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Cai L.,Bohai University | Cao A.,Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Bai F.,Bohai University | Li J.,Bohai University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The combined effects of a novel e{open}-polylysine/sodium alginate (PLSA) treatment on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) stored at 4±1°C for 16 days were investigated. Fish pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free fatty acids, K-value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, colour, texture, microbiological and sensory quality were measured. Sea bass coated with PLSA maintained flesh colour and tissue hardness, and showed the lower microbial counts, including mesophilic, psychrophilic, enterobacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts compared with the control. In addition, PLSA coating also delayed changes in lipid oxidation, protein degradation and nucleotide breakdown. The results also proved that PLSA coating effectively maintained the sensory quality of sea bass during the storage period. The efficiency was better than that of PL or SA treatment alone. Therefore, the PLSA coating can be applied for preservation of the sea bass to extend its shelf life and improve its preservation quality. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Cai L.,Bohai University | Li D.,Bohai University | Dong Z.,Bohai University | Cao A.,Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Chinese shrimp waste hydrolysates (CSWHs) with or without xylose were heated with increasing time (0-180 min) at 115 °C, pH 8.0, to explored characteristics of Maillard reaction and the rules for the formation of flavour in hydrolysates. The results suggested that CSWHs could be modified by Maillard reaction and exhibited stronger pleasant flavour than thermal degradation at proper heating time. During Maillard reaction, significant changes in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were found, such as the accumulation of intermediate/browning/fluorescent products, the presentation of tempting reddish-brown, compared to Thermal degradation products (TDPs). Meanwhile, a series of volatile compounds and amino acids were found in MRPs, and combined with sensory evaluation, the MRPs exhibited strong meaty and seafood aroma as well as umami and mouthfulness taste. Therefore, Chinese shrimp waste could potentially be used to produce flavoring essence with strong enticing flavour and colour. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Cai L.,Bohai University | Cao A.,Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Li Y.,Bohai University | Song Z.,Bohai University | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

Several naturally occurring essential oils were evaluated for their effectiveness in maintaining post-mortem quality and extending shelf life of red drum (. Sciaenops ocellatus). Fresh fish fillets were treated with 4μl/L clove, cumin and spearmint oils at 10°C for 2h and the hardness, pH value, K-value, TCA-soluble peptides, sensory evaluation, biogenic amines and microbiological characteristics determined. The results showed that the fillets treated with spearmint oil significantly maintained tissue hardness when compared to the control. Moreover, spearmint essential oil treatment significantly delayed protein degradation and nucleotide breakdown. The essential oil treatment also inhibited the microbiological properties throughout the storage periods. All the treatments were effective in retarding fish sensory deterioration, exhibited a positive effect, causing low biogenic amines content, especially histamine, putrescine, cadaverine. These results indicate that essential oil treatment might be a potential application for extending the shelf life and maintaining the quality of the red drum. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Cai L.,Bohai University | Wang Y.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Cao A.,Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Lv Y.,Bohai University | Li J.,Bohai University
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

The study aimed to determine the shelf life and quality changes of red sea bream which is coated by using enriched sodium alginate (SA) with 6-gingerol (GR) during 20 days of refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C). Fish total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), K-value and pH value, sensory evaluation, TCA-soluble peptide, texture, and microbiological analyses were measured. The results indicated that alginate coating combined with 6-gingerol (SAGR) treatment delayed lipid oxidation, protein degradation, nucleotide breakdown, and inhibited microbial growth compared with the control. The efficiency was better than that of SA or GR treatment. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of SAGR coating by maintaining the overall quality of red sea bream during storage. Additionally, SAGR maintained better textural characteristics. Our study suggests that the use of alginate coating enriched with 6-gingerol has the potential to maintain red sea bream quality and extend its shelf life to 20 days. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Wu X.,Bohai University | Cai L.,Bohai University | Cai L.,Southwest University | Cao A.,Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Collagen has a wide range of applications in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical products. RESULTS: The collagens in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin and swim bladder were extracted using acetic acid and pepsin. Higher yield of pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) was obtained from skin (178 g kg-1) than from swim bladder (114 g kg-1). Not surprisingly, yields of PSC from skin and swim bladder were also higher than those of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from the same organs (89 and 51 g kg-1). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles showed that ASC and PSC were type I collagens, with PSC containing a higher proportion of α components than ASC. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that ASC and PSC were very similar in their protein secondary structures. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the collagens had a spongy structure, with more pores being obtained in swim bladder than in skin collagens. The collagens showed high solubility in the acidic pH range. However, their solubility decreased in the presence of NaCl at concentrations above 20 g kg-1. CONCLUSION: Collagens were successfully extracted from the skin and swim bladder of grass carp. These fish by-products could serve as an alternative source of collagens for a wide variety of applications in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Cai L.,Bohai University | Cao A.,Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Li T.,Dalian Nationalities University | Wu X.,Bohai University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2015

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils is widely known, but their application to fish preservation is already limited. The objective was to evaluate the microbiological characteristics and quality changes in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) fillets with essential oil fumigation treatments over 20 days stored at 2 ± 1 °C. The turbot fillets were fumigated with a series of concentrations (1, 4, and 8 μL/L) of essential oils of clove, cumin, and spearmint. Changes in the color, texture profile analysis (TPA), peroxide value (PV), 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), microbial characteristics (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, pseudomonads, Shewanella putrefaciens, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria count) were measured. The results showed the turbot fillets from the control group were the first (day 10) to indicate signs of degradation reaching rejection threshold values for all evaluated parameters. All essential oils could inhibit the oxidation of turbot fillets, and the most effective essential oil was spearmint oil. Fumigated with 4 μL/L spearmint oil maintained the color and texture, retarded the lipid and protein oxidation, and reduced the microorganism counts. Therefore, post-mortem essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of refrigerated turbot fillets. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Dalian University, Zhejiang GongShang University, Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau and Bohai University
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Collagen has a wide range of applications in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical products.The collagens in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin and swim bladder were extracted using acetic acid and pepsin. Higher yield of pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) was obtained from skin (178 g kg(-1)) than from swim bladder (114 g kg(-1)). Not surprisingly, yields of PSC from skin and swim bladder were also higher than those of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from the same organs (89 and 51 g kg(-1)). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles showed that ASC and PSC were type I collagens, with PSC containing a higher proportion of components than ASC. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that ASC and PSC were very similar in their protein secondary structures. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the collagens had a spongy structure, with more pores being obtained in swim bladder than in skin collagens. The collagens showed high solubility in the acidic pH range. However, their solubility decreased in the presence of NaCl at concentrations above 20 g kg(-1).Collagens were successfully extracted from the skin and swim bladder of grass carp. These fish by-products could serve as an alternative source of collagens for a wide variety of applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.


Cai L.,Zhejiang University | Cao A.,Xiaoshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Aisikaer G.,Zhejiang University | Ying T.,Zhejiang University
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Changes in the content of bioactive components, oxidative stability, and radical scavenging capacity of pine nut oils extracted from kernels roasted for different times (0-60min) at 150°C were determined. Oil extracted from kernels roasted for 30min demonstrated the highest oxidative stability. The browning index which indicates extent of Maillard reaction significantly (p<0.05) increased with roasting. Compared to samples from unroasted kernels, roasting was found to cause an increase in total phenolics and a reduction in the level of total tocopherols. Total carotenoids and total chlorophylls were also reduced by roasting and almost completely diminished in heaver roasting conditions. The highest radical scavenging capacity was detected in oil sample from kernels roasted for 30min. The improvement of oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity is possibly resulted from the combined action of the neo-formed Maillard reaction products, increased total phenolics, and other remaining bioactive components. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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