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Feng G.,University of Aarhus | Mi X.C.,CAS Institute of Botany | Bocher P.K.,University of Aarhus | Mao L.F.,Michigan State University | And 10 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2014

The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as paleoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional (as represented by variation in maximum canopy height) and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest's woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while paleoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns. © 2014 Author(s).


Aimaiti Y.,Xinjiang Normal University | Aimaiti Y.,Chiba University | Kasimu A.,Xinjiang Normal University | Jing G.,Xinjiang Academy of forestry
Earth Science Informatics | Year: 2016

Accurate mapping of urban land cover from satellite data provides essential input to urban landscape analysis, modelling and urban ecosystem studies. Additionally, analysis of urban landscape metrics will provide a positive step towards comprehensive understanding of the features of urban landscape structure and further planning. In the present study, multi-spectral Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) images and ALOS/Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) dual-polarized (FBD) microwave images were used to extract urban land cover information by applying the decision tree method, and additional Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER/GDEM) was used to reduce the effects of mountains in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images due to high backscattering from urban construction land. A set of landscape metrics, such as landscape diversity, edge density and landscape shape indices with supplementary ecological meanings, were chosen to quantitatively analysis urban landscape patterns in arid environments. The overall accuracy assessment result was 91.50%, and the experimental results demonstrate that synergetic use of optical and SAR ALOS data has the potential and advantages for Arid Urban Region mapping, while the decision tree method showed intuitive simplicity and computational efficiency. The quantitative analysis results of landscape metrics showed that distribution of landscape types in Urumqi city were inhomogeneous, the urban landscape dominated by a few classes. Urbanization in this region has resulted in dramatic increases in patch density (PD), edge density (ED) and landscape shape complexity. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Chang S.-L.,Xinjiang University | Zhang Z.-Y.,Xinjiang Chemical Engineering Design and Research Institute | Sun Z.-Q.,Xinjiang University | Zhang Y.-T.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2011

Kunes County is a frequent landslide disasters-happening area in Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Based on multivariable information integration and spatial analysis function of GIS, recent monitoring data about 449 landslide disaster sites in Kunes County was analyzed, development characteristics of the landslide in this area was explored and hazard zoning of landslide disaster was carried out. Results show that gelogical condition is basic factor of forming landslide disasters, rainfall is primary inducting condition of landslide disaster and excessive human being activities is also one of important factors to promote occurrence and development of landslide disasters. We should reduce unreasonable human being activities under above topographic and geological condition and reasonably plan livestock number to reduce environmental load.


Zhang Y.-T.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Li J.-M.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Chang S.-L.,Xinjiang University | Li X.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Lu J.-J.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2011

By the method of point pattern analysis, this paper studied the spatial distribution patterns of different age class individuals in the Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica forest in middle part of Tianshan Mountain and the influence of topographic factors on the distribution patterns. It was observed that the density of different age class individuals in the forest decreased with the increasing DBH of the individuals, and except old trees which presented a random distribution at the scale of 0-12 m, the saplings and the small, medium, and big trees were in aggregative distribution at all scales. With the increase of age class, the scale at which the individuals presented the highest aggregation degree increased, whereas the aggregation intensity declined. At small scale (0-16 m), different age class individuals appeared negative association, and the greater difference the tree age, the more significant the negative association presented. Altitude had significant positive effects on the number of medium, big, and old trees but had little effects on the number of saplings and small trees. Slope grade had significant positive effects on the number of saplings and small and medium trees, significant negative effects on the number of old trees, but little effects on the number of big trees. Concavo-convex had significant negative effects on the number of saplings and small and medium trees but had little effects on the number of big and old trees.


Zhai M.Z.,Northwest University, China | Wang D.,Northwest University, China | Tao X.D.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Wang Z.Y.,Northwest University, China
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

To confirm the fatty acid compositions and tocopherol concentrations in walnut oil, 11 varieties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) were collected from the Jackwood Experiment Station, Xinjiang Academy of Forestry during harvest in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Total oil was extracted, and the total fatty acid composition of each oil, including saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were analysed by gas chromatography, while tocopherol concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the total UFA content was > 91% (w/w) in all 11 varieties of walnut. Linoleic acid (18:2) was the dominant UFA, varying from 57.6% (w/w) in ‘XJ020’ to 67.7% (w/w) in ‘XJ004’, whereas concentrations of linolenic acid (18:3) ranged from 9.7% (w/w) in ‘XJ017’ to 19.2% (w/w) in ‘XJ020’. Compared to all other walnut varieties, ‘XJ020’ had the highest concentration of total UFAs [93.7% (w/w)]. Moreover, tocopherol concentrations ranged from 0.04 - 0.34 mg ml-1 in the walnut oils. γ-Tocopherol was dominant and ranged from 0.033 - 0.328 mg ml-1, while δ-tocopherol accounted for 0.006 - 0.038 mg ml-1. No α-tocopherol was detected in any walnut oil. This work contributes to our knowledge on the nutritional properties of walnut oils and will assist in the selection of walnut varieties for a healthy diet. © 2015, Headley Brothers Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ding C.-F.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Li X.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Zhang H.-F.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Gao Y.-Q.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Li W.-T.,Chuzhou University
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

This paper predicted the potential distribution area of the spruce forest on the central Tianshan Mountain, through determining the site index thresholds, using 3S and spatial modeling technologies to build a site index model with water, heat, terrain and other factors, based on the current site conditions there. The results showed that the potential distribution area simulated by the site index model was not significantly different with the current actual distribution area, but had a significant difference with the non-spruce forest area. Based on the built site index model, there was a large potential distribution area, which occupied 6.4% of the total research area, i.e., 7. 01 ×103 hm2 of forest lower boundary zones, glades, shady and half shady slope areas, and could be used for the future forest development. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Li H.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Li H.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Zhang X.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Forest is titled as "green reservoir" which has incredible ecological functions, such as; reserving water, depurating water quality, etc. Therefore, understanding the effects of different components of the forest ecosystem on water quality is significant. In this study, the Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica natural forest was taken as the object in the middle Tianshan mountains at Tianshan Forest Ecosystem Research Station. There are totally eight sample plots according to the forest canopy density (0.2 >0.4 >0. >6 > 0. 8) and forest age (young forest (0 -60a), middle\aged forest (60 - 100a), nearly mature forest (100 - 120a), and mature forest (120 - 160a)) in this area. In the plant growing season (July, August, September), all of water samples in the condition of rainfall over 30mm were collected using high-density polyethylene plastic bottle and detected in Xinjiang Environmental Monitoring Station. The water quality changes during rainfall transformation process were investigated on rain fall, through fall, surface runoff and underground seepage water. The water samples were analyzed chemically to determine the effects of different ecosystem components on water quality. The results showed that; (1) The influence of forest ecosystem on water quality of rainfall was enhanced as the canopy density and forest age increased. When forests were in same age, the sequence of this influence on water quality was canopy density of0.2<0.4<0.6<0.8. When canopy density was 0. 8, the sequence of forest influence on water quality was young forest < middle-aged forest < mature forest < near mature forest; (2) When the rainfall entered forest canopy, the nutrient content in water was significantly increased as dissolved oxygen decreased and ammonia nitrogen, COD, BOD, total phosphorus as well as potassium content increased; (3) When the through fall turned into surface runoff, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water further declined, along with COD, BOD, total phosphorus and potassium content increased. Meanwhile, the ammonia nitrogen concentration remarkably decreased; (4) The soil layer had strong decontaminating ability and high nutrient accumulation function in natural forest ecosystem. The water quality indicator of total underground seepage was much better than those of precipitation, indicating that forest soil layer is the most critical layer of the forest ecosystem. (5) The sequence of the water quality in the forest ecosystem scored by quantitative and comprehensive assessment on was July > September > August; (6) The multi-factor line model established by principal component analysis (PAC) method was representative and can be better used for comprehensive assessment on water quality.


Sheng-Xuan G.,Beijing Forestry University | Wei D.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu-Tao Z.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Changing characteristics of soil organic carbon and active organic carbon concentrations were studied along an altitudinal gradient of natural spruce forest of Mount Tianshan, Xinjiang, China. Soil samples were collected from different soil depths from three different elevations i.e., 1800-2000, 2200-2400 and 2600-2800 m, respectively. The characteristics of soil organic carbon mineralization, as well as other factors affecting the process, were evaluated using double exponential equations. The results showed that soil organic carbon and active carbon concentrations had an obvious surface enrichment phenomenon. There were no significant differences in total soil organic carbon between different elevations. Surface soil active carbon concentrations significantly decreased at elevations of 2600-2800 m due to less litter and lower temperature. The results indicated a similar mineralization process with strong reaction intensity at early stages followed by a gradual reduction in intensity in 0-100 cm depth of soil at the three elevations. Organic carbon mineralization intensity is affected by soil active carbon concentration and temperature and decreased significantly between 0-40 cm at the high elevation of 2600-2800 m. Compared with total soil organic carbon, the soil active carbon concentration affected the mineralization process and intensity more directly. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2015.


Wang W.D.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Bai Z.Q.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Alimu M.M.T.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Liu D.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Guo Z.J.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

The woody shrub layer in the Tianshan Mountains comprises a large proportion of the plant biomass of the entire forest ecosystem, significantly affecting estimates of the total forest biomass. Therefore, using an average wood-harvesting method, this study measured both the aboveground and belowground biomasses of six species of dominant woody shrubs (Rosa spinosissima L., Berberis heteropoda Schrenk., Lonicera hispida Pall., Spiraea tianschanica Pojark, Juniperus pseudosabina Fisch. et Mey., and Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd.) in eastern, central, and western areas of the Tianshan Mountains. A series of individual biomass models inferred from the variable D2H were established. The results are as follows: (1) The total biomass of the forest in the western areas of the Tianshan Mountains was larger than that in the central and eastern areas. The average biomass of an individual plant of the six woody shrubs was in the order of Lonicera hispida > Cotoneaster melanocarpus > Berberis heteropoda > Juniperus pseudosabina > Spiraea tianschanica > Rosa spinosissima. (2) In the western areas of Tianshan Mountains, the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass was greater than 1 for all six species; in the central area, it was less than 1 for all species except R. spinosissima and L. hispida; and in the eastern area, it was less than 1 for all species except B. heteropoda. (3) In all species, roots and branches were the major contributors to the biomass. The plant organ biomass was in the order of root < branch < leaf. The biomass of different root sizes was in the order of thick root > large root > medium root > small root > fine root. The variation in biomass distribution among different nutritive organs and diameter-class roots reflects the strategies that species employed to adapt to selected habitats. (4) Twenty-four biomass estimation models, with D2H as an independent variable, were established to evaluate organ biomass and individual biomass in the six species. The established models included 10 linear models, eight power function models, four polynomial models, and two logarithmic models. Except for B. heteropoda and J. pseudosabina, which reached only the significant level, the biomass models for all species reached the extremely significant level. The results indicate that the models can provide highly accurate estimates that could be used to evaluate the biomass of woody shrubs. This study provides supporting data for quantitative assessment of carbon fixation capacity of the Tianshan Mountains forest ecosystem. In addition, it provides strong evidence for further evaluation of the service capacity of forest ecosystems. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Xinjiang Academy of Forestry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology | Year: 2012

By the method of point pattern analysis, this paper studied the spatial distribution patterns of different age class individuals in the Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica forest in middle part of Tianshan Mountain and the influence of topographic factors on the distribution patterns. It was observed that the density of different age class individuals in the forest decreased with the increasing DBH of the individuals, and except old trees which presented a random distribution at the scale of 0-12 m, the saplings and the small, medium, and big trees were in aggregative distribution at all scales. With the increase of age class, the scale at which the individuals presented the highest aggregation degree increased, whereas the aggregation intensity declined. At small scale (0-16 m), different age class individuals appeared negative association, and the greater difference the tree age, the more significant the negative association presented. Altitude had significant positive effects on the number of medium, big, and old trees but had little effects on the number of saplings and small trees. Slope grade had significant positive effects on the number of saplings and small and medium trees, significant negative effects on the number of old trees, but little effects on the number of big trees. Concavo-convex had significant negative effects on the number of saplings and small and medium trees but had little effects on the number of big and old trees.

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