Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science

Urunchi, China

Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science

Urunchi, China
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Feng L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Dai J.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian L.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang H.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2017

The northwest inland is currently the most dominant cotton-growing region in China. In 2015, the region measured 2.3 million hectares with a total output of 4.28 million tons of cotton. The unit yield was 1900 kg hm−2, which was not only 21, 41 and 121% higher than the national averages of China, Brazil and the United States, respectively, but also 2.37 times as much as that of the world's average. Enhanced cotton production, particularly the high unit yield, can largely be attributed to the adoption of a series of key cultivation techniques. These techniques, including earliness-stimulating cultivation for full utilization of accumulated heat, close planting and short plant height for adequate use of light energy, and drip irrigation under plastic mulching for water saving and yield improvement, have been recently established and applied in the northwest inland of China. At the same time, a series of labor and cost-saving technologies or practices have been adopted to increase net production returns. Mechanization and precision seeding has greatly reduced labor inputs, rational high-density planting techniques combined with chemical regulation has simplified plant pruning and harvesting, and the integrated application of water and fertilizer has reduced the inputs and costs in field management. In particular, the integration of these agronomic techniques and material equipment has not only enhanced yields, but is also convenient, cost-effective and simple. These factors have all led to the establishment of the northwest inland as the largest predominantly cotton-growing area in China. However, the region is currently facing major issues including stagnated cotton yields, serious plastic film pollution, continuous degradation in fiber quality, substantial increases in the cost of cotton production and continuously declining profits. These factors necessitate that cotton cultivation strategies in the region need to be further optimized. Yields can be enhanced by exploring heat and water potential, while quality and economic benefits can be improved by exploring light potential, fertigation and integrating agronomic techniques with mechanization. Greater attention should be paid to seed quality and seeding processes to further reduce costs and improve efficiency. Comprehensive steps for improving the cultivation system at all stages of production should also be taken to enhance the quality of the cotton fiber. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang W.J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang X.J.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Wang X.J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Xu M.G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2010

Soil carbon sequestration is a complex process influenced by agricultural practices, climate and soil conditions. This paper reports a study of long-term fertilization impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamic from six long-term experiments. The experiment sites are located from warm-temperate zone with a double-cropping system of corn (Zea mays L.) - wheat (Triticum Aestivium L.) rotation, to mild-temperate zones with mono-cropping systems of continuous corn, or a three-year rotation of corn-wheat-wheat. Mineral fertilizer applications result in an increasing trend in SOC except in the arid and semi-arid areas with the mono-cropping systems. Additional manure application is important to maintain SOC level in the arid and semi-arid areas. Carbon conversion rate is significant lower in the warm-temperate zone with double cropping system (6.8%-7.7%) than that in the mild-temperate areas with mono-cropping systems (15.8%-31.0%). The conversion rate is significantly correlated with annual precipitation and active accumulative temperature, i.e., higher conversion rate under lower precipitation and/or temperature conditions. Moreover, soil high in clay content has higher conversion rate than soils low in clay content. Soil carbon sequestration rate ranges from 0.07 to 1.461 t ha-1 year -1 in the upland of northern China. There is significantly linear correlation between soil carbon sequestration and carbon input at most sites, indicating that these soils are not carbon-saturated thus have potential to migrate more CO2 from atmosphere.

Jiang P.-X.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.-S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang C.,Tsinghua University | Lou K.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Xing X.-H.,Tsinghua University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Violacein is a bacteria-originated indolocarbazole pigment with potential applications due to its various bioactivities such as anti-tumor, antiviral, and antifungal activities. However, stable mass production of this pigment is difficult due to its low productivities and the instability of wild-type violacein-producing strains. In order to establish a stable and efficient production system for violacein, the violacein synthesis pathway from a new species of Duganella sp. B2 was reconstructed in different bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter aerogenes by using different vectors. The gene cluster that encodes five enzymes involved in the violacein biosynthetic pathway was first isolated from Duganella sp. B2, and three recombinant expression vectors were constructed using the T7 promoter or the alkane-responsive promoter PalkB. Our results showed that violacein could be stably synthesized in E. coli, C. freundii, and E. aerogenes. Interestingly, we found that there were great differences between the different recombinant strains, not only in the protein expression profiles pertaining to violacein biosynthesis but also in the productivity and composition of crude violacein. Among the host strains tested, the crude violacein production by the recombinant C. freundii strain reached 1.68 g L-1 in shake flask cultures, which was 4-fold higher than the highest production previously reported in flask culture by other groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the efficient production of violacein by genetically engineered strains. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Li S.,Huanggang Normal University | Li S.,Rutgers University | Wang H.,Shaklee Corp. | Guo L.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014

The studies of nobiletin and other polymethoxyflavones from citrus peels become prevalent in recent years due to many well-established evidences showing their multiple efficacious biological activities. The biotransformation study of polymethoxyflavones, particularly nobiletin has emerged along with the significant findings of nobiletin bioactivity. Major nobiletin metabolites from rodent biofluids have been successfully characterized, isolated or synthesized for the evaluation of their biological activities and subsequently revealed that nobiletin metabolites demonstrate similar efficacies or more potent anti-oxidant activity and scavenging property against free radicals and in the inhibition of inflammation and cancer growth, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This review starts with basic chemistry of nobiletin and other polymethoxyflavones, highlights their biological properties and recent findings and summarizes nobiletin's biotransformation and biological activities of the main nobiletin metabolites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Meng Q.-W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.-P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu F.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fu K.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

Juvenile hormone III (JH III) plays primary roles in regulation of metamorphosis, reproduction and diapause in Leptinotarsa decemlineata, a notorious defoliator of potato. The neurosecretory cell-borne substance(s) negatively affects the final two steps in JH biosynthesis, catalyzed respectively by an epoxidase CYP15A1 and a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). In a few insect species other than L. decemlineata, the inhibitory substance is allatostatin (AS) neuropeptide. In this study, two putative AS genes encoding LdAS-C and LdAS-B precursors were cloned. Both LdAS-. C and LdAS-. B were expressed in the egg, larvae, pupae and adults, and highly expressed in the brain and the gut. Dietary introduction of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting LdAS-. C and LdAS-. B successfully knocked down respective target genes. Ingestion during 3 and 6 consecutive days of ds. LdAS-. C significantly increased the LdJHAMT mRNA levels by 3.8 and 9.9 fold respectively. In contrast, ingestion of ds. LdAS-. B only slightly increased the LdJHAMT expression level by 1.1 and 1.7 fold. Moreover, after one, two and three days' ingestion of ds. LdAS-. C, the relative JH levels in the hemolymph of treated larvae were 2.5, 4.2 and 1.9 fold higher than those in control beetles. Furthermore, ingestion of ds. LdAS-. C and ds. LdAS-. B significantly affected larval growth and delayed larval development. Thus, we provide a line of experimental evidence in L. decemlineata to support the concept that AS-C acts as an allatostatin and inhibit JH biosynthesis. © 2014.

Zhou L.-T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jia S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wan P.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kong Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2013

In JH biosynthetic pathway in insect corpora allata, methylation of farnesoic acid or JH acid using S-adenosyl- L-methionine generates a potent feedback inhibitor S-adenosyl- L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). Rapid removal of AdoHcy is hypothesized to be essential for JH synthesis. AdoHcy hydrolase (SAHase) is the only eukaryotic enzyme catalyzing the removal. In the present paper, we firstly cloned a putative LdSAHase gene from L. decemlineata. The cDNA consists of 1806. bp and encodes a 525 amino acid protein. LdSAHase was expressed in all developmental stages. The gene had the highest and the lowest level of transcription respectively in the 3rd- and 4th-instars' heads that contain corpora allata, which was positively correlated with JH titer in the haemolymph and the mRNA level of a JH early-inducible gene, the Krüppel homolog 1 gene ( Kr-h1). Secondly, dietary ingestion of bacterially-expressed LdSAHase-dsRNA significantly decreased LdSAHase and LdKr-h1 mRNA levels, reduced JH titer, and caused the death of the larvae, and the failure of pupation and adult emergence. After continuous exposure for 12. days, 42% of the larvae died, 65% of the prepupae failed to pupate and 100% of the pupae failed to emerge. Moreover, RNAi-mediated LdSAHase knockdown also reduced larval developing time, and decreased larval weight. Lastly, application of JH analogue pyriproxyfen to LdSAHase-dsRNA-exposed larvae did not greatly increase LdSAHase expression level and JH content, but up-regulated LdKr-h1 mRNA level. Expectedly, pyriproxyfen application could partially rescue the negative effects on the survival and the development. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that SAHase plays a critical role in JH biosynthesis in insects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jiang W.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu W.-P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo W.-C.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Xia Z.-H.,Station of Agricultural Techniques Extension in Yili | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region has evolved resistance to various types of insecticides. Chlorantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds and activates ryanodine receptors. It exhibited excellent efficacy against L. decemlineata in several field trails in Europe. In the present paper, the susceptibility of L. decemlineata fourth-instar larvae derived from six field populations and L. decemlineata adults derived from three field populations to chlorantraniliprole was determined by a topical application. The fourth-instar larvae were substantially more susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than adults, although the range of susceptibility was far greater among the fourth-instar larvae. Regarding stomach toxicities, adult beetles were less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than larvae. Chlorantraniliprole was most toxic to second-instar larvae, followed by third-and fourth-instar larvae. These data suggested that the appropriate timing for chlorantraniliprole spraying is the early larval stage. More-over, the synergistic activities of chlorantraniliprole in combination with triphenyl phosphate, diethyl maleate, or piperonyl butoxide against fourth-instar larvae from two field populations and adults from one field population were tested. Piperonyl butoxide had synergistic effects with chlorantraniliprole against fourth-instar larvae but not against adult beetles. Conversely, triphenyl phosphate and diethyl maleate exerted little synergistic effects. It appears that there is a potential risk of resistance against chlorantraniliprole resulting from cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Das P.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Yang X.-P.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Ma L.Z.,CAS Institute of Microbiology
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics. © 2014 Das, Yang and Ma.

Shi Y.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural science
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the composition and distribution variation of endophytic bacteria and fungi in Achnatherum inebrians. The DNA of seed, leaf, stem and root was extracted with liquid nitrogen grinding method. Then, 16S rDNA and Internally Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence were digested with restriction enzymes Hha I , Rsa I and Hhae III, Hinf I to obtain terminal restriction fragments. The terminal restriction fragments were matched to bacterial and fungal genera by the T-RFLP Analysis Program, and the community component and similarity of endophyte in Achnatherum inebrians were analyzed. The diversity of endophytic bacteria and fungi was the most abundant in root and seed of Achnatherum inebrians. All the predominant bacterial population was Bacillus (above 29%) in different organs of Achnatherum inebrians. The predominant fungal population was Mycosphaerella (6.5%), Teratosphaeria (4.5%), Fragum (1.1%), Sebacina (11.3%) in seed, leaf, stem and root, respectively. The structure of the bacterial communities in the stem and leaf were similar, whereas the structure of the bacterial communities in the seed and other tissue were different. The structure of the fungi communities in the stem and seed were similar, whereas the structure of the fungi communities in the leaf and other tissue were different. There was abundant endophytic microbial diversity in Achnatherum inebrians.

Qin X.-Z.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural science
Chinese Journal of Biologicals | Year: 2013

Objective: To optimize the condition for fermentation of recombinant Cl02 strain producing cold-adapted lipase by response surface methodology (RSM). Methods: The effects of content of yeast as nitrogen source, pH value as well as glycerol and methanol contents in medium on enzyme activity were investigated by single-factor test, based on which the main influencing factors of enzyme production were determined. The effects of various factors on activity of cold-adapted lipase were evaluated by RSM of three factors at four levels according to Box-Benheken center combination test design principles, based on which a multivariate quadratic regression model was established. Results: The content of yeast as nitrogen source, pH value and methanol content in medium showed significant effect on enzyme activity. The optimal content of yeast as nitrogen, pH value and methanol content for production of cold-adapted lipase were 7.3 g/L, 6.0 and 9.1 g/L respectively. Under the optimal condition, the activity of cold-adapted lipase was 42.25 IU/ml, which increased by 50.9% as compared with that before optimization (28.0 IU/ml). Conclusion: The optimization of fermentation condition by RSM increased the cold-adapted lipase-producing ability of recombinant strain significantly, which laid a foundation of industrial production of the enzyme.

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