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Cao Q.,Henan Institute of Engineering | Wang L.,Henan Institute of Engineering | Li W.,Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

The utilization of some special animal fibers including cashmere, yak hair, camel hair, rabbit hair and feathers is illustrated by literature and the archaeological discoveries. The utilization of cashmere, yak hair and camel hair can be traced back to about 4000 years ago or even earlier; rabbit hair textiles were produced in Tang Dynasty; feathers have been utilized in textiles since Spring and Autumn period, and feather fabrics prevailed from Tang Dynasty until Ming and Qing Dynasty. The spinning technology of special animal fibers and the structure and processing of threads reproduced from peacock feathers were analyzed. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Hong C.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Hong C.,Graduate University | Jiang H.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Jiang H.,Graduate University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Proteomic approaches based on mass spectrometry have been recently used in archaeological and art researches, generating promising results for protein identification. Little information is known about eastward spread and eastern limits of prehistoric milking in eastern Eurasia. Methodology/Principal Finding: In this paper, an ancient visible food remain from Subeixi Cemeteries (cal. 500 to 300 years BC) of the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, China, preliminarily determined containing 0.432 mg/kg cattle casein with ELISA, was analyzed by using an improved method based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS to further identify protein origin. The specific sequence of bovine casein and the homology sequence of goat/sheep casein were identified. Conclusions/Significance: The existence of milk component in ancient food implies goat/sheep and cattle milking in ancient Subeixi region, the furthest eastern location of prehistoric milking in the Old World up to date. It is envisioned that this work provides a new approach for ancient residue analysis and other archaeometry field. © 2012 Hong et al.

Jiang H.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Jiang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Y.,Turpania Academia | Lu E.,Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology | And 2 more authors.
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2014

The Shengjindian cemeteries, Xinjiang, China, were discovered during the construction of a road in 2007, following which a salvage archaeological excavation was performed. Systemic archaeobotanical studies were applied to the plant remains, which were radiocarbon dated to 2,400–2,000 bp (about 500 bc–1 bc/ad). Altogether 33 taxa were identified. Five species of cereal remains were discovered, viz. Triticum aestivum, Panicum miliaceum, Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare var. coeleste, as well as Setaria italica. The extent of the finds suggested that all of them were cultivated locally at that time. There were 38 fragments of grape seeds discovered within three tombs, which suggested occasional fruit cultivation by the indigenous people. Wild plants like reed and bulrush were also utilized by the ancient people in mat and thread making. The seed of Capparis spinosa may have been utilized for its medicinal and/or oil value. All of the above suggested that plants played important roles in the daily life of the ancient people buried in the Shengjindian cemetery. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Jiang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jiang H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology | Wang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2013

Archaeobotanical studies were undertaken at the Yuergou site, which is located in the Turpan basin in Xinjiang, China, and which has been dated to around 2300-2400 years b. p. Altogether 21 taxa were identified. Four cereal remains were identified, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica. The first three were probably cultivated while the last one may not have been grown deliberately, but probably grew together with plants of P. miliaceum. A fruit stone of Ziziphus jujuba (Chinese date) was discovered, which showed that this may have been cultivated around the site during that time. Charcoal of Picea sp. was found, from wood which must have been used as fuel by the indigenous people. Fifteen taxa of wild plants were also identified, most of which can be considered as weeds, and which grew near the site. Burs of Xanthium strumarium were discovered. As nearly all of them were broken, the seeds may have been used by the ancient inhabitants. Since most of the cereal remains consisted of chaff, they must represent by-products. Furthermore, grains of Echinochloa crus-galli may also have been exploited as complementary food resources. All the above indicate that both cultivated and wild plants were used for cereals, fuel, or other purposes, and plant resources played important roles in the daily life of the ancient inhabitants of the Yuergou site. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Gong Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ferguson D.K.,University of Vienna | Tao D.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2011

Ancient foodstuffs, including noodles, cakes, and common millet, were excavated from the Subeixi Cemeteries (cal. 500-300 years BC), Turpan District in Xinjiang, China. Starch grain and phytolith analyses were undertaken to identify the plant species involved. These indicate that the noodles and cakes were made from Panicum miliaceum. Ancient food preparation technologies were also investigated by cooking experiments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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