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Li L.,Peking Union Medical College | Liu Y.,Peking University | Wang X.,Beijing Forestry University | Fang J.,Peking University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Species pool hypothesis is broadly known and frequently tested in various regions and vegetation types. However it has not been tested in the arid Xinjiang region of China due to lack of data. Here with systematic data from references and field survey, we comprehensively examined species pool hypothesis in this region. Took species richness in 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells as regional species richness (RSR) which were obtained from the distribution maps of vascular plant species, and took species diversity of 190 and 103 plots in forest and grassland biomes across Xinjiang as local species richness (LSR), together with the digitalized soil pH and climate data, we tested the species pool hypothesis in this region. We found that: (1) the average RSR was higher in mountains than that in basins and it was negatively correlated with soil pH in mountains while positively correlated with soil pH in basins in Xinjiang; (2) RSR showed a positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (MAP) while showed a humpshaped pattern with mean annual temperature (MAT); and the changing patterns of LSR were different for forest and grassland along the geographical and climate gradients; (3) LSR of forest was more affected by RSR than by climate, while on the contrary, LSR of grassland was more affected by climate than by RSR. Our results validated the species pool hypothesis in revealing that RSR had a significant role in shaping LSR patterns in addition to climate. We concluded that the relative effects of climate vs. RSR on LSR differed markedly between the forest and grassland communities across Xinjiang. Our results also showed that RSR revealed a contrasting relationship with soil pH in mountains and in basins, which might reflect differences in evolutionary processes of various habitats. In summary, our research systematically analyzed the correlation of species richness in regional and local scales in Xinjiang which provides more insights into the understanding of species pool hypothesis. © 2015 Li et al.


Liu H.,Peking Union Medical College | Lai H.,Peking Union Medical College | Jia X.,Xinjiang Institute of Chinese and Ethnic Medicine | Liu J.,Peking Union Medical College | And 7 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2013

The fruit of Schisandra chinensis, namely "Wuweizi" in China, is a well-known herbal medicine and health food. In this paper, an accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry was developed for quality evaluation of Wuweizi. Nine lignans, including schisandrol A, schisandrol B, angeloylgomisin H, gomisin G, schisantherin A, schisanhenol, schisandrin A, schisandrin B, and schisandrin C were determined simultaneously in forty-three batches of Wuweizi samples collected from different localities. Thirty-six common peaks were unequivocally identified or tentatively assigned by comparing their mass spectrometric data with reference compounds, self-established compound library and published literatures. And the thirty-six common peaks were selected as characteristic peaks to assess the similarity of chromatographic fingerprinting of these Wuweizi samples. Moreover, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal components analysis were successfully applied to demonstrate the variability of these Wuweizi samples. The results indicated the content of nine investigated lignans varied greatly among the samples, and samples collected from different localities could be discriminated. Furthermore, schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisandrin B, and schisandrin C were found to chemical marker for evaluating the quality of Wuweizi. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Liu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qi Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Lai H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

In China, the plants of genus Kadsura had been used as the folk medicines for a long time and showed good effect of activating blood and dissolving stasis, promoting qi circulation to relieve pain, dispelling wind and eliminating dampness. The bioactivities of genus Kadsura were attributed to the existence of its characteristic chemical constituents. This review systematically summarized the traditional efficacy and medicinal application of genus Kadsura in China, chemical constituents and bioactivities of the plants of genus Kadsura. And, lignans and triterpenoids were the main bioactive constituents, which exhibited good anti-HIV, anti-tumor, anti-hepatitis, anti-oxidant, anti-platelet aggregation activities and neuroprotective effect etc. Moreover, some structure-activity relationships mining would greatly enrich the opportunity of finding new and promising lead compounds and promote the reasonable development and utilization of the plants of genus Kadsura. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


Liu H.,Peking Union Medical College | Liu H.,Xinjiang Institute of Chinese and Ethnic Medicine | Liu J.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang J.,Xinjiang Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chromatographic Science | Year: 2016

A rapid and sensitive method based on HPLC-DAD-MS was developed for quantitative analysis of two flavonoids and chemical fingerprint analysis to evaluate the quality of Receptaculum Nelumbinis. The analysis was conducted on a Poroshell 120 C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid buffer solution and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution. This method displayed good linearity with R2 at >0.9999 and limits of quantity <0.37 μg mL-1. Relative standard deviation values for intra- and interday precision were <0.82 and 1.03%, respectively. The mean recovery of hyperoside was 95.54% and of isoquercitrin was 92.10%. Hyperoside and isoquercitrin were determined simultaneously, and 12 peaks in the chemical fingerprint were identified. The chemometric methods, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis, were applied to distinguish 11 batches of Receptaculum Nelumbinis samples. The above results could validate each other and successfully divide these samples into two groups. Moreover, hyperoside and isoquercitrin could be selected as chemical markers to evaluate the quality of Receptaculum Nelumbinis from different localities. This study demonstrated that the developed method was a powerful and beneficial tool to carry out the quality control of Receptaculum Nelumbinis. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Liu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Guo Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qi Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

The stamen of lotus, known as Nelumbinis stamen, has been used as the folk medicine and functional food for a long time, which showed good activities of anti-ulcer, anti-thrombosis, analgesic, anti-diarrhea, strengthen uterine contraction. The bioactivities of Nelumbinis stamen were attributed to the existence of flavonoids, its characteristic chemical constituents. A reliable method for comprehensive chemical analysis of flavonoids in Nelumbinis stamen by HPLC-DAD-MS was developed for the first time. The extraction protocol of flavonoids from Nelumbinis stamen was optimized by an orthogonal design. The chromatographic conditions were optimized, which exhibited similar level than that of the UHPLC platform allowing target compound identification in a shorter time with little solvent consumption. Moreover, similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal components analysis were successfully applied to demonstrate the variability of these Nelumbinis stamen samples. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

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