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Zhai M.Z.,Northwest University, China | Wang D.,Northwest University, China | Tao X.D.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry | Wang Z.Y.,Northwest University, China
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

To confirm the fatty acid compositions and tocopherol concentrations in walnut oil, 11 varieties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) were collected from the Jackwood Experiment Station, Xinjiang Academy of Forestry during harvest in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Total oil was extracted, and the total fatty acid composition of each oil, including saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were analysed by gas chromatography, while tocopherol concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the total UFA content was > 91% (w/w) in all 11 varieties of walnut. Linoleic acid (18:2) was the dominant UFA, varying from 57.6% (w/w) in ‘XJ020’ to 67.7% (w/w) in ‘XJ004’, whereas concentrations of linolenic acid (18:3) ranged from 9.7% (w/w) in ‘XJ017’ to 19.2% (w/w) in ‘XJ020’. Compared to all other walnut varieties, ‘XJ020’ had the highest concentration of total UFAs [93.7% (w/w)]. Moreover, tocopherol concentrations ranged from 0.04 - 0.34 mg ml-1 in the walnut oils. γ-Tocopherol was dominant and ranged from 0.033 - 0.328 mg ml-1, while δ-tocopherol accounted for 0.006 - 0.038 mg ml-1. No α-tocopherol was detected in any walnut oil. This work contributes to our knowledge on the nutritional properties of walnut oils and will assist in the selection of walnut varieties for a healthy diet. © 2015, Headley Brothers Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Chen L.,Beijing Forestry University | Chen L.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Ma Q.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Chen Y.,Beijing Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an economically important tree widely cultivated in temperate regions for its nuts and timber. In this study, molecular identification using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 22 nut-shape characters were conducted on 35 cultivars of walnut grown in China. All 35 cultivars were classified into 11 broad categories on the basis of the nut phenotype. The shape characteristic of longitudinal sections to the suture presented a broad elliptic or elliptic shape was the largest category and included 18 cultivars. All accessions in each category were differentiated by no more than two SSR primer pairs. In addition to nut phenotype, 35 cultivars could be identified using four primer pairs, and every cultivar presented unique fingerprints. In particular, cultivars with the same parents were easily differentiated, such as 'Liaoning 1' and 'Liaoning 3' based on their different nut shape. Regardless of nut phenotype characters, just four loci (WJR031, WJR069, WJR265, and WJR281) also allowed the unambiguous separation of the 35 cultivars studied. This study provides a useful protocol for the characterization, identification, and authentication of any walnut cultivar and also shows the power of SSR markers in cultivar identification and intellectual property protection. Furthermore, the classification of nut shape is important for nut batch processing and for regional cultivar selection, which could be useful for the walnut industry. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sheng-Xuan G.,Beijing Forestry University | Wei D.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu-Tao Z.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Changing characteristics of soil organic carbon and active organic carbon concentrations were studied along an altitudinal gradient of natural spruce forest of Mount Tianshan, Xinjiang, China. Soil samples were collected from different soil depths from three different elevations i.e., 1800-2000, 2200-2400 and 2600-2800 m, respectively. The characteristics of soil organic carbon mineralization, as well as other factors affecting the process, were evaluated using double exponential equations. The results showed that soil organic carbon and active carbon concentrations had an obvious surface enrichment phenomenon. There were no significant differences in total soil organic carbon between different elevations. Surface soil active carbon concentrations significantly decreased at elevations of 2600-2800 m due to less litter and lower temperature. The results indicated a similar mineralization process with strong reaction intensity at early stages followed by a gradual reduction in intensity in 0-100 cm depth of soil at the three elevations. Organic carbon mineralization intensity is affected by soil active carbon concentration and temperature and decreased significantly between 0-40 cm at the high elevation of 2600-2800 m. Compared with total soil organic carbon, the soil active carbon concentration affected the mineralization process and intensity more directly. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2015. Source


Chang S.-L.,Xinjiang University | Zhang Z.-Y.,Xinjiang Chemical Engineering Design and Research Institute | Sun Z.-Q.,Xinjiang University | Zhang Y.-T.,Xinjiang Academy of Forestry
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2011

Kunes County is a frequent landslide disasters-happening area in Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Based on multivariable information integration and spatial analysis function of GIS, recent monitoring data about 449 landslide disaster sites in Kunes County was analyzed, development characteristics of the landslide in this area was explored and hazard zoning of landslide disaster was carried out. Results show that gelogical condition is basic factor of forming landslide disasters, rainfall is primary inducting condition of landslide disaster and excessive human being activities is also one of important factors to promote occurrence and development of landslide disasters. We should reduce unreasonable human being activities under above topographic and geological condition and reasonably plan livestock number to reduce environmental load. Source


Feng G.,University of Aarhus | Mi X.C.,CAS Institute of Botany | Bocher P.K.,University of Aarhus | Mao L.F.,Michigan State University | And 10 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2014

The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as paleoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional (as represented by variation in maximum canopy height) and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest's woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while paleoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns. © 2014 Author(s). Source

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