications for long-term environmental sustainability in several ways. Also, large amounts of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, can be emitted during the shale gas exploration and production. Hydraulic fracturing also may induce earthquakes. These environmental risks need to be managed by good practices which is not being applied by all the producers in all the locations. Enforcing stronger regulations are necessary to minimize risk to the environment and on human health. Robust regulatory oversight can however increase the cost of extraction, but stringent regulations can foster an historic opportunity to provide cheaper and cleaner gas to meet the consumer demand, as well as to usher in the future growth of the industry. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chen Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Mu S.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical

In the present paper, core-shell structured Fe3O4 nanoparticles functionalized with rhodamine derived probe were prepared for the detection, adsorption and removal of Hg(II). The core was composed of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, while the shell consisted of silica molecular sieve MCM-41 and was functionalized by rhodamine derived probe. The nanocomposite was characterized by electron microscopy images, XRD patterns, thermogravimetric analysis and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, which confirmed its core-shell structure. Its sensing performance towards Hg(II) was then discussed in detail. Experimental result suggested that the emission of the nanocomposite increased with the increasing Hg(II) concentration, showing emission "Off-On" effect. High sensitivity and good selectivity were observed from the nanocomposite. Owing to the highly ordered tunnels and the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of MCM-41, the nanocomposite showed fast response towards Hg(II). What's more, it was recyclable for practical application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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