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Suzhou, China

Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University is a young, independent university based in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China. Founded in 2006 and resulting from a partnership between the University of Liverpool and Xi’an Jiaotong University, it is the first Sino-British university between research led universities, exploring new educational models for China Wikipedia.


Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Computing and Informatics | Year: 2010

Timed Chi (χ) is a timed process algebra, designed for Modeling, simulation, verification and real-time control. Its application domain consists of large and complex manufacturing systems. The straightforward syntax and semantics are also highly suited to architects, engineers and researchers from the hardware design community. There are many different tools for timed Chi that support the analysis and manipulation of timed Chi specifications; and such tools are the results of software engineering research with a very strong foundation in formal theories/methods. Since timed Chi is a well-developed algebraic theory from the field of process algebras with timing, we have the idea that timed Chi is also wellsuited for addressing various aspects of hardware systems (discrete-time systems by nature). To show that timed Chi is useful for the formal specification and analysis of hardware systems, we illustrate the use of timed Chi with several benchmark examples of hardware systems.


Alreemy Z.,University of Southampton | Alreemy Z.,King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Chang V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Walters R.,University of Southampton | Wills G.,University of Southampton
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

With the rapid evolution of Information Technology (IT) applications and practices across the organization, appropriate IT Governance (ITG) has become essential to an organization's success. As IT is associated with risk and value opportunities, a comprehensive, high-level system is required in each organization to minimise the associated risks and optimize value. This requirement triggered the emergence of ITG. Many researchers have addressed this field; however, the role played by critical success factors (CSFs) in the successful implementation of ITG has not yet received adequate attention. This gap in the research motivated the present study, with the main aim of defining the CSFs needed for the successful implementation of ITG. CSFs were studied and extracted from the literature review and then analysed, categorised, and synthesized to create the Success Factors for IT Governance Framework. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yousafzai A.,University of Malaya | Chang V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Gani A.,University of Malaya | Noor R.M.,University of Malaya
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

Mobile cloud computing is envisioned as a promising approach to augment the computational capabilities of mobile devices for emerging resource-intensive mobile applications. This augmentation is generally achieved through the capabilities of stationary resources in cloud data centers. However, these resources are mostly not free and sometimes not available. Mobile devices are becoming powerful day by day and can form a self-organizing mobile ad-hoc network of nearby devices and offer their resources as on-demand services to available nodes in the network. In the ad-hoc mobile cloud, devices can move after consuming or providing services to one another. During this process, the problem of incentives arises for a node to provide service to another device (or other devices) in the network, which ultimately decreases the motivation of the mobile device to form an ad-hoc mobile cloud. To solve this problem, we propose a directory-based architecture that keeps track of the retribution and reward valuations (in terms of energy saved and consumed) for devices even after they move from one ad-hoc environment to another. From simulation results, we infer that this framework increases the motivation for mobile devices to form a self-organizing proximate mobile cloud network and to share their resources in the network. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Newman R.,University of Southampton | Chang V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Walters R.J.,University of Southampton | Wills G.B.,University of Southampton
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

Although it has been around for 11 years, it is still not clear where Web 2.0 will lead. This paper presents a general discussion of past and recent trends that may positively influence the direction of Web 2.0, including cloud computing and other emerging business models. In order to move forward, Web 3.0 is proposed for the next generation of work that integrates Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things and security. We also present criteria and future direction for Web 3.0 to allow all services and people can stay connected with each other. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yi J.,Shanghai University | Yi J.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Ma Y.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Dou J.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | And 5 more authors.
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2016

In this report, three asymmetrical perylenediimide derivatives (PDI) substituted on the bay-position with para-alkylphenyl groups were synthesized, on which the substituted alkyl side chain was n-propyl (4-PP-PDI), n-hexyl (4-HP-PDI), or n-nonyl (4-NP-PDI) group. The effect of alkyl chain length on the optical and electrochemical properties, thermal behavior, as well as the photovoltaic performance of these materials in solution processed polymer solar cells were systematically studied. Results indicated that the para-alkyl side chain length showed negligible influence on the spectroscopy and redox behaviors of the materials, but significant influence on the photovoltaic performance. The propyl substituted compound 4-PP-PDI showed the best photovoltaic performance of VOC = 0.63 V, JSC = 1.93 mA cm-2, FF = 0.63 and a power conversion efficiency of 0.77%, which was attributed to the balanced intermolecular interaction of PDI molecules and the donor-acceptor phase separation of the blend films. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pugliese L.,University of Aalborg | Poulsen T.G.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Straface S.,University of Calabria
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2013

Measurements of solute dispersion in porous media is generally much more time consuming than gas dispersion measurements performed under equivalent conditions. Significant time savings may therefore, be achieved if solute dispersion coefficients can be estimated based on measured gas dispersion data. This paper evaluates the possibility for estimating solute dispersion based on gas dispersion measurements. Breakthrough measurements were carried out at different fluid velocities (covering the same range in Reynolds number), using O2 and NaCl as gas and solute tracers, respectively. Three different, granular porous materials were used: (1) crushed granite (very angular particles), (2) gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and (3) Leca® (almost spherical particles). For each material, 21 different particle size fractions were used. Gas and solute dispersion coefficients were determined by fitting the advection-dispersion equation to the measured breakthrough curves and in turn used to calculate gas and solute dispersivities as a function of mean particle size (D m) and particle size range (R) for the 63 particle size fractions considered. The results show that solute and gas dispersivities are related and that their ratio depends on both R and D m. Based on these observations a simple model for predicting the dispersivity ratio from D m and R, was proposed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Baccaglini E.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Tillo T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Olmo G.,Polytechnic University of Turin
Multimedia Tools and Applications | Year: 2011

We present a performance comparison between multiple description coding (MDC) and unequal loss protection (ULP) as tools to deliver multimedia data to mobile users. Graceful-degradation encoding schemes are able to cope with packet losses due to time-variant channels as they allow the receivers to partially reconstruct the transmitted data with only a subset of received packets. We address a ratedistortion- based multiple description coding scheme and a state-of-the-art unequal loss protection algorithm based on Reed Solomon Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes. The comparison is performed using as a case study JPEG 2000 coded images and H.264/AVC video sequences transmitted over lossy packet networks. Complexity aspects are also considered. The simulation results show that both schemes allocate the same amount of redundancy for any given encoding output rate to protect the transmitted information. The main findings are that MDC, besides being computationally less intensive, achieves a smoother performance degradation, whereas, the ULP scheme yields superior performance in terms of the expected PSNR. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Gordienko D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gordienko D.,Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology | Povstyan O.,Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology | Povstyan O.,St Georges, University of London | And 12 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2015

Aims P2X receptors (P2XRs) mediate sympathetic control and autoregulation of renal circulation triggering preglomerular vasoconstriction, which protects glomeruli from elevated pressures. Although previous studies established a casual link between glomerular susceptibility to hypertensive injury and decreased preglomerular vascular reactivity to P2XR activation, the mechanisms of attenuation of the P2XR signalling in hypertension remained unknown. We aimed to analyse molecular mechanisms of the impairment of P2XR signalling in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) in genetic hypertension. Methods and results We compared the expression of pertinent genes and P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release mechanisms in RVSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that, in SHR RVSMCs, P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are both significantly reduced. The former is due to down-regulation of the P2X1 subunit. The latter is caused by a decrease of the SR Ca2+ load. The SR Ca2+ load reduction is caused by attenuated Ca2+ uptake via down-regulated sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b and elevated Ca2+ leak from the SR via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Spontaneous activity of these Ca2+-release channels is augmented due to up-regulation of RyR type 2 and elevated IP3 production by up-regulated phospholipase C-β1. Conclusions Our study unravels the cellular and molecular mechanisms of attenuation of P2XR-mediated preglomerular vasoconstriction that elevates glomerular susceptibility to harmful hypertensive pressures. This provides an important impetus towards understanding of the pathology of hypertensive renal injury. © 2014 The Author.


Bashir R.S.,University of Malaya | Lee S.P.,University of Malaya | Khan S.U.R.,University of Malaya | Chang V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Farid S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

Unified Modeling Language (UML) has become the de-facto standard to design today's large-size object-oriented systems. However, focusing on multiple UML diagrams is a main cause of breaching the consistency problem, which ultimately reduces the overall software model's quality. Consistency management techniques are widely used to ensure the model consistency by correct model-to-model and model-to-code transformation. Consistency management becomes a promising area of research especially for model-driven architecture. In this paper, we extensively review UML consistency management techniques. The proposed techniques have been classified based on the parameters identified from the research literature. Moreover, we performed a qualitative comparison of consistency management techniques in order to identify current research trends, challenges and research gaps in this field of study. Based on the results, we concluded that researchers have not provided more attention on exploring inter-model and semantic consistency problems. Furthermore, state-of-the-art consistency management techniques mostly focus only on three UML diagrams (i.e., class, sequence and state chart) and the remaining UML diagrams have been overlooked. Consequently, due to this incomplete body of knowledge, researchers are unable to take full advantage of overlooked UML diagrams, which may be otherwise useful to handle the consistency management challenge in an efficient manner. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rehman M.H.U.,University of Malaya | Chang V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Batool A.,Iqra University | Wah T.Y.,University of Malaya
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

Value creation is a major sustainability factor for enterprises, in addition to profit maximization and revenue generation. Modern enterprises collect big data from various inbound and outbound data sources. The inbound data sources handle data generated from the results of business operations, such as manufacturing, supply chain management, marketing, and human resource management, among others. Outbound data sources handle customer-generated data which are acquired directly or indirectly from customers, market analysis, surveys, product reviews, and transactional histories. However, cloud service utilization costs increase because of big data analytics and value creation activities for enterprises and customers. This article presents a novel concept of big data reduction at the customer end in which early data reduction operations are performed to achieve multiple objectives, such as (a) lowering the service utilization cost, (b) enhancing the trust between customers and enterprises, (c) preserving privacy of customers, (d) enabling secure data sharing, and (e) delegating data sharing control to customers. We also propose a framework for early data reduction at customer end and present a business model for end-to-end data reduction in enterprise applications. The article further presents a business model canvas and maps the future application areas with its nine components. Finally, the article discusses the technology adoption challenges for value creation through big data reduction in enterprise applications. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Haislip J.Z.,University of North Texas | Masli A.,University of Kansas | Richardson V.J.,University of Arkansas | Richardson V.J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Sanchez J.M.,Texas Tech University
Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2016

Since Information Technology (IT)-based internal controls are pivotal in providing access to, and security of, financial records, we argue that an IT-related material weakness (ITMW) is a significant threat to organizational legitimacy. Prior research suggests that firms work to repair legitimacy by disassociation with executives blamed for the deficiency and the establishment of a monitoring mechanism to ensure the problem is addressed (Suchman 1995). As a test of disassociation, we find that, relative to a propensity-score-matched sample of non-ITMW firms, ITMW firms experience higher CEO, CFO, and director turnover. As a test of the establishment of a monitoring mechanism to repair organizational legitimacy, we find that ITMW firms hire CEOs, CFOs, and directors with higher levels of IT expertise, and make significant IT system upgrades. We find evidence that ITMW firms remediate deficiencies in a more timely fashion when they appoint a new CFO with IT expertise or upgrade their financial reporting system. Collectively, our results suggest that firms make significant monitoring changes to reestablish organizational legitimacy after receiving an ITMW. © 2016, American Accounting Association. All rights reserved.


Xiao J.,Tampere University of Technology | Hannuksela M.M.,Nokia Inc. | Tillo T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Gabbouj M.,Tampere University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology | Year: 2015

In the multiview video plus depth (MVD) coding format, both texture and depth views are jointly compressed to represent the 3-D video content. The MVD format enables synthesis of virtual views through depth-image-based rendering; hence, distortion in the texture and depth views affects the quality of the synthesized virtual views. Bit allocation between texture and depth views has been studied with some promising results. However, to the best of our knowledge, most of the existing bit-allocation methods attempt to allocate a fixed amount of total bit rate between texture and depth views; that is, to select appropriate pair of quantization parameters for texture and depth views to maximize the synthesized view quality subject to a fixed total bit rate. In this paper we propose a scalable bit-allocation scheme, where a single ordering of texture and depth packets is derived and used to obtain optimal bit allocation between texture and depth views for any total target rates. In the proposed scheme, both texture and depth views are encoded using the quality scalable coding method; that is, medium grain scalable (MGS) coding of the Scalable Video Coding (SVC) extension of the Advanced Video Coding (H.264/AVC) standard. For varying target total bit rates, optimal bit truncation points for both texture and depth views can be obtained using the proposed scheme. Moreover, we propose to order the enhancement layer packets of the H.264/SVC MGS encoded depth view according to their contribution to the reduction of the synthesized view distortion. On one hand, this improves the depth view packet ordering when considered the rate-distortion performance of synthesized views, which is demonstrated by the experimental results. On the other hand, the information obtained in this step is used to facilitate optimal bit allocation between texture and depth views. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scalable bit-allocation scheme for texture and depth views. © 1991-2012 IEEE.


Ding L.,University of Surrey | Ding L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Yazaydin A.O.,University of Surrey | Yazaydin A.O.,Michigan State University
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2013

In this work we computationally studied eight Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) which showed or is expected to have ultrahigh surface areas (NU-100, NU-108, NU-109, NU-110, MOF-180, MOF-200, MOF-210 and MOF-399). Successful activation for some of these MOFs have not been possible since their synthesis, and for most of them experimental surface area, pore volume and hydrogen and methane adsorption data do not exist. Geometric surface areas and pore volumes of these eight MOFs were calculated, and in order to assess their hydrogen and methane storage capacities adsorption isotherms were computed using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Our results reveal that if it can be successfully activated MOF-399 will have the highest gravimetric surface area and pore volume (exceeding 7100 m2/g and 7.55 cm3/g) among all MOFs synthesized until now. Thanks to its substantially large pore volume MOF-399 is predicted to store much more hydrogen and methane in gravimetric terms compared to other ultrahigh surface area MOFs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Spaeth A.B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Architectural Science Review | Year: 2016

The design of acoustic spaces is equally a challenge for both architects and engineers. Room acoustics is a complex science which is influenced by room geometry and materiality as well as the locational setting of the sound sources and receivers. Due to the complexity of these interrelated factors, it is difficult to predict how various design adaptations will affect the overall acoustic properties as the design progresses. Numerical simulations help to analyse and evaluate designs for acoustic rooms and yet there is no tool to support the design process proactively with acoustics as an in-built design driver. The proposed design system builds on an evolutionary design algorithm using an acoustic simulation evaluation procedure as the main design driver in order to create new spatial concepts for acoustic spaces which can serve as starting points for architectural design solutions. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Wan K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Alagar V.,Concordia University at Montreal
Proc. 10th IEEE Int. Conf. on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom 2011, 8th IEEE Int. Conf. on Embedded Software and Systems, ICESS 2011, 6th Int. Conf. on FCST 2011 | Year: 2011

A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a network of hybrid systems, combinations of physical entities and software systems that control them. A CPS offers a set of diverse services under stringent real-time and physical resource constraints. In contrast with embedded systems, a CPS interacts directly with the physical world. Consequently, services in a CPS must be guaranteed with high dependability assurance. In literature the terms dependability and trustworthiness are used interchangeably to denote a compound property, emerging from safety, security, reliability, and availability features that govern the behavior of system components, their services, and their compositions. In this paper we introduce a service-oriented view of CPS and investigate accountability and dependability within context-awareness capabilities of CPS. © 2011 IEEE.


Pak D.H.A.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Li R.Y.M.,Hong Kong Shue Yan University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2012

Transaction costs requires reductions and via knowledge practices and the Web 2.0. This can be significantly curtailed, the study looks at the literature and the success of the social network site, Facebook and draws conclusions thereof. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Yin X.-C.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Huang K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Hao H.-W.,CAS Institute of Automation
Neurocomputing | Year: 2015

Learning nonstationary data with concept drift has received much attention in machine learning and been an active topic in ensemble learning. Specifically, batch growing ensemble methods present one important direction for dealing with concept drift involved in nonstationary data. However, current batch growing ensemble methods combine all the available component classifiers only, each trained independently from a batch of non-stationary data. They simply discard interim ensembles and hence may lose useful information obtained from the fine-tuned interim ensembles. Distinctively, we introduce a comprehensive hierarchical approach called Dynamic Ensemble of Ensembles (DE2). The novel method combines classifiers as an ensemble of all the interim ensembles dynamically from consecutive batches of nonstationary data. DE2 includes two key stages: component classifiers and interim ensembles are dynamically trained; and the final ensemble is then learned by exponentially-weighted averaging with available experts, i.e., interim ensembles. Moreover. we engage Sparsity Learning to choose component classifiers selectively and intelligently. We also incorporate the techniques of Dynamic Weighted Majority, and Learn++.NSE for better integrating different classifiers dynamically. We perform experiments with two benchmark test sets in real nonstationary environments, and compare our DE2 method to other conventional competitive ensemble methods. Experimental results confirm that our approach consistently leads to better performance and has promising generalization ability for learning in nonstationary environments. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Petiz Pereira O.,University of Minho | Martins A.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Martins I.,Australian College of Kuwait
International Journal of Social Sustainability in Economic, Social and Cultural Context | Year: 2014

Social, economic, organisational, and cultural changes have had an enormous impact on the 21st century. Within this context of change, it is imperative for economic agents to take on the responsibility of dealing with these changes in order to harness organisational sustainability. Therefore, this paper aims to focus on the need for a new and different organisational philosophy which is founded on different values. For this reason, organisations should adopt a different way of managing characterized by a spirit of entrepreneurial creativity, being humanistic in nature. In order for this creativity to emerge, it is vital that employees are able to work in an environment where freedom and accountability prevail. In this regard, organisations redefine their values in order to reap their employees' creative contributions. These become strategic inputs. This paper focuses on the perceptions that employees have concerning the inherent values prevalent in the structural characteristics of a learning organisation. This research is supported with primary data findings gathered from the health sector in Portugal. The responses obtained in this study seem to show the existence of an organisational culture which does not support the shift in paradigm because they view it as being contradictory to those values which form part of learning organisations and high performance working organisations. It seems evident that there is an urgent need for a change in organisational culture, specifically in the health sector in Portugal, in order to improve the effective and efficient use of knowledge, with the focus being on performance gains, competitive advantage and overall sustainability-harnessing the high performance paradigm. © Common Ground, Orlando Petiz Pereira, Ana Martins, Isabel Martins, All Rights Reserved Permissions.


Liu H.,University of Cambridge | Liu H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Schneider H.,University of Cambridge | Recino A.,University of Cambridge | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2015

While immune cell adaptors regulate proximal T cell signaling, direct regulation of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) has not been reported. NPC has cytoplasmic filaments composed of RanGAP1 and RanBP2 with the potential to interact with cytoplasmic mediators. Here, we show that the immune cell adaptor SLP-76 binds directly to SUMO-RanGAP1 of cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, and that this interaction is needed for optimal NFATc1 and NF-κB p65 nuclear entry in T cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed anti-SLP-76 cytoplasmic labeling of the majority of NPCs in anti-CD3 activated T cells. Further, SUMO-RanGAP1 bound to the N-terminal lysine 56 of SLP-76 where the interaction was needed for optimal RanGAP1-NPC localization and GAP exchange activity. While the SLP-76-RanGAP1 (K56E) mutant had no effect on proximal signaling, it impaired NF-ATc1 and p65/RelA nuclear entry and in vivo responses to OVA peptide. Overall, we have identified SLP-76 as a direct regulator of nuclear pore function in T cells. Liu et al. show that the direct binding of the immune cell adaptor SLP-76 to SUMO-RanGAP1 of cytoplasmic fibrils of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is needed for the optimal NFAT and NFkB nuclear entry in T cells. © 2015 The Authors.


Du Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Lu D.D.-C.,University of Sydney | Chu G.M.L.,Guina Research and Development | Xiao W.,Masdar Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy | Year: 2014

The single-phase photovoltaic (PV) inverter needs significant capacitance to buffer the double-line frequency power pulsation at ac port. The two-stage inverter allows the designer to choose the dc-link voltage and the capacitor size flexibly. With the reduced capacitance, the lifetime of the dc-link capacitor can be prolonged by replacing the electrolytic capacitors with film capacitors. However, the capacitance deduction results in high double-line frequency voltage ripple on dc-link, which increases a series of odd harmonics in the output current. This paper hence analyzes the harmonics caused by the voltage ripple in an inverter with feedback control. The inverter is modeled as a time-varying system by considering the dc-link voltage ripple. A closed-form solution is derived to calculate the amplitude of the ripple-caused harmonics. This analysis helps the designer to understand the effect of the dc-link voltage ripple on current harmonics, evaluate effectiveness of existing approaches, and stimulate new ideas and solutions. The study also derived the theoretical limit to select dc-link capacitance and sampling rate of current reference without violating the grid-tied regulations in power quality. The analysis is verified both by simulation and experimental evaluation. © 2014 IEEE.


Gan Y.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Gan Y.,Zhangzhou Normal University | Luo T.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Breitung W.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

In this paper, the contribution of visual and acoustic preference to multi-sensory landscape evaluation was quantitatively compared. The real landscapes were treated as dual-sensory ambiance and separated into visual landscape and soundscape. Both were evaluated by 63 respondents in laboratory conditions. The analysis of the relationship between respondent's visual and acoustic preference as well as their respective contribution to landscape preference showed that (1) some common attributes are universally identified in assessing visual, aural and audio-visual preference, such as naturalness or degree of human disturbance; (2) with acoustic and visual preferences as variables, a multi-variate linear regression model can satisfactorily predict landscape preference (R2= 0.740), while the coefficients of determination for a unitary linear regression model were 0.345 and 0.720 for visual and acoustic preference as predicting factors, respectively; (3) acoustic preference played a much more important role in landscape evaluation than visual preference in this study (the former is about 4.5 times of the latter), which strongly suggests a rethinking of the role of soundscape in environment perception research and landscape planning practice. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
International Journal of Biometrics | Year: 2014

Face recognition still meets challenges despite the progresses made. One of less addressed problems is to reject unregistered subjects. Aiming to tackle this problem, this paper proposes random subspace support vector machine (SVM) ensemble to provide classification confidence and implement reject option to accommodate the situations where no classification should be made. The ensemble is created using the random subspace (RS) method, together with four feature descriptions including local binary pattern (LBP), pyramid histogram of oriented gradient (PHOG), Gabor filtering and wavelet transform. The consensus degree from the ensemble's voting conforms to the confidence measure and rejection is accomplished accordingly when the confidence falls below a threshold. The reliable recognition scheme is empirically evaluated on several benchmark face databases including AR faces, FERET faces and Yale B faces, all of which yielded highly reliable results, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective method to perform off-line signature verification and identification by applying a local shape descriptor pyramid histogram of oriented gradients (PHOGs), which represents local shape of an image by a histogram of edge orientations computed for each image sub-region, quantized into a number of bins. Each bin in the PHOG histogram represents the number of edges that have orientations within a certain angular range. Design/methodology/approach: Automatic signature verification and identification are then studied in the general binary and multi-class pattern classification framework, with five different common applied classifiers thoroughly compared. Findings: Simulation experiments show that PHOG has obvious advantages in the extraction of discriminating information from handwriting signature images compared with many previously proposed signature feature extraction approaches. The experiments also demonstrate that several classifiers, including k-nearest neighbour, multiple layer perceptron and support vector machine (SVM) can all give very satisfactory performance with regard to false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR). On a public benchmarking signature database "Grupo de Procesado Digital de Senales" (GPDS), experiments demonstrate an FRR of 4.0 percent and an FAR 3.25 percent from SVM for skillful forgery, which compares sharply with the latest published results of FRR 16.4 percent and FAR 14.2 percent on the same dataset. Experiments on a second DAVAB off-line signature database also illustrate the superiority of the proposed method. The related issue, off-line signature recognition, which is to find the identification of the signature owner from a given signature database, is also investigated based on the PHOG features, showing superb classification accuracies of 99 and 96 percent for GPDS and DAVAB datasets, respectively. Originality/value: The proposed method for off-line signature verification and recognition has a promising potential of designing a real-world system for many applications, particularly in forensics and biometrics. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Zhong J.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhong J.-H.,Key Laboratory of Digital Life | Zhong J.-H.,Key Laboratory of Software Technology | Shen M.,Beijing Information Science and Technology University | And 6 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2013

Railway timetable scheduling is a fundamental operational problem in the railway industry and has significant influence on the quality of service provided by the transport system. This paper explores the periodic railway timetable scheduling (PRTS) problem, with the objective to minimize the average waiting time of the transfer passengers. Unlike traditional PRTS models that only involve service lines with fixed cycles, this paper presents a more flexible model by allowing the cycle of service lines and the number of transfer passengers to vary with the time period. An enhanced differential evolution (DE) algorithm with dual populations, termed 'dual-population DE' (DP-DE), was developed to solve the PRTS problem, yielding high-quality solutions. In the DP-DE, two populations cooperate during the evolution; the first focuses on global search by adopting parameter settings and operators that help maintain population diversity, while the second one focuses on speeding up convergence by adopting parameter settings and operators that are good for local fine tuning. A novel bidirectional migration operator is proposed to share the search experience between the two populations. The proposed DP-DE has been applied to optimize the timetable of the Guangzhou Metro system in Mainland China and six artificial periodic railway systems. Two conventional deterministic algorithms and seven highly regarded evolutionary algorithms are used for comparison. The comparison results reveal that the performance of DP-PE is very promising. © 1997-2012 IEEE.


Lee S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Shin S.,Korea University
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons. © 2014 Sanghyuk Lee and Seungsoo Shin.


Lee S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Park W.,Aviation Safety Technology Center | Jung S.,Korea Aerospace University
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Research on fault detection algorithm was developed with the similarity measure and random forest algorithm. The organized algorithm was applied to unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) that was readied by us. Similarity measure was designed by the help of distance information, and its usefulness was also verified by proof. Fault decision was carried out by calculation of weighted similarity measure. Twelve available coefficients among healthy and faulty status data group were used to determine the decision. Similarity measure weighting was done and obtained through random forest algorithm (RFA); RF provides data priority. In order to get a fast response of decision, a limited number of coefficients was also considered. Relation of detection rate and amount of feature data were analyzed and illustrated. By repeated trial of similarity calculation, useful data amount was obtained. © 2014 Sanghyuk Lee et al.


Kadetz P.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmalogical relevance The rapid commodification of plant-based medicines has led to the development of regulatory guidelines and standards by the World Health Organization to ensure the safety of these products. However, these standards have been identified to be selectively implemented, if implemented at all, in many contexts. A primary concern for proving the safety of intrinsic factors of plant-based medicines, may result in less attention paid to the often more problematic extrinsic factors of mass production. This article critically examines the normative global discourse of safety concerning plant-based medicines and problematises many of the assumptions identified in this discourse. Materials and methods This qualitative research was conducted in the Traditional Medicine Unit of the Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO) and in field work in the rural Philippines. Data was collected through archival research, analysis of WHO data sets, semi-structured and structured interviews and surveys, participant observation concerning local plant-based medicine use in the Philippines and participant observation in WHO meetings regarding future strategies for traditional Asian medicines. Results Although informants reported concerns of safety for every aspect of the production, marketing and sales of plant-based medicines, this research has identified that the implementation (WHO guidelines) has been uneven and inconsistent over the past ten years in the Western Pacific Region of the WHO. Differences in local contexts that are not consistent with global guidelines and standards were reported by informants. Issues have also been identified in the inconsistent regulation of plant-based medicines as pharmaceuticals within only certain, rather than all, processes of production. Conclusions It is imperative to understand plant-based medicines as the potent substances they are, whose rapid global commodification may affect both their potency and safety. The WHO discourse of the need for safety in the use of plant-based medicines has justified the need for biomedical oversight through processes of commodification. Yet, it is often through these very processes of commodification and mass production that safety may be compromised. This research suggests that the discourse concerning the safety of the plant-based medicines needs to be reframed from a primary focus on the intrinsic factors of plant-based medicines to a greater focus on the extrinsic factors of global commodification. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Zhang Y.,Shandong University of Science and Technology | Lv K.,Ocean University of China | Wang S.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Su J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Meng D.,Shandong University of Science and Technology
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2015

Detailed and innovative analysis of gene regulatory network structures may reveal novel insights to biological mechanisms. Here we study how gene regulatory network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can differ under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To achieve this, we discretized the gene expression profiles and calculated the self-entropy of down- and upregulation of gene expression as well as joint entropy. Based on these quantities the uncertainty coefficient was calculated for each gene triplet, following which, separate gene logic networks were constructed for the aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Four structural parameters such as average degree, average clustering coefficient, average shortest path, and average betweenness were used to compare the structure of the corresponding aerobic and anaerobic logic networks. Five genes were identified to be putative key components of the two energy metabolisms. Furthermore, community analysis using the Newman fast algorithm revealed two significant communities for the aerobic but only one for the anaerobic network. David Gene Functional Classification suggests that, under aerobic conditions, one such community reflects the cell cycle and cell replication, while the other one is linked to the mitochondrial respiratory chain function. © 2015 Yulin Zhang et al.


Gong Y.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liu O.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Huang R.-Z.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part C: Applications and Reviews | Year: 2012

Vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) is a well-known NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that is crucial for transportation and logistics systems. Even though the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is originally designed to solve continuous optimization problems, in this paper, we propose a set-based PSO to solve the discrete combinatorial optimization problem VRPTW (S-PSO-VRPTW). The general method of the S-PSO-VRPTW is to select an optimal subset out of the universal set by the use of the PSO framework. As the VRPTW can be defined as selecting an optimal subgraph out of the complete graph, the problem can be naturally solved by the proposed algorithm. The proposed S-PSO-VRPTW treats the discrete search space as an arc set of the complete graph that is defined by the nodes in the VRPTW and regards the candidate solution as a subset of arcs. Accordingly, the operators in the algorithm are defined on the set instead of the arithmetic operators in the original PSO algorithm. Besides, the process of position updating in the algorithm is constructive, during which the constraints of the VRPTW are considered and a time-oriented, nearest neighbor heuristic is used. A normalization method is introduced to handle the primary and secondary objectives of the VRPTW. The proposed S-PSO-VRPTW is tested on Solomons benchmarks. Simulation results and comparisons illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm. © 2011 IEEE.


Ting T.O.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Man K.L.,Yonsei University | Lei C.-U.,University of Hong Kong | Lu C.,Purdue University
Engineering Letters | Year: 2014

Battery Management System (BMS) requires an indefinite accurate model. With an aging model, the lifetime of a battery can be precisely predicted with respect to the State-of-Charge (SoC) of a battery. The mathematical model in terms of state variables involving smart BMS is presented in this work. The state space model is crucial as an accurate model and is able to represent the complex dynamic behavior of a battery system. A numerical case study is done to verify the model obtained through mathematical derivations by adopting the prominent RC battery model from literature. Furthermore, the well-known Kalman filter (KF) is applied to estimate the SoC of a battery system. With accurate prediction of SoC of battery system, its lifetime could be prolonged, and thereby saving us substantial cost.


Hashem I.A.T.,University of Malaya | Chang V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Anuar N.B.,University of Malaya | Adewole K.,University of Malaya | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

The expansion of big data and the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have played an important role in the feasibility of smart city initiatives. Big data offer the potential for cities to obtain valuable insights from a large amount of data collected through various sources, and the IoT allows the integration of sensors, radio-frequency identification, and Bluetooth in the real-world environment using highly networked services. The combination of the IoT and big data is an unexplored research area that has brought new and interesting challenges for achieving the goal of future smart cities. These new challenges focus primarily on problems related to business and technology that enable cities to actualize the vision, principles, and requirements of the applications of smart cities by realizing the main smart environment characteristics. In this paper, we describe the state-of-the-art communication technologies and smart-based applications used within the context of smart cities. The visions of big data analytics to support smart cities are discussed by focusing on how big data can fundamentally change urban populations at different levels. Moreover, a future business model of big data for smart cities is proposed, and the business and technological research challenges are identified. This study can serve as a benchmark for researchers and industries for the future progress and development of smart cities in the context of big data. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gu S.,University of Bedfordshire | Wu C.-D.,Northeastern University China | Yue Y.,University of Bedfordshire | Yue Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Automation and Computing | Year: 2013

An assistive robot is a novel service robot, playing an important role in the society. For instance, it can amplify human power not only for the elderly and disabled to recover/rehabilitate their lost/impaired musculoskeletal functions but also for healthy people to perform tasks requiring large forces. Consequently, it is required to consider both accurate position control and human safety, which is the compliance. This paper deals with the robot control compliance problem based on the QNX real-time operating system. Firstly, the mechanical structure of a compliant joint on the assistive robot is designed using Solidworks. Then the parameters of the assistive robot system are identified. The software of robot control includes data acquisition and processing, and control to meet the compliance requirement of the joint control. Finally, a Hogan impedance control experiment is carried out. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the method proposed. © 2013 Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yang H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Huang K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | King I.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lyu M.R.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Neural Networks | Year: 2015

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is a typical learning paradigms training a model from both labeled and unlabeled data. The traditional SSL models usually assume unlabeled data are relevant to the labeled data, i.e., following the same distributions of the targeted labeled data. In this paper, we address a different, yet formidable scenario in semi-supervised classification, where the unlabeled data may contain irrelevant data to the labeled data. To tackle this problem, we develop a maximum margin model, named tri-class support vector machine (3C-SVM), to utilize the available training data, while seeking a hyperplane for separating the targeted data well. Our 3C-SVM exhibits several characteristics and advantages. First, it does not need any prior knowledge and explicit assumption on the data relatedness. On the contrary, it can relieve the effect of irrelevant unlabeled data based on the logistic principle and maximum entropy principle. That is, 3C-SVM approaches an ideal classifier. This classifier relies heavily on labeled data and is confident on the relevant data lying far away from the decision hyperplane, while maximally ignoring the irrelevant data, which are hardly distinguished. Second, theoretical analysis is provided to prove that in what condition, the irrelevant data can help to seek the hyperplane. Third, 3C-SVM is a generalized model that unifies several popular maximum margin models, including standard SVMs, Semi-supervised SVMs (S3VMs), and SVMs learned from the universum (U-SVMs) as its special cases. More importantly, we deploy a concave-convex produce to solve the proposed 3C-SVM, transforming the original mixed integer programming, to a semi-definite programming relaxation, and finally to a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, which yields the same worst case time complexity as that of S3VMs. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed 3C-SVM through systematical experimental comparisons. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Cui X.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Meng J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Zhang S.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Chen Y.,Greehey Childrens Cancer Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2016

Motivation: N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent mRNA methylation but precise prediction of its mRNA location is important for understanding its function. A recent sequencing technology, known as Methylated RNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing technology (MeRIP-seq), has been developed for transcriptome-wide profiling of m6A. We previously developed a peak calling algorithm called exomePeak. However, exomePeak over-simplifies data characteristics and ignores the reads' variances among replicates or reads dependency across a site region. To further improve the performance, new model is needed to address these important issues of MeRIP-seq data. Results: We propose a novel, graphical model-based peak calling method, MeTPeak, for transcriptome-wide detection of m6A sites from MeRIP-seq data. MeTPeak explicitly models read count of an m6A site and introduces a hierarchical layer of Beta variables to capture the variances and a Hidden Markov model to characterize the reads dependency across a site. In addition, we developed a constrained Newton's method and designed a log-barrier function to compute analytically intractable, positively constrained Beta parameters. We applied our algorithm to simulated and real biological datasets and demonstrated significant improvement in detection performance and robustness over exomePeak. Prediction results on publicly available MeRIP-seq datasets are also validated and shown to be able to recapitulate the known patterns of m6A, further validating the improved performance of MeTPeak. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.


Chen W.-N.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Lin Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen N.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2013

In nature, almost every organism ages and has a limited lifespan. Aging has been explored by biologists to be an important mechanism for maintaining diversity. In a social animal colony, aging makes the old leader of the colony become weak, providing opportunities for the other individuals to challenge the leadership position. Inspired by this natural phenomenon, this paper transplants the aging mechanism to particle swarm optimization (PSO) and proposes a PSO with an aging leader and challengers (ALC-PSO). ALC-PSO is designed to overcome the problem of premature convergence without significantly impairing the fast-converging feature of PSO. It is characterized by assigning the leader of the swarm with a growing age and a lifespan, and allowing the other individuals to challenge the leadership when the leader becomes aged. The lifespan of the leader is adaptively tuned according to the leader's leading power. If a leader shows strong leading power, it lives longer to attract the swarm toward better positions. Otherwise, if a leader fails to improve the swarm and gets old, new particles emerge to challenge and claim the leadership, which brings in diversity. In this way, the concept 'aging' in ALC-PSO actually serves as a challenging mechanism for promoting a suitable leader to lead the swarm. The algorithm is experimentally validated on 17 benchmark functions. Its high performance is confirmed by comparing with eight popular PSO variants. © 1997-2012 IEEE.


Medina-Roldan E.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Medina-Roldan E.,San Luis Potosi Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Huber-Sannwald E.,San Luis Potosi Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Arredondo J.T.,San Luis Potosi Institute of Scientific Research and Technology
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Our knowledge of plant functional group effects on ecosystem processes is relatively well established, but we know much less on how changes in plant phenotypic composition affect ecosystem functioning (i.e., phenotypic functional composition). Understanding phenotypic functional composition (PFC) is relevant in plant communities strongly dominated by a few keystone species, since alteration of phenotypic composition of these species might be a mechanisms by which land management practices such as grazing impact on ecosystem functioning. Here, we report results from a field experiment where we manipulated PFC of Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths, a keystone species in the semiarid shortgrass steppe. B.gracilis' PFC was altered by using plant genetic lines which expressed consistently either high or low leaf tissue lignin content (LC), a plant trait known to affect soil biogeochemical processes. High-LC lines came from an area subjected to low grazing intensities, whereas low-LC lines came from an area historically overgrazed. Additionally, those plant genetic lines expressing high LC also expressed high dry matter content and vice versa. We established experimental plots with High (only high-LC plants), Low (only low-LC plants), and mixed (both high- and low- LC plants, BHL) LC genetic lines; and measured selected soil processes after the application of a small water pulse. We hypothesised that those soil processes related to microbial activity and nitrogen cycling would be higher in Low plots in comparison with High and BHL plots. Phenotypic functional composition did not affect most of our soil processes including ammonium and nitrate concentrations (inorganic N), microbial activity, potential ammonium mineralization, and microbial profiles of substrate utilization). Nonetheless, we observed a general response to the water pulse so that soil inorganic N increased, but soil water content and soil microbial activity decreased 48h after the pulse application. This general response suggests that fractions of the soil microbial community with different soil moisture optima mineralise N-rich substrates. Overall, lack of response to plant phenotypic functional composition suggests that grazing effects on soil biogeochemical processes in the shortgrass steppe are not directly mediated through how grazing affects the phenotypic functional composition of B.gracilis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang X.H.,University of Hong Kong | Ning J.Q.,University of Hong Kong | Zheng C.C.,University of Hong Kong | Zheng C.C.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2015

Two kinds of tungsten disulfide (WS2) monolayers, respectively prepared using top-down and bottom-up approaches, were studied with Raman and photoluminescence (PL) mapping techniques. By mapping the intensities of the two characterized phonon modes of WS2, the monolayer region can be quickly selected. Such selection by mapping the intensities is more conclusive than by comparing the small shift in phonon peak position. Also, PL mapping yields more information regarding the uniformity and quality of the monolayers than does Raman mapping. We also show that the focused laser may cause substantial damage to the crystal lattice of monolayers for long-duration mappings. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Han S.-H.,Kwangwoon University | Jung G.-D.,Kwangwoon University | Lee S.-Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Hong Y.-P.,International University of Korea | Lee S.-H.,Kwangwoon University
Journal of Central South University | Year: 2013

A new method for automatic salient object segmentation is presented. Salient object segmentation is an important research area in the field of object recognition, image retrieval, image editing, scene reconstruction, and 2D/3D conversion. In this work, salient object segmentation is performed using saliency map and color segmentation. Edge, color and intensity feature are extracted from mean shift segmentation (MSS) image, and saliency map is created using these features. First average saliency per segment image is calculated using the color information from MSS image and generated saliency map. Then, second average saliency per segment image is calculated by applying same procedure for the first image to the thresholding, labeling, and hole-filling applied image. Thresholding, labeling and hole-filling are applied to the mean image of the generated two images to get the final salient object segmentation. The effectiveness of proposed method is proved by showing 80%, 89% and 80% of precision, recall and F-measure values from the generated salient object segmentation image and ground truth image. © 2013 Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhao C.H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhang B.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Zhang X.Z.,Queensland Research Laboratory | Zhao S.Q.,Queensland Research Laboratory | Li H.X.,Queensland Research Laboratory
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2013

Human-centric driver assistance systems with integrated sensing, processing and networking aim to find solutions for traffic accidents and other relevant issues. The key technology for developing such a system is the capability of automatically understanding and characterizing driver behaviors. This paper proposes a novel driving posture recognition approach, which consists of an efficient combined feature extraction and a random subspace ensemble of multilayer perceptron classifiers. A Southeast University Driving Posture Database (SEU-DP Database) has been created for training and testing the proposed approach. The data set contains driver images of (1) grasping the steering wheel, (2) operating the shift lever, (3) eating a cake and (4) talking on a cellular phone. Combining spatial scale features and histogram-based features, holdout and cross-validation experiments on driving posture classification are conducted, comparatively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed combined feature extraction approach with random subspace ensemble of multilayer perceptron classifiers outperforms the two individual feature extraction approaches. The experiments also suggest that talking on a cellular phone is the most difficult posture in classification among the four predefined postures. Using the proposed approach, the classification accuracy on talking on a cellular phone is over 89 % in both holdout and cross-validation experiments. These results show the effectiveness of the proposed combined feature extraction approach and random subspace ensemble of multilayer perceptron classifiers in automatically understanding and characterizing driver behaviors toward human-centric driver assistance systems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.


Meng F.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Meng F.,University of Delaware | Zhang X.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Li R.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | And 6 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

The electromechanical and electrothermal responses of carbon nanotube fibers provide new ways to use energy conversion, including the modulation of assembly structures by alternative densification and relaxation. The most efficient way to strengthen the tensile strength up to 2.32 - 2.50 GPa is shown as well as a microscale, nanotube-based Chinese calligraphy brush. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Konysheva E.Y.,University of St. Andrews | Konysheva E.Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Francis S.M.,University of St. Andrews
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2013

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to explore the cation rearrangement between the surface and bulk of grains and the surface chemical states of Ce, Mn, Co, Sr, and O ions in the single phase CeO2-based solid solutions and in the two phase (100 - x)La0.6Sr 0.4CoO3-xCeO2 (LSCCx) and (100 - x)La 0.8Sr0.2MnO3-xCeO2 (LSMCx) composites. The well-resolved Ce 3d5/2 and Ce 3d3/2 spin-orbit components were determined to study the Ce4+ to Ce 3+ electronic transition at the surface. The surface of the LSCCx and LSMCx (x = 8-40 mol%) composites is depleted in cerium. Both Ce4+ and Ce3+ cations were revealed. The surface fraction of Ce 4+ cations increases with the rise in CeO2 content in both systems, but it is higher by about a factor of two in the LSCC composites. A strong enrichment of the surface by Co cations was observed for the composites LSCCx (x = 8-40 mol%), implying that the presence of cerium could facilitate the Co surface segregation. A slight Sr surface enrichment compared to the nominal stoichiometry was found for La0.6Sr0.4CoO3, CeO2-based solid solutions, LSCC57, and LSMCx (x = 10-57) composites. In contrast, the surface of the LSCCx (x = 10-37) composites is slightly depleted in strontium cations. The O 1s spectra of the LSCC and LSMC composites contain several contributions associated with the lattice oxygen related to the phases with the perovskite and fluorite structures as well as with different surface states. Their contributions vary with CeO2 content and a chemical origin of the transition metal cations on the B-site in the perovskite structure. The Ce2(CO3)3-based phase seems to exist at the surface of grains and crystallites in the LSCC57 and LSCM composites. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ren J.,University of Bradford | Ren J.,Northwestern University | Xu M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Orwell J.,Kingston University | Jones G.A.,Kingston University
Machine Vision and Applications | Year: 2010

Soccer analysis and reconstruction is one of the most interesting challenges for wide-area video surveillance applications. Techniques and system implementation for tracking the ball and players with multiple stationary cameras are discussed. With video data captured from a football stadium, the real-world, real-time positions of the ball and players can be generated. The whole system contains a two-stage workflow, i.e., single view and multi-view processing. The first stage includes categorizing of players and filtering of the ball after changing detection against an adaptive background and image-plane tracking. Occlusion reasoning and tracking-back is applied for robust ball filtering. In the multi-view stage, multiple observations from overlapped single views are fused to refine players' positions and to estimate 3-D ball positions using geometric constraints. Experimental results on real data from long sequences are demonstrated. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Chen A.,University of Liverpool | Chen A.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Li J.,University of South China | Hou Z.,University of South China | Ng K.W.,University of Hong Kong
Queueing Systems | Year: 2010

We consider decay properties including the decay parameter, invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for a Markovian bulk-arrival and bulk-service queue which stops when the waiting line is empty. Investigating such a model is crucial for understanding the busy period and other related properties of the Markovian bulk-arrival and bulk-service queuing processes. The exact value of the decay parameter λC is first obtained. We show that the decay parameter can be easily expressed explicitly. The invariant measures and quasi-distributions are then revealed. We show that there exists a family of invariant measures indexed by λ ∈ [0,λC]. We then show that under some mild conditions there exists a family of quasi-stationary distributions also indexed by λ ∈ [0,λC]. The generating functions of these invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions are presented. We further show that this stopped Markovian bulk-arrival and bulk-service queueing model is always λC-transient. Some deep properties regarding λC-transience are examined and revealed. The clear geometric interpretation of the decay parameter is explained. A few examples are then provided to illustrate the results obtained in this paper. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Matthys N.,Catholic University of Leuven | Huygens C.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hughes D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Ueyama J.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering | Year: 2011

The emerging reality of wireless sensor networks deployed as long-lived infrastructure mandates an approach to tailor developed artefacts at run-time to avoid costly reprogramming. Support for dynamic concerns, such as adaptation, calibration or tuning of the functional and non-functional behaviour by application users and infrastructure managers raises the need for fine-grained run-time customization. This paper presents a policy-based paradigm to realize the diverse concerns of the involved actors by enabling fine-tuning and optimization of the run-time environment. Integration of the policy paradigm into various main programming models is analyzed. A prototype implementation of the paradigm in the context of an event-component based wireless sensor network platform is evaluated on the SunSPOT sensor platform. © 2011 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.


Lee S.-H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Shin S.-S.,Korea University
Journal of Central South University | Year: 2013

Similarity measure design on non-overlapped data was carried out and compared with the case of overlapped data. Unconsistant feature of similarity on overlapped data to non-overlapped data was provided by example. By the artificial data illustration, it was proved that the conventional similarity measure was not proper to calculate the similarity measure of the non-overlapped case. To overcome the unbalance problem, similarity measure on non-overlapped data was obtained by considering neighbor information. Hence, different approaches to design similarity measure were proposed and proved by consideration of neighbor information. With the example of artificial data, similarity measure calculation was carried out. Similarity measure extension to intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) containing uncertainty named hesitance was also followed. © 2013 Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ang M.T.C.,Queens University | Phan L.,Queens University | Alshamrani A.K.,Queens University | Harjani J.R.,Queens University | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2015

The interaction between carbon dioxide (CO2) and amidines such as 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undecane (DBU) has been extensively studied, but the reaction of isovalent CS2 with such bases has been largely ignored, apart from a single crystallography report. Acyclic acetamidines are cleaved by CS2 at room temperature to give an isothiocyanate and a thioacetamide. Because the pathway to that cleavage involves a rotation that is difficult for cyclic amidines, the reaction of CS2 with cyclic amidines produces an entirely different product: a cyclic carbamic carboxylic trithioanhydride structure. The path to that product involves sp3 C-H activation leading to the formation of a new C-C bond at a carbon α to the central carbon of the amidine group. Alkylation and ring-opening of the cyclic carbamic carboxylic trithioanhydride has also been demonstrated under ambient conditions. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Pugliese L.,University of Aalborg | Poulsen T.G.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2014

The cost efficiency of filtration is often associated with the filter flow velocity (V) and pressure loss (?P). Knowledge of the VP relationship for a given filter medium-fluid combination is therefore necessary when assessing operation costs. Liquid VP measurements are generally much more time-consuming than for gases, thus predicting liquid VP relationships from corresponding gas data is advantageous. The objective of this work was to identify the relationship between air and water pressure gradients during air and water flow in granular filter media. Three materials: crushed granite, gravel, and Leca (an insulation material) with very different particle shapes were used. Twenty-one media with different particle size distributions were produced from each material (63 in total) and VP measurements carried out using air and water. The results showed that it is indeed possible to predict liquid VP relationships fromcorresponding gas VP measurements together with medium physical characteristics. A simple model concept for prediction was proposed. The results also indicated that it is possible to predict both gas and liquid VP relationships in coarse granular filter media based simply on knowledge about the particle size distribution and particle shape for the medium in question. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Zhang P.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Luo H.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Proceedings - 9th IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications Workshops, ISPAW 2011 - ICASE 2011, SGH 2011, GSDP 2011 | Year: 2011

The rapid diversification and evolution of wireless and multimedia standards change the flexibility of embedded processors from an option to the must. Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architectures (CGRAs) which make a good trade off between low power, non-programmable ASICs and high power, flexible DSPs become more and more popular. The mapping of the applications to CGRAs is the key to get high computational throughput. Because there is huge design space to explore on CGRAs, compilers must not only map the programs with high effectiveness, but also with high efficiency. However, there are many sorts of constraints exist during the mapping. Over or under estimate those constraints will lead to either low schedule quality or low efficiency. To meet this challenge, we propose an accurate constraints aware modulo scheduling approach: based on the co-analysis of the architecture and application, the compiler starts the scheduling with enough critical resources reserved and strictly make the retry follow the correct order. The experiments on wireless baseband programs show that the compilation can be speeded up by 300%. © 2011 IEEE.


Khedhiri C.,Electronic and MicroelectronicsLAB | Karmani M.,Electronic and MicroelectronicsLAB | Hamdi B.,Electronic and MicroelectronicsLAB | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Proceedings - 9th IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications Workshops, ISPAW 2011 - ICASE 2011, SGH 2011, GSDP 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper presents a concurrent error detection (CED) technique for a bit-slice of a full-adder. The proposed method involves computing the sum and carry bits in two alternative ways so that transient faults will be detected by comparing the results (Sum and Carry out) obtained from the two computing paths. This technique attempts to reduce the amount of extra hardware and cost of the circuit. In order to avoid the problem of extra time we will propagate the result when the first computation is finished so that dependent computation can commence execution as soon as possible. To prove the efficiency of the proposed method, the circuit is simulated in standard CMOS 32nm technology and some transient faults are voluntary injected in the Layout of the circuit. The proposed design involves 12.12% saving in transistor count compared to DMR (Dual Modular Redundancy) style design. © 2011 IEEE.


Lam S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Chan M.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings, APMC | Year: 2016

This paper reports the investigation of constructing 50-ohrn microwave transmission lines in a commercial 90-um CMOS process with multi-level metallization. A semi-enclosed stripline design based on the conventional microwave stripline structure is proposed for silicon monolithic microwave integrated circuits. The design has been verified by electromagnetic simulation with a low insertion loss of 2.5 dB mm at 60 GHz and a reflection coefficient of about -30 dB. The proposed design has a compact structure occupying less than 20 mm in width. © IEEE.


Naraigh L.O.,University College Dublin | Spelt P.D.M.,Ecole Centrale Lyon | Spelt P.D.M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Shaw S.J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2013

We study two-phase stratified flow where the bottom layer is a thin laminar liquid and the upper layer is a fully developed gas flow. The gas flow can be laminar or turbulent. To determine the boundary between convective and absolute instability, we use Orr-Sommerfeld stability theory, and a combination of linear modal analysis and ray analysis. For turbulent gas flow, and for the density ratio r= 1000, we find large regions of parameter space that produce absolute instability. These parameter regimes involve viscosity ratios of direct relevance to oil and gas flows. If, instead, the gas layer is laminar, absolute instability persists for the density ratio r= 1000, although the convective/absolute stability boundary occurs at a viscosity ratio that is an order of magnitude smaller than in the turbulent case. Two further unstable temporal modes exist in both the laminar and the turbulent cases, one of which can exclude absolute instability. We compare our results with an experimentally determined flow-regime map, and discuss the potential application of the present method to nonlinear analyses. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.


Gupta A.K.,INC Research | Simpson F.,Linkoping University | Daigle D.,INC Research | Villanueva E.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 2 more authors.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the clinical and mycological effects of topical drugs and device-based therapies for onychomycosis. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration.


Yin X.-C.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Yin X.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Huang K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Hao H.-W.,CAS Institute of Automation
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2014

Text detection in natural scene images is an important prerequisite for many content-based image analysis tasks. In this paper, we propose an accurate and robust method for detecting texts in natural scene images. A fast and effective pruning algorithm is designed to extract Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSERs) as character candidates using the strategy of minimizing regularized variations. Character candidates are grouped into text candidates by the single-link clustering algorithm, where distance weights and clustering threshold are learned automatically by a novel self-training distance metric learning algorithm. The posterior probabilities of text candidates corresponding to non-text are estimated with a character classifier; text candidates with high non-text probabilities are eliminated and texts are identified with a text classifier. The proposed system is evaluated on the ICDAR 2011 Robust Reading Competition database; the f -measure is over 76%, much better than the state-of-the-art performance of 71%. Experiments on multilingual, street view, multi-orientation and even born-digital databases also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, an online demo of our proposed scene text detection system has been set up at http://prir.ustb.edu.cn/TexStar/ scene-text-detection/. © 2013 IEEE.


Perry L.A.,Monash University | Berge E.,University of Oslo | Bowditch J.,Monash University | Forfang E.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Primary objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of antithrombotic treatment in survivors of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Secondary objective: To determine whether the effectiveness and safety of antithrombotic treatment differs in pre-specified subgroups (see Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity). © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration.


Akhbar F.,Technical University of Istanbul | Chang V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Yao Y.,Independent Researcher | Mendez Munoz V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

The internet of things (IoT) is potentially interconnecting unprecedented amounts of raw data, opening countless possibilities by two main logical layers: become data into information, then turn information into knowledge. The former is about filtering the significance in the appropriate format, while the latter provides emerging categories of the whole domain. This path of the data is a bottom-up flow. On the other hand, the path of the process is a top-down flow, starting at the strategic level of business and scientific institutions. Today, the path of the process treasures a sizeable amount of well-known methods, architectures and technologies: the so called Big Data. On the top, Big Data analytics aims variable association (e-commerce), data mining (predictive behaviour) or clustering (marketing segmentation). Digging the Big Data architecture there are a myriad of enabling technologies for data taking, storage and management. However the strategic aim is to enhance knowledge with the appropriate information, which does need of data, but not vice versa. In the way, the magnitude of upcoming data from the IoT will disrupt the data centres. To cope with the extreme scale is a matter of moving the computing services towards the data sources. This paper explores the possibilities of providing many of the IoT services which are currently hosted in monolithic cloud centres, moving these computing services into nano data centres (NaDa). Particularly, data-information processes, which usually are performing at sub-problem domains. NaDa distributes computing power over the already present machines of the IP provides, like gateways or wireless routers to overcome latency, storage cost and alleviate transmissions. Large scale questionnaires have been taken for 300 IT professionals to validate the points of view for IoT adoption. Considering IoT is by definition connected to the Internet, NaDa may be used to implement the logical low layer architecture of the services. Obviously, such distributed NaDa send results on a logical high layer in charge of the information-knowledge turn. This layer requires the whole picture of the domain to enable those processes of Big Data analytics on the top. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ballantine D.J.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Ballantine D.J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Davies-Colley R.J.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

Recent assessments of water quality in New Zealand have indicated declining trends, particularly in the 40 % of the country's area under pasture. The most comprehensive long-term and consistent water quality dataset is the National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN). Since 1989, monthly samples have been collected at 77 NRWQN sites on 35 major river systems that, together, drain about 50 % of New Zealand's land area. Trend analysis of the NRWQN data shows increasing nutrient concentrations, particularly nitrogen (total nitrogen and nitrate), over 21 years (1989-2009). Total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations were increasing significantly over the first 11 years (1989-2000), but for the more recent 10-year period, only nitrate concentrations continued to increase sharply. Also, the increasing phosphorus trends over the first 11 years (1989-2000) levelled off over the later 10-year period (2000-2009). Conductivity has also increased over the 21 years (1989-2009). Visual clarity has increased over the full time period which may be the positive result of soil conservation measures and riparian fencing. NRWQN data shows that concentrations of nutrients increase, and visual clarity decreases (i.e. water quality declines), with increasing proportions of pastoral land in catchments. As such, the increasing nutrient trends may reflect increasing intensification of pastoral agriculture. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.


Ye F.,Jinhua Municipal central hospital | Chen X.-Q.,Soochow University of China | Bao G.-S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hua Y.,Wuxi Peoples Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in expression and the possible functions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in electrical kindling of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in epileptic rats. Bipolar electrodes were implanted into the BLA of Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were then subjected to chronic electrical stimulation through the electrodes to induce kindling. The seizure characteristics and behavioral changes of the rats were observed, and electroencephalograms were recorded during and following kindling. The IL-6 mRNA expression in the hippocampi of the rats was analyzed using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and control and topiramate (TPM)-treated groups were compared. The mean time-period required for kindling was 13.50±3.99 days, and the afterdischarge duration (ADD) measured between 21,450 and 119,720 msec. The expression of IL-6 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the kindled rats. TPM was able to depress the seizures and decrease the IL-6 level in the kindled rats. In conclusion, IL-6 mRNA was upregulated in the hippocampi of epileptic rats, and IL-6 may have participated in the process of kindling.


Zhang X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Wang J.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Wang J.,Nanjing Institute of Technology | Jia H.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2016

Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) modified reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) was prepared through chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of PVP. The PRGO/natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were fabricated by mixing PRGO aqueous dispersion with NR latex, followed by coagulation and vulcanization. The structure of PRGO was characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Atomic force microscope, Solid state 13C NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity, swelling and mechanical properties of PRGO/NR nanocomposites were also investigated. The results showed that GO was reduced effectively in the presence of PVP, and the PVP molecules were absorbed on the basal plane of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent interactions. With the increase of PRGO, thermal conductivity and storage modulus of PRGO/NR nanocomposites increased, whereas solvent uptake decreased. Compared with unfilled NR, NR with 5 phr (parts per hundred rubber) PRGO had a 30% increase in thermal conductivity and 37% decrease in solvent uptake. Under the condition of adding 3 phr PRGO, the tensile and tear strength of NR nanocomposite were improved by 23% and 150%, respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Neuropeptides | Year: 2013

Although detailed disease mechanisms of migraine remain poorly understood, migraine is known to have a complex pathophysiology with both vascular and neuronal mechanisms. The neuronal mechanisms of migraine may be attributed to cortical spreading depression (CSD); consequently, CSD has been widely studied for understanding the pathophysiology of migraine. Well validated CSD models have been developed for evaluating anti-migraine drugs. Neuropeptides, mainly, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have been proposed as an emerging class of effective drugs against migraine headache. The central role of this neuropeptide has led to research into CSD for understanding disease mechanisms of migraine. This review briefly summarizes our current understanding of CSD and CGRP involvement in CSD. Although CSD can also worsen strokes, this brief paper has excluded the possible connection between the neuropeptide and CSD associated with them. Instead it has focused solely on CGRP in CSD associated with migraine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Craig P.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Roa-Seiler N.,Napier University | Roa-Seiler N.,Technological University of Mixteca | Diaz M.M.,Technological University of Mixteca | Rosano F.L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Informatica (Slovenia) | Year: 2014

Cognitonics is a new science which looks at ways to reconcile human socio-spiritual development with increasingly rapid human intellectual development in the new context of technological advances and increased cultural homogeny. This is particularly relevant in areas such as education and informatics where children are found to be increasingly capable to control and adapt to new technological advances yet often suffer from a lack of social development or are unable to engage with aspects of their own cultural heritage. In this study we consider the application of a cognitonics based approach to the problems of the Oaxacan education system, particularly for indigenous children who suffer from a loss of culture and diminished provision of education due to a lack of resources and regular teacher strikes. Specifically, we look at how the introduction of face-to-face collaborative video games can help develop academic, information-technology and social skills together while promoting spiritual well-being and cultural identity.


Wang S.,Zhejiang Normal University | Li J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Zhou X.,Zhejiang Normal University | Zheng C.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

A facile surface-layer-absorption strategy was successfully integrated via a simple in situ sulfidation reaction route for the deposition of CdS nanoparticles on N-doped reduce graphene oxide (N-rGO) nanosheets to produce 2D sandwich-like CdS/N-rGO hybrid nanosheets (HNs). The successful doping of N in the rGO nanosheets and the sandwich stuffing of CdS nanocrystals in the N-rGO sheets were revealed using a variety of techniques, including XPS, XRD and TEM. Compared to the pure CdS and CdS/rGO samples, the as-prepared sandwich CdS/N-rGO HNs exhibited a significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical current response and improved photocatalytic activity for the reduction of aqueous Cr(vi) and the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. Owing to nitrogen doping in the carbon network of graphene and the unique combination of the CdS nanocrystals and N-rGO nanosheets, superior electrical conductivity could be obtained with the N-rGO matrix. This led to improved charge separation and transport of the photoinduced carriers from the CdS nanoparticles as well as enhanced photochemical performance, which was confirmed by transient photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Alagar V.,Concordia University at Montreal | Wan K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2014 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo, ICCVE 2014 - Proceedings | Year: 2014

In this paper the goal is to provide the vehicle a minimum set of simple tasks, and allow it to be largely guided by the smartness of the infrastructure. This vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity is emphasized as the basic building block to ultimately (perhaps indirectly) achieve vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) coordination. Assuming that every vehicle has a built-in set of embedded systems which perform intelligent actions, such as location sensing, Anti-lock Braking System, and Lane Change Warning System, it is shown that a collision-free coordinated motion of vehicles can be achieved by designing a network of autonomic Traffic Managers (TM), where each TM manages vehicles using its own resources such as real-time controllers, arbiters, and other external actuators. Being autonomic a TM will have the ability to reconfigure the system owned by it, protect itself from unauthorized attacks and repair itself in order to minimize its downtime. © 2014 IEEE.


Lin R.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Bi G.,Nanyang Technological University | Liu X.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Guan Y.L.,Nanyang Technological University
IET Communications | Year: 2014

Transform domain communication system (TDCS) has been proposed to establish a communication link with a low probability of interception by synthesising an adaptive waveform containing energy only in the unused frequency bands. However, this communication system suffers from a low spectral efficiency. To improve its spectral efficiency, a unified modulation framework for a TDCS is proposed in this study to embrace the previously reported modulation schemes under one framework. The resulting spectral efficiency is higher compared to these previous schemes. Also, to combat the slow channel fading, a TDCS system using two transmit antennas and one receive antenna with the proposed modulation scheme is presented. Simulation results show that the multiple-antenna system improves the performance dramatically compared to the single antenna system under the slow fading environment. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2014

We investigate the implementation of image categorization algorithms with a reject option, as a mean to enhance the system reliability and to attain a higher classification accuracy. A reject option is desired in many image-classification applications for which the system should abstain from making decisions on the most uncertain images. Based on the random subspace (RS) ensemble learning model, a highly reliable image classification scheme is proposed by applying RS support vector machine (SVM) ensemble. Being different to previous classiffer ensembles which focus on increasing classification accuracy exclusively, the objective of the proposed SVM ensemble is to provide classification conffdence and implement reject option to accommodate the situations where no decision should be made. The ensemble is created with four different feature descriptions, including local binary pattern (LBP), pyramid histogram of oriented gradient (PHOG), Gabor ffltering and curvelet transform. The consensus degree from the ensemble's voting conforms to the conffdence measure and the rejection option is accomplished accordingly when the conffdence falls below a threshold. The reliable recognition scheme is empirically evaluated on three image categorization benchmark databases, including the face database created by Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR faces), a subset of Caltech-101 images for object classification, and 15 natural scene categories, all of which yielded consistently high reliable results, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. For example, a 99:9% accuracy was obtained with a rejection rate of 2:5% for the AR faces, which exhibit promising potentials for real-world applications. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Li Y.,University of Liverpool | Zhu X.,University of Liverpool | Jiang Y.,University of Liverpool | Huang Y.,University of Liverpool | Lim E.G.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2015 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan, ICCE-TW 2015 | Year: 2015

We propose a received signal strength (RSS) based energy-efficient positioning approach for cellular networks with unknown path loss exponent (PLE). A low-complexity searching algorithm is proposed for PLE estimation and a low-complexity lateration algorithm is proposed to provide the searching criteria. Simulation results show that the proposed positioning method achieves an accuracy similar to that of the nonlinear least square (NLS) algorithm, while requiring a much lower complexity. © 2015 IEEE.


Ma T.,University of Liverpool | Zhu X.,University of Liverpool | Jiang Y.,University of Liverpool | Huang Y.,University of Liverpool | Lim E.G.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2015 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan, ICCE-TW 2015 | Year: 2015

An energy-efficient semi-blind receiver structure for green wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed. A reference data sequences designed offline are superimposed in source signal sequences to enable Doppler spread estimation and ambiguity elimination caused by equalization based on the independent component analysis (ICA), without consuming extra power and spectral resources. The bit error rate (BER) performance achieved approaches the perfect condition with ideal channel state information (CSI). © 2015 IEEE.


Goncu A.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2012

Empirical phenomenon in financial markets such as volatility smiles and term structure of implied volatilities made stochastic volatility models more attractive. In this paper we consider a multi- factor stochastic volatility model with two mean reverting factors and the analytical approximation formula given by Fouque et al. [5] for a vanilla European call. Using the European call option pricng problem as our test problem we compared crude MC estimator with the randomized quasi-Monte Carlo method. Our findings show that using the randomized low- discrepancy sequences such as Faure sequence, one can reduce the variance of the estimator and achieve faster convergence compared to crude Monte Carlo simulation.


Thankalekshmi R.R.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Qiu Q.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2010 5th International Conference on Future Information Technology, FutureTech 2010 - Proceedings | Year: 2010

There has been an increasing interest in powering electronic systems using solar energy. Designers are seeking for techniques to manufacture solar panels using low cost material in a massive scale. This will likely lead to wide process variation and hence unreliable performance. This paper considers the impact of the process variations on the output power of large Photovoltaic (PV) module by modeling each PV cell as a current source whose short circuit current is a normal random variable. The probability distribution of the overall output power of an NxM PV module is analytically derived. The proposed statistical analysis technique will enable the designer to predict the maximum output power of abstract PV module for a given confidence level. This analysis also reveals that, when the size and the manufacturing technology are given, the efficiency of a PV module is determined by its topology. The proposed power prediction model can be applied to find the optimal structure of the PV module that maximizes the energy harvesting rate at the given confidence level. © 2010 IEEE.


Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Kapoor H.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Krilavicius T.,Baltic Institute of Advanced Technologies BPTI | Chang J.,Texas Instruments
2010 International SoC Design Conference, ISOCC 2010 | Year: 2010

The purpose of this paper is to investigate applicability of Null Conventional Logic (NCL) for synthesising asynchronous control circuits using. The target implementation being delay insensitive (DI), the specification language also should be DI. Delay Insensitive Sequential Processes (DISP) is such a process algebraic language where the behaviour of asynchronous control logic blocks can be expressed as processes. We have mapped several basic DISP constructs to NCL and performed a small cases study. It is a step towards an alternative synthesis way for NCL circuits. ©2010 IEEE.


Alagar V.,Concordia University at Montreal | Wan K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

This paper examines the necessity to integrate Economic Theories and Trust Theories with Knowledge Science for trustworthy service automation in modern day society's technology-driven environment. Current demands for open user-centric distributed service systems far outweigh the capabilities of existing systems in application areas such as health care, e-business, and consumer-centric power and water distribution systems. The basis of service transactions, whether in traditional market place or on-line system, is trust and lack of trust will have diminishing effect on the economic value. It is essential to identify user perspectives and relate their social psychology to meaningful trust determinants in the system to be automated. Since the systems are typically large, distributed, and deal with many heterogeneous collection of sensory devices and actuators that are specific to each service domain, it is necessary that the experts of the application domain and system developers share their knowledge and wisdom in the creation of the system. Sharing knowledge requires trust, and using the acquired knowledge requires creativity, born out of tacit knowledge, to go beyond risks. Motivated by this triangular web of Economics, Trust, and Knowledge that impacts on consumer-centric service automation, this paper explores their interesting connections, explains the different kinds of trust to be distilled from it, and identifies the design stages where the appropriate trust determinants are to be fostered in order to achieve a dependable service automation system. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Hu D.-D.,Soochow University of China | Lin J.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Q.,Soochow University of China | Lu J.-N.,Soochow University of China | And 6 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2015

We herein present the first case of energy transfer process in an inorganic chalcogenide-based semiconductor zeolite material (coded as RWY) serving as UV-vis light-harvesting host. A multistep vectorial energy transfer assay was fabricated by encapsulating acridine orange (AO) molecules into the RWY porous framework and further covering the formed capsules with rhodamine B (RhB) molecules. The UV high-energy excitations absorbed by RWY host were channeled to AO molecules and then onto RhB molecules to give rise to visible-light emission. The steady-state fluorescence and confocal microscope as well as fluorescent dynamics of emission reveal successfully the process of multistep vectorial energy transfer. This inorganic-host-involved energy transfer process has never been observed in an insulating oxide-based zeolite host system. Therefore, chalcogenide-based semiconductor zeolites could be a class of promising host materials to be further explored in the field of energy transfer and electron transfer between inorganic host and organic guest. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Xiong X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Wang J.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Jia H.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Fang E.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Ding L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2013

In this report, we demonstrate that both the thermal stability and the thermal conductivity of bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) nanocomposites could be improved by incorporating the ionic liquids (ILs) modified graphene oxide (GO-ILs) using a solution compounding method. The structure, thermal stability and thermal conductivity of this newly modified BIIR nanocomposites were systematically analyzed and studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of GO-ILs showed that ILs had been effectively intercalated into the interlayer of GO, which was found to be able to raise the exfoliation degree of GO. The increased exfoliation degree facilitated a good dispersion of GO-ILs in the BIIR matrix, as revealed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the GO-ILs/BIIR nanocomposites were also raised by the addition of GO-ILs, which indicates the strong interfacial adhesion between GO-ILs and the rubber. Most importantly, the incorporation of GO-ILs in the BIIR matrix could effectively improve the thermal stability of the rubber nanocomposites according to our thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The activation energy (Ea) of thermal decomposition of GO-ILs/BIIR nanocomposites increases with the addition of GO-ILs. Besides, the thermal conductivity of GO-ILs/BIIR nanocomposite with 4 wt% of GO-ILs had 1.3-fold improvement compared to that of unfilled BIIR. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ning J.Q.,University of Hong Kong | Ning J.Q.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Zheng C.C.,University of Hong Kong | Zheng C.C.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2015

Spatially resolved Raman light scattering experiments were performed on a zinc-blende GaN/GaAs heterostructure with confocal micro-Raman scattering technique under the backscattering geometric configuration. By varying the illumination spot locations across the heterostructure interface, we found that the Raman light scattering spectral features change remarkably. The interface effect on the GaAs substrate manifested as a much broader lineshape of the transverse optical (TO) phonon mode. Two kinds of broadening mechanisms, namely, spatial correlation induced wave-vector relaxation effect and lattice-mismatch strain + compositional intermixing effect, have been identified. The former leads to the broadening of the TO mode at the low-energy side, whereas the latter accounts for the broadening at the high-energy side. The diffuse light scattering from the highly defective nucleation layer of GaN was found to produce a broad scattering background of the GaN TO mode. The methodology and conclusions of the present work could be applicable to Raman spectroscopic studies on other material interfaces. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


Mao M.,Zhejiang Normal University | Chen F.,Zhejiang Normal University | Zheng C.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Zheng C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2016

In the present work, high-quality porous Bi2O3-BiVO4 composite microrods (CMRs) with a uniform size distribution have been successfully prepared through a facile solvothermal method followed by an annealing treatment, in which Bi(OH)C2O4-BiVO4 precursors were first synthesized using Na2C2O4 and NaVO3 as starting materials and then thermally decomposed to produce porous Bi2O3-BiVO4 p-n heterojunction CMRs. The as-prepared Bi2O3-BiVO4 product was characterized by UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and valence-band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity in degrading colorless organic phenol under visible-light illumination (λ > 420 nm) was observed with the porous CMRs, more than 48 times higher than that of the mixture of BiVO4 and Bi2O3, and 192 and 160 times higher than pure BiVO4 and Bi2O3, respectively. A direct Z-scheme mechanism was employed to describe the transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes in the Bi2O3-BiVO4 CMR system, and the dramatically enhancement of the observed photoactivity may be attributed to the high separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs, resulting from the p-n heterojunction formed in the porous structure. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Tabbara H.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | McCartney D.G.,University of Nottingham
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2011

A warm spray system has been computationally investigated by introducing a centrally located mixing chamber into a HVOF thermal spray gun. The effects of injecting a cooling gas on the gas and particle dynamics are examined. The gas phase model incorporates liquid fuel droplets which heat, evaporate and then exothermically combust with oxygen within the combustion chamber producing a realistic compressible, supersonic and turbulent jet. The titanium powder is tracked using the Lagrangian approach including particle heating, melting and solidification. The results present an insight into the complex interrelations between the gas and particle phases, and highlight the advantage of warm spray, especially for the deposition of oxygen sensitive materials such as titanium. This work also demonstrates the effectiveness of a computational approach in aiding the development of thermal spray devices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Park J.,Leiden University | Tefsen B.,VU University Amsterdam | Tefsen B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Heemskerk M.J.,Leiden University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2015

Background: Galactofuranose (Galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. The incorporation of Galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by Golgi-localized Galf transferases. The nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (UDP-Galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the Golgi by a dedicated nucleotide sugar transporter. Methods: Based on homology with recently identified UDP-Galf-transporters in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans, two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger were found. Their function and localization was determined by gene deletions and GFP-tagging studies, respectively. Results: The two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger are homologous to each other and are predicted to contain eleven transmembrane domains (UgtA) or ten transmembrane domains (UgtB) due to a reduced length of the C-terminal part of the UgtB protein. The presence of two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in the genome was not unique for A. niger. From the twenty Aspergillus species analysed, nine species contained two additional putative UDP-Galf-transporters. Three of the nine species were outside the Aspergillus section nigri, indication an early duplication of UDP-Galf-transporters and subsequent loss of the UgtB copy in several aspergilli. Deletion analysis of the single and double mutants in A. niger indicated that the two putative UDP-Galf-transporters (named UgtA and UgtB) have a redundant function in UDP-Galf-transport as only the double mutant displayed a Galf-negative phenotype. The Galf-negative phenotype of the double mutant could be complemented by expressing either CFP-UgtA or CFP-UgtB fusion proteins from their endogenous promoters, indicating that both CFP-tagged proteins are functional. Both Ugt proteins co-localize with each other as well as with the GDP-mannose nucleotide transporter, as was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, thereby confirming their predicted localization in the Golgi. Conclusion: A. niger contains two genes encoding UDP-Galf-transporters. Deletion and localization studies indicate that UgtA and UgtB have redundant functions in the biosynthesis of Galf-containing glycoconjugates. © 2015 Park et al.


Schauz U.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Schauz U.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2014

Let G = (V, E) be a graph and q be an odd prime power. We prove that G possess a proper vertex coloring with q colors if and only if there exists an odd vertex labeling x ∈ FV q of G. Here x is called odd if there is an odd number of partitions that π = {V1,V2,...,Vt} of V whose blocks Vi are G-bipartite and x-balanced, i.e., such that G|Vi is connected and bipartite, and ∑v∈Vi xvI = 0. Other new characterizations concern edge colorability of graphs and, on a more general level, blocking sets of projective spaces. Some of these characterizations are formulated in terms of a new switching game.


Fischer T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine | Year: 2015

Norbert Wiener was not only one of the inventors of cybernetics, but also an early cybernetician of invention (i.e., design). Wiener operated between what is (scientifically describable) and what ought to be (designed). He also reflected theoretically on himself doing so, thereby enacting several concepts of today?s cybernetic design theory ? far ahead of his time. © 2015 IEEE.


Liu O.,Xian Jiaotong University | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Chong W.,Xian Jiaotong University | Chan C.O.,Hong Kong Shue Yan University
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2016

The increasing use ol social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Weibo, has produced and is producing huge volume of data. Business firms and other organizations are interested in discovering new business insight to increase business performance. By using advanced analytics, enterprises can analyze big data to learn about relationships underlying social networks that characterize the social behavior of individuals and groups. Using data describing the relationships, we are able to identify social leaders who influence the behavior of others in the network, and on the other hand, to determine which people arc most affected by other network participants. This study focuses on modeling the knowledge diffusion In social networks. We will present a new evolving model of a directed, scale-free network. We will test the effectiveness of our model by a simulation using data of a real-world social network.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

Subcellular localization is a key functional characteristic of proteins. An automatic, reliable and efficient prediction system for protein subcellular localization is needed for large-scale genome analysis. The automated cell phenotype image classification problem is an interesting "bio-image informatics" application. It can be used for establishing knowledge of the spatial distribution of proteins within living cells and permits to screen systems for drug discovery or for early diagnosis of a disease. In this paper, three well-known texture feature extraction methods including local binary patterns (LBP), Gabor filtering and Gray Level Coocurrence Matrix (GLCM) have been applied to cell phenotype images and the multiple layer perceptron (MLP) method has been used to classify cell phenotype image. After classification of the extracted features, decision-templates ensemble algorithm (DT) is used to combine base classifiers built on the different feature sets. Different texture feature sets can provide sufficient diversity among base classifiers, which is known as a necessary condition for improvement in ensemble performance. For the HeLa cells, the human classification error rate on this task is of 17% as reported in previous publications. We obtain with our method an error rate of 4.8%. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Yang X.-S.,Middlesex University | Ting T.O.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Karamanoglu M.,Middlesex University
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Stochastic components such as random walks have become an intrinsic part of modern metaheursitic algorithms. The efficiency of a metaheuristic algorithm may implicitly depend on the appropriate use of such randomization. In this paper, we provide some basic analysis and observations about random walks, Lévy flights, step sizes and efficiency using Markov theory. We show that the reason why Lévy flights are more efficient than Gaussian random walks, and the good performance of Eagle Strategy. Finally, we use bat algorithm to design a PID controller and have achieved equally good results as the classic Ziegler-Nichols tuning scheme. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Wang X.,Nanchang University | Niu Q.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Lu L.-Z.,Guizhou Normal University
Japan Journal of Industrial and Applied Mathematics | Year: 2013

We present a refined Arnoldi-type method for extracting partial eigenpairs of large matrices. The approximate eigenvalues are the Ritz values of (A-τ I)-1 with respect to a shifted Krylov subspace. The approximate eigenvectors are derived by satisfying certain optimal properties, and they can be computed cheaply by a small sized singular value problem. Theoretical analysis show that the approximate eigenpairs computed by the new method converges as the approximate subspace expands. Finally, numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the new method. © 2012 The JJIAM Publishing Committee and Springer.


Xiao J.,University of Liverpool | Tillo T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Yuan H.,Shandong University | Zhao Y.,Beijing Jiaotong University
Journal of Signal Processing Systems | Year: 2014

For 3-D videos, one commonly used representation method is texture videos plus depth maps for several selected viewpoints, whereas the other viewpoints are synthesized based on the available texture videos and depth maps with the depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) technique. As both the quality of the texture videos and depth maps will affect the quality of the synthesized views, bits allocation for the depth maps become indispensable. The existing bits allocation approaches are either inaccurate or requiring pre-encoding and analyzing in temporal dimension, making them unsuitable for the real-time applications. Motivated by the fact that different regions of the depth maps have different impacts on the synthesized image quality, a real-time macroblock level bits allocation approach is proposed, where different macroblocks of the depth maps are encoded with different quantization parameters and coding modes. As the bits allocation granularity is fine, the R-D performance of the proposed approach outperforms other bits allocation approaches significantly, while no additional pre-encoding delay is caused. Specifically, it can save more than 10 % overall bit rate comparing with Morvan's full search approach, while maintaining the same synthesized view quality. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.


Herr C.M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Global Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2013

While constraints imposed by large cohort sizes and lecture-based teaching are often described as preventing an educational focus on quality and individual thinking, this article presents a mixed method teaching approach for quality-oriented structural design education of large cohorts as implemented in a module on structure and construction of the BEng in Architecture programme at Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China. In this approach, lecture-based teaching is extended with open-ended individual and group assignments that emphasise individual qualitative learning. Results from the module show that in large cohorts, structural design education with an emphasis on quality and individual thinking is achievable. © WIETE 2013.


Lu S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Weston P.,University of Birmingham | Hillmansen S.,University of Birmingham | Gooi H.B.,Nanyang Technological University | Roberts C.,University of Birmingham
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems | Year: 2014

Regenerative braking improves the energy efficiency of railway transportation by converting kinetic energy into electric energy. This paper proposes a method to apply the Bellman-Ford (BF) algorithm to search for the train braking speed trajectory to increase the total regenerative braking energy (RBE) in a blended braking mode with both electric and mechanical braking forces available. The BF algorithm is applied in a discretized train-state model. A typical suburban train has been modeled and studied under real engineering scenarios involving changing gradients, journey time, and speed limits. It is found that the searched braking speed trajectory is able to achieve a significant increase in the RBE, in comparison with the constant-braking-rate (CBR) method with only a minor difference in the total braking time. An RBE increment rate of 17.23% has been achieved. Verification of the proposed method using BF has been performed in a simplified scenario with zero gradient and without considering the constraints of braking time and speed limits. Linear programming (LP) is applied to search for a train trajectory with the maximum RBE and achieves solutions that can be used to verify the proposed method using BF. It is found that it is possible to achieve a near-optimal solution using BF and the solution can be further improved with a more complex search space. The proposed method takes advantage of robustness and simplicity of modeling in a complex engineering scenario, in which a number of nonlinear constraints are involved. © 2000-2011 IEEE.


O'Reilly S.L.,Deakin University | Milner J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
BMC Medical Education | Year: 2015

Background: Increasing proportions of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) students within health professional courses at universities creates challenges in delivering inclusive training and education. Clinical placements are a core component of most health care degrees as they allow for applied learning opportunities. A research gap has been identified in regard to understanding challenges and strategies for CALD students in health professional placements. Methods: A key stakeholder approach was used to examine barriers and enablers experienced by CALD students in clinical placement. Semi-structured focus groups with healthcare students (n=13) and clinical placement supervisors (n=12) were employed. The focus groups were analysed using open coding and thematic analysis. Results: Three main barrier areas were identified: placement planning and preparation; teaching, assessment and feedback; and cultural and language issues. Potential solutions included addressing placement planning and preparation barriers, appropriate student placement preparation, pre-placement identification of higher risk CALD students, and diversity training for supervisors. For the barrier of teaching, assessment & feedback, addressing strategies were to: adapt student caseloads, encourage regular casual supervisor-student conversations, develop supportive placement delivery modes and structures, set expectations early, model the constructive feedback process, use visual aids, and tailor the learning environment to individual student needs. The enablers for cultural & language issues were to: build language and practical approaches for communication, raise awareness of the healthcare system (how it interacts with healthcare professions and how patients access it), and initiate mentoring programs. Conclusions: The findings suggest that teaching and learning strategies should be student-centred, aiming to promote awareness of difference and its impacts then develop appropriate responses by both student and teacher. Universities and partnering agencies, such as clinical training providers, need to provide an inclusive learning environment for students from multiple cultural backgrounds. © 2015 O'Reilly and Milner.


Zeoli N.,Cranfield University | Tabbara H.,Cranfield University | Gu S.,Cranfield University | Gu S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2012

Until now much of the modelling activity around close-coupled gas atomization has been mainly focused on gas-only flow with discrete phase interaction using Lagrangian-based models. However, this approach is unable to supply valuable information regarding the primary break-up mechanism of the melt being injected. Furthermore, much of existing numerical work is based on two-dimensional axisymmetric geometries, and therefore suffers the absence of three-dimensional flow features. In order to overcome these aspects the authors have carried out an analysis using a three-dimensional geometry by means of an Eulerian, Volume of Fluid, model to accurately present the early stages of melt stream behaviour at the atomizer's melt inlet. The study investigates the mechanisms associated with primary break-up, and the results obtained highlight three modes under which a close-coupled atomizer may operate. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Zhao C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhang X.,Griffith University | Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Dang Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lian J.,Nanjing Southeast University
IET Intelligent Transport Systems | Year: 2013

Human-centric driver fatigue monitoring systems (DFMS) with integrated sensing, processing and networking aim to find solutions for traffic accidents and other relevant issues. A novel, efficient combined features extraction approach from Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradients (PHOG) and contourlet transform (CT) for fatigue expression descriptions of vehicle drivers is proposed, and a random subspace ensemble (RSE) of linear perception (LP) classifiers as the base classifier is then exploited for the classification of three predefined fatigue expressions classes, namely, awake expressions, moderate fatigue expressions and severe fatigue expressions. Holdout and cross-validation experiments are created, and the results show that combined features by RSE of LP classifiers outperform the other seven classifiers, that is, PHOG features by LP classifier, CT features by LP classifier and combined features by five individual LP classifiers. With combined features and RSE of LP classifiers, the average classification accuracies of three fatigue expression classes are over 92% in both the holdout and cross-validation experiments. Among the three fatigue expression classes, the class of severe fatigue expressions is the most difficult to recognise, and the classification accuracy is over 84% in both the holdout and cross-validation experiments, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed feature extraction method and RSE of LP classifiers in developing DFMS. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.


Zhang X.-Y.,CAS Institute of Automation | Huang K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Liu C.-L.,CAS Institute of Automation
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM | Year: 2013

The well-known feature transformation model of Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FDA) can be decomposed into an equivalent two-step approach: whitening followed by principal component analysis (PCA) in the whitened space. By proving that whitening is the optimal linear transformation to the Euclidean space in the sense of minimum log-determinant divergence, we propose a transformation model called class conditional decor relation (CCD). The objective of CCD is to diagonalize the covariance matrices of different classes simultaneously, which is efficiently optimized using a modified Jacobi method. CCD is effective to find the common principal components among multiple classes. After CCD, the variables become class conditionally uncorrelated, which will benefit the subsequent classification tasks. Combining CCD with the nearest class mean (NCM) classification model can significantly improve the classification accuracy. Experiments on 15 small-scale datasets and one large-scale dataset (with 3755 classes) demonstrate the scalability of CCD for different applications. We also discuss the potential applications of CCD for other problems such as Gaussian mixture models and classifier ensemble learning. © 2013 IEEE.


Yang F.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hughes D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Joosen W.,Catholic University of Leuven | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
ISOCC 2015 - International SoC Design Conference: SoC for Internet of Everything (IoE) | Year: 2015

μPnP is a system that supports the plug-and-play integration of embedded sensors and actuators with the Internet of Things (IoT) [3]. The hardware element of μPnP uses passive electrical characteristics to identify embedded peripherals at orders of magnitude lower power than mainstream approaches such as USB or FireWire. This paper contributes a new design for the μPnP hardware element that achieves significant reductions in energy consumption and improvements in accuracy. © 2015 IEEE.


Lei C.-U.,University of Hong Kong | Man K.L.,University of Hong Kong | Lim E.,University of Hong Kong | Zhang N.,University of Hong Kong | Wan K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

This paper presents a curriculum design of a course about reliability of circuits and systems. Contents in the learning modules include failure mechanisms of electronics, reliability for electronic components and circuit systems and simulation for circuit reliability. Through learning modules, students can learn concepts about reliability in circuits and systems, as well as develop awareness to design a reliable circuit system. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Dodigovic M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education | Year: 2013

This article focuses on the use of natural language processing (NLP) to facilitate second language learning within the context of academic English. It describes a full cycle of educational software development, from needs analysis to software testing. Two studies are included: 1) the needs analysis conducted to develop the Intelligent Sentence Writing Tutor (ISWT) which diagnoses and at request corrects second language errors in writing, and 2) the summative evaluation of ISWT. The former comprises a survey of learning styles and learner corpus analysis which have both fed into the development of ISWT. The latter is addressed in a quantitative study with elements of both within-sample and comparison design. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the examined phenomenon, the paper establishes links to previous and concurrent research in the fields of second language acquisition and ICALL (intelligent computer assisted language learning), while relying on a variety of theories and approaches to address a specific educational problem. The comprehensive coverage of the development process takes precedence over the fine detail of individual development stages. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Li J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Yu C.,Zhejiang Normal University | Zheng C.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Etogo A.,Zhejiang Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2014

In this work, we demonstrated a general strategy for the preparation of a series of uniform Ag2WO4/AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) hybrid nanorods by a facile in-situ anion exchange reaction occurring at room temperature between pregrown Ag2WO4 nanorods and different X- ions in water. Compared with Ag2WO4 nanorods, further investigation has revealed that the as-prepared hybrid nanorods possess signi?cantly enhanced photocurrent response and photocatalytic activity in degrading methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation. In particular, the Ag2WO4/AgBr hybrid nanorods exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity among the three kinds of samples. The active species tests indicate that superoxide anion radicals and photogenerated holes are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Caraballo T.,University of Seville | Colucci R.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Han X.,Auburn University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2016

In this paper we study a semi-Kolmogorov type of population model, arising from a predator-prey system with indirect effects. In particular we are interested in investigating the population dynamics when the indirect effects are time dependent and periodic. We first prove the existence of a global pullback attractor. We then estimate the fractal dimension of the attractor, which is done for a subclass by using Leonov's theorem and constructing a proper Lyapunov function. To have more insights about the dynamical behavior of the system we also study the coexistence of the three species. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate all the theoretical results. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tonkin J.D.,Massey University | Tonkin J.D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Death R.G.,Massey University | Barquin J.,University of Cantabria
Aquatic Ecology | Year: 2013

More productive environments typically have more species, although the specific form of this relationship is unclear and can vary with spatial scale. This relationship has received little direct attention in lotic systems, and thus the nature of the relationship is unclear, as is any effect of spatial scale. We examined the link between stream primary productivity and macroinvertebrate diversity in Spain and New Zealand and hypothesized that macroinvertebrate diversity would increase log-linearly with increasing productivity in both regions. We sampled 24 streams in Cantabria, Spain, and 24 in the central North Island, New Zealand. Algal primary productivity was approximately three times higher in Spanish streams, but taxonomic richness of invertebrates did not differ between the regions. Richness and Shannon diversity only responded to productivity in the New Zealand streams, exhibiting the predicted log-linear increase. In the Spanish streams, only the total number of individuals increased with productivity. However, when plotted on the same axes, richness in the Spanish streams simply occurred on the linear portion of the graph to the right of the New Zealand streams. We speculate that productivity in the Spanish streams never became low enough to constrain diversity, but did in the New Zealand streams. Combining results from the two regions, there is no evidence of a decline in diversity with higher productivity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Hughes D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Thoelen K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Horre W.,Catholic University of Leuven | Matthys N.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Mobile Computing and Multimedia Communications | Year: 2010

Considerable research has been performed in applying run-time reconfigurable component models to the domain of wireless sensor networks. The ability to dynamically deploy and reconfigure software components has clear advantages in sensor networks, which are typically large in scale and expected to operate for long periods in the face of node mobility, dynamic environmental conditions, and changing application requirements. LooCI is a component and binding model that is optimized for use in resource-constrained environments such as Wireless Sensor Networks. LooCI components use a novel event-based binding model that allows developers to model rich component interactions, while providing support for run-time reconfiguration, reflection, and policy-based management. This paper reports on the design of LooCI and describes a prototype implementation for the Sun SPOT. This platform is then evaluated in context of a real-world river monitoring and warning scenario in the city of São Carlos, Brazil. Copyright © 2010, IGI Global.


Diniz N.V.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Duarte C.A.,University of Lisbon | Guimaraes N.M.,University of Lisbon
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the emergence and need of principles and guidelines for the design of interaction spaces based on media façades, as large public interactive spaces. Media façades, as new architectural creations, are being designed and built all over the world, and possibilities for interaction with individuals and groups of users are being discovered in multiple dimensions. This paper consolidates a number of empirically observed features of current projects and maps these onto a systematic framework of feature domains. We expect the framework to help in conceptualization, analysis and evaluation of current and future designs and to guide the design of the active and interactive solutions Copyright © 2012 ACM.


Kong X.,Queens University | Tang A.,Queens University | Wang R.,Queens University | Ye E.,University of Ottawa | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

We report synthesis of 17O-labeling and solid-state 17O NMR measurements of three N-acyl imidazoles of the type R-C(17O)-Im: R = p-methoxycinnamoyl (MCA-Im), R = 4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl (DAB-Im), and R = 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl (TMB-Im). Solid-state 17O NMR experiments allowed us to determine for the first time the 17O quadrupole coupling and chemical shift tensors in this class of organic compounds. We also determined the crystal structures of these compounds using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures show that, while the C(O)-N amide bond in DAB-Im exhibits a small twist, those in MCA-Im and TMB-Im are essentially planar. We found that, in these N-acyl imidazoles, the 17O quadrupole coupling and chemical shift tensors depend critically on the torsion angle between the conjugated acyl group and the C(O)-N amide plane. The computational results from a plane-wave DFT approach, which takes into consideration the entire crystal lattice, are in excellent agreement with the experimental solid-state 17O NMR results. Quantum chemical computations also show that the dependence of 17O NMR parameters on the Ar-C(O) bond rotation is very similar to that previously observed for the C(O)-N bond rotation in twisted amides. We conclude that one should be cautious in linking the observed NMR chemical shifts only to the twist of the C(O)-N amide bond. © 2015 Published by NRC Research Press.


Kim M.K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Baldini L.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2016

In this study, the decentralized ventilation (DV) performance of a small air ventilator to replace natural ventilation for use in urban areas is analyzed and compared to conventional centralized ventilation (CV) systems in European climates. Selected European weather conditions were used to determine acceptable conditions for the operation of fan-assisted ventilation systems and to analyze the decentralized ventilation system's cooling and heating loads. Entire fan and pump loads of DV system are numerically calculated based on published data. Compared with a conventional centralized ventilation system, this system has shorter air transport distances and therefore entails lower pressure losses. In a decentralized system, fan speed and airflow rate are adjusted simply and effectively depending on indoor thermal conditions. A radiant panel with decentralized ventilation system (RPDV) is shown to have the lowest heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption because it not only minimizes supply and exhaust air pressure losses, but can also be operated as a fan-assisted natural ventilation system during periods when outdoor air can be used without additional thermal loads. Based on numerically calculated and measured data, this study newly adds fan and pump energy analysis of decentralized ventilation system compared to centralized ventilation systems. This study shows the fan and pump energy consumption with analysis of fan-assisted DV system considering outdoor weather condition in European climate. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Duan H.,Beihang University | Li P.,Beihang University | Shi Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Zhang X.,Beihang University | Sun C.,Beihang University
IEEE Transactions on Education | Year: 2015

This paper describes the development of BOLE, a MATLAB-based interactive learning environment, that facilitates the process of learning bio-inspired optimization algorithms, and that is dedicated exclusively to unmanned aerial vehicle path planning. As a complement to conventional teaching methods, BOLE is designed to help students consolidate the concepts taught in the course and motivate them to explore relevant issues of bio-inspired optimization algorithms through interactive and collaborative learning processes. BOLE differs from other similar tools in that it places greater emphasis on fundamental concepts than on complex mathematical equations. The learning tasks using BOLE can be classified into four steps: introduction, recognition, practice, and collaboration, according to task complexity. It complements traditional classroom teaching, enhancing learning efficiency and facilitating the assessment of student achievement, as verified by its practical application in an undergraduate course 'Bio-Inspired Computing.' Both objective and subjective measures were evaluated to assess the learning effectiveness. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Li Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li C.,Shanghai University | Su Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2014

The CCND1 gene is overexpressed in esophageal cancer and accelerates cell cycle progression. However, the mechanism whereby the upstream genes or factors directly regulate CCND1 expression remains unknown. By analyzing the 5′-UTR region of the CCND1 gene, we found that this region contains an octamer motif (ATTTTGCAT), which suggests that the expression of CCND1 might be directly associated with octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4). In this study, the wild-type and the octamer motif-mutanted CCND1 promoters were cloned, and their corresponding luciferase reporter vectors were then constructed to study the molecular mechanism by which OCT4 regulates the expression of CCND1 and influences the biological behaviors of esophageal cancer cells. The results indicated that suppressing the expression of CCND1 and OCT4 in esophageal cancer cells reduced cell proliferative and invasive abilities, induced cell cycle G1-phase arrest, and slowed the growth of xenografts in nude mice. Suppression of OCT4 expression significantly decreased the wild-type CCND1 promoter activity and down-regulated the expression of CCND1, but did not affect the activity of the mutant promoter. Whereas, suppression of CCND1 did not affect OCT4 expression, suggesting that OCT4 regulates CCND1 expression by activating the CCND1 promoter and subsequently promoting cell cycle progression. The results revealed and confirmed that OCT4 is the upstream factor that directly binds to the CCND1 promoter to regulate CCND1 expression, then to promote cell cycle progression and accelerate the proliferation and invasion of esophageal cancer cells. This finding may significantly contribute to elucidating the regulatory mechanism involved in the cell cycle progression of esophageal cancer cells and may aid in screening potential gene targets for the biological therapy of esophageal cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hughes D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Bencomo N.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Morin B.,Sintef | Huygens C.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

Many problems facing software engineers demand 'optimal' performance in multiple dimensions, such as computational overhead and development overhead. For these complex problems, designing an optimal solution based upon a single programming paradigm is not feasible. A more appropriate solution is to create a solution framework that embraces multiple programming paradigms, each of which is optimal for a well-defined region of the problem space. This paper proposes a theory for creating multi-paradigm software solutions that is inspired by two contributions from theoretical physics: model dependent realism and M-Theory. The proposed theoretical framework, which we call 'S-Theory', promotes the creation of actor-optimal solution frameworks, encourages technology reuse and identifies promising research directions. We use the field of sensor networks as a running example. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.


Xiong X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Wang J.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Jia H.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Ding L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 2 more authors.
Polymer Composites | Year: 2014

In this article, the synergistic effects of carbon black (CB) and modified carbon-silica dual phase filler (MCSDPF) on the properties of natural rubber (NR) were investigated. MCSDPF was prepared by modifying carbon-silica dual phase filler (CSDPF) with bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulphane (Si-69). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer analyses revealed that Si-69 was successfully grafted to CSDPF. NR-based compounds containing various combinations of MCSDPF and CB were prepared through a mechanical mixing. Investigations of mechanical properties, ageing resistance, abrasion resistance, dynamic mechanical properties, and morphology of tear fractured surface of MCSDPF/CB/NR vulcanizates were conducted. Our study shows that adding MCSDPF led to significant improvement in the tear resistance, fatigue life, and elongation at break of MCSDPF/CB/NR vulcanizates. Optimum stoichiometric combination of MCSDPF and CB inside the NR matrix was derived (ratio of MCSDPF and CB in wt%=15/50), which showed synergistic effects of MCSDPF upon CB that was ultimately reflected in their tensile strength, wet skid resistance, and rolling resistance. POLYM. COMPOS., 35:1466-1472, 2014. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.


Bahareldin-Ali A.,South China Agricultural University | Qin G.-S.,Buffalo Lab | Guo R.-H.,South China Agricultural University | Tsigkou A.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of stimulating ovarian follicle development in order to improve fertility in water buffalo cows by immunization against inhibin. The experiment was carried out in early summer (May) and included 24 multi-parity crossbred Murrah-Swamp buffaloes that were divided into immunized (n=11) and control (n=13) groups. Each immunized cow was administered with a 2-mL immunogen of mineral oil adjuvant containing 2 mg of recombinant inhibin α-subunit fusion protein. The controls were treated with the adjuvant only. All animals received Ovsynch protocol treatment, starting on the day of the antigen administration, and they were artificially inseminated upon behavioral estrus. As a result, all of the immunized buffaloes generated antibodies against inhibin during the experimental period and had higher plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), activin, and estradiol (E2) related to estrous expression. A higher proportion of immunized animals expressed estrus behavior than did the controls (72% vs. 30%, P<0.05). On average, inhibin-immunized buffaloes had significantly more large follicles (≥9 mm in diameter) than the controls (mean±SEM; 1.2±0.1 vs. 0.84±0.1, respectively; P<0.05) and a slightly higher mean total number of follicles (≥2 mm; 11.4±0.7 vs. 9.0±1.1, respectively; P=0.09) and small (2-4 mm) follicles (8.81±0.6 vs. 6.84±1.0, respectively; P=0.12). A higher percentage of cows ovulated in the immunized group than in the control group (91% (10/11) vs. 54% (7/13), respectively; P<0.05). Moreover, inhibin-immunized cows had slightly larger corpus luteum (CL) than the controls 9 days after ovulation and significantly higher (P<0.01) post-ovulation peak plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Immunization against inhibin also marginally increased the conception rate 42 days after insemination (45.8% vs. 15.4%; P>0.05). These results demonstrate that immunization against inhibin, coupled with the treatment with the Ovsynch protocol, can constitute a new technique to increase fertility in water buffalo cows. © 2015 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Wang X.H.,University of Hong Kong | Ning J.Q.,University of Hong Kong | Ning J.Q.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Su Z.C.,University of Hong Kong | And 6 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Following graphene, atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs) are quickly emerging as a new multidisciplinary frontier across condensed matter physics, materials science and inorganic chemistry. Compared with graphene, the optical and optoelectronic properties of 2D-TMD materials are more attractive largely due to the nature of their direct band gap. In this article, we show an interesting demonstration of the photoinduced doping effect in a mechanically-exfoliated high-quality tungsten disulfide (WS2) monolayer semiconductor. By utilizing a focused laser beam and increasing its intensity, we successfully observed a photoinduced doping effect, indicated by the gradual tuning of dominant light emission from a single narrow emission band peaking at 2.017 eV (Peak 1) to a broad asymmetric emission band (Peak 2) eventually located at around 1.955 eV at room temperature. Moreover, the peak position of Peak 2 shows a distinct red shift dependence on the excitation intensity, predicted by the band gap renormalization theory due to the heavy doping. Justified from their spectral features and excitation intensity dependence, the narrow emission band is ascribed to the fundamental band edge free exciton transition, whereas the broad asymmetric one is ascribed to the localized state ensemble induced by photo doping. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Li R.Y.M.,Hong Kong Shue Yan University | Pak D.H.A.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Journal of Information and Knowledge Management | Year: 2010

The concept of sustainable development-development which meets the needs of the present generation without depriving the needs of the future generation-has been in the lips of many political leaders, educators, NGOs and green groups. Living in the age of knowledge explosion, we want to receive the most updated information and knowledge. The Web 2.0 revolution provides the best solution to all those hungry knowledge seekers. This paper sheds light on the major resistance and motivations on sustainable knowledge sharing. © World Scientific Publishing Co.


Yuen K.K.F.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2013 10th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management - Proceedings of ICSSSM 2013 | Year: 2013

Outsourcing of logistics activities is the common business practice in the enterprise. Selection of a proper logistics service provider (LSP) meeting the requirements of operation strategy of the outsourcing enterprise is a complex task, due to its significant influence on the business performance. This paper demonstrates an application of the Primitive Cognitive Network Process (P-CNP) to the LSP selection strategy considering multiple criteria and alternatives. © 2013 IEEE.


Nayel M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Proceedings - 2012 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Environmental Electromagnetics, CEEM 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper studies the effect of frequencies and penetration depth on ground impedance, resisitivity and permittivity. The effect of injected a step like current in the four electrode method for ground resistivity and permittivity measurements are investigated. The ground impedance is obtained from measured voltage and current wave forms. A balance transformer is used to inject a step current in outer electrode and sink the same current from the other outer electrode. Calculation models had been proposed to explain physically the effects of frequency and penetration depth on four electrodes method measurements. © 2012 IEEE.


Fischer T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Beyond Codes and Pixels - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2012 | Year: 2012

Presenting a hard-to-predict typography-varying system predicated on Nazi-era cryptography, this paper illustrates conditions under which unrepeatable phenomena can arise, even from straight-forward mechanisms. Such conditions arise where systems are observed from outside of boundaries that arise through their observation, and where such systems refer to themselves in a circular fashion. This illustration aims to show the dilemma of scientific design research: Objective outsiders are mystified while those subjectively involved understand. © 2012, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong.


Diniz N.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Beyond Codes and Pixels - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper discusses studio design curricula using digital design as the medium to design process. The fundamental idea explored is that digital design thinking is fundamentally process driven as opposed to narrative driven and that digital design thinking leads to different way of conceptualising and solving design problems. The paper presents four studio case studies using different methodologies illustrating current digital design models. The types of studios chosen and the working methodologies adopted will be discussed in the light of understanding this shift of design conceptual thinking. © 2012, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong.


Xue F.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Li G.,State Grid Corporation of China
Dianli Xitong Zidonghua/Automation of Electric Power Systems | Year: 2016

As a hot topic, the Energy Internet is interpreted differently from field to field. This paper generalizes the essence of the Energy Internet as a technology of networking energy integration (NEI), with the smart grid designated the central backbone of the Energy Internet. A framework in terms of three layers for the Energy Internet is proposed, and the concept of cyber physical system is extended as cyber, physical and socioeconomic (CPS) system. The paper sums up the critical technologies for NEI as a unified and equipotent node model, energy integrator, operation and control under the conditions of NEI, as well as life-cycle management of energy. © 2016, Automation of Electric Power Systems Press.


Poulsen T.G.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Adelard L.,University of Reunion Island
Waste Management | Year: 2016

Impact of co-digestion versus mono-digestion on biogas and CH4 yield for a set of five biomass materials (vegetable food waste, cow dung, pig manure, grass clippings, and chicken manure) was investigated considering 95 different biomass mixes of the five materials under thermophilic conditions in bench-scale batch experiments over a period of 65 days. Average biogas and CH4 yields were significantly higher during co-digestion than during mono-digestion of the same materials. This improvement was most significant for co-digestion experiments involving three biomass types, although it was independent of the specific biomasses being co-digested. Improvement in CH4 production was further more prominent early in the digestion process during co-digestion compared to mono-digestion. Co-digestion also appeared to increase the ultimate CH4/CO2 ratio of the gas produced compared to mono-digestion although this tendency was relatively weak and not statistically significant. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Chan R.H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Liang H.-X.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

In this paper, we consider the ℓp-ℓq minimization problem with 0


Kim K.-H.,Yonsei University | Choi S.-M.,Yonsei University | Lee H.,Yonsei University | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Han Y.-S.,Yonsei University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Nowadays general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPUs) performs computations what were formerly handled by the CPU using hundreds of cores on GPUs. It often improves the performance of sequential computation when the running program is well-structured and formulated for massive threading. The CYK algorithm is a well-known algorithm for the context-free language membership test and has been used in many applications including grammar inferences, compilers and natural language processing. We revisit the CYK algorithm and its structural properties suitable for parallelization. Based on the discovered properties, we then parallelize the algorithm using different combinations of memory types and data allocation schemes using a GPU. We evaluate the algorithm based on real-world data and herein demonstrate the performance improvement compared with CPU-based computations. © 2014 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.


Schauz U.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2014

We prove that the list-chromatic index and paintability index of Kp+1 is p; for all odd primes p: This implies that the List Edge Coloring Conjecture holds for complete graphs with less than 10 vertices. It also shows that there exist arbitrarily big complete graphs for which the conjecture holds, even among the complete graphs of class 1. Our proof combines the Quantitative Combinatorial Nullstellensatz with the Paintability Nullstellensatz and a group action on symmetric Latin squares. It displays various ways of using different Nullstellensätze. We also obtain a partial proof of a version of Alon and Tarsi's Conjecture about even and odd Latin squares. © 2014, International Press of Boston, Inc. All rights reserved.


Chappell E.M.,Applied Science | Chappell E.M.,Senckenberg Institute | Webb D.S.,Applied Science | Tonkin J.D.,Applied Science | And 2 more authors.
New Zealand Entomologist | Year: 2014

The ground weta (Hemiandrus maculifrons) is an apparently abundant species with a New Zealand-wide distribution. Despite this, there is a paucity of ecological and biological information concerning this species. We aimed to gain new information about movement patterns, capture rates and body size differences by tagging individuals and conducting nightly surveys of a single H. maculifrons population in the Otanewainuku Forest, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Over a 26-night period between March and April 2012, we tagged 53 females and 78 males with queen bee tags and small reflector strips and recorded the location of animals that were subsequently re-sighted. Adult females were significantly larger than males, but capture and re-sight rates suggested males were the more abundant sex during the study period. Female weta moved further over consecutive nights than males (average distance moved, 1.57 m vs. 1.01 m, respectively); however, the tagging method, time of year and study area may have resulted in underestimates. These results indicate areas for further research into aspects of sexual selection, such as potentially biased sex ratios, sexual size dimorphism and mate competition, within H. maculifrons. © 2014 © 2014 The Entomological Society of New Zealand.


Barchyn T.E.,University of Lethbridge | Barchyn T.E.,University of Calgary | Hugenholtz C.H.,University of Lethbridge | Hugenholtz C.H.,University of Calgary | And 4 more authors.
Aeolian Research | Year: 2014

Despite almost a century of study, aeolian sediment transport remains difficult to measure. Low temporal resolution sediment traps filter sub-second scale variability hypothesized to be important, and high resolution electronic sensors are poorly tested, inconsistent, and often produce incomparable particle count outputs. No sediment transport prediction model can be validated or applied without quality empirical transport measurements. Here, we test a popular electronic laser gate sensor (Wenglor YH03PCT8, 'the Wenglor') in a wind tunnel. We have 3 goals: (i) assess the reproducibility of Wenglor measurements, (ii) examine saturation potential, and (iii) relate trap-measured sediment flux to particle counts. To assess reproducibility we measured particle counts with two co-located Wenglors. Temporally-autocorrelated sections of the time series occurred where one Wenglor deviated; this is likely the result of lens contamination. To examine saturation potential, we measured saltator velocity to calculate particle concentration within the airstream. Particle concentrations suggest the mean number of particles within the laser sampling volume is consistently less than one. To relate trap-measured sediment flux to particle counts, we used particle size samples to calculate an average mass per counted particle. We relate count predicted mass fluxes to trap-measured mass fluxes with linear regression and obtain the relation: trap flux=2.1*Wenglor predicted flux (r2=0.99). The constant represents aspects of the Wenglor operation that cannot be directly evaluated. Together, these investigations suggest the Wenglor provides a consistent and low-cost method to measure aeolian saltation flux at a high resolution in non-dusty settings. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Sun L.,Yangzhou University | Liu H.,China University of Mining and Technology | Zhang L.,China University of Mining and Technology | Meng J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been bringing novel insight into biological study, however it is still not trivial to accurately distinguish the lncRNA transcripts (LNCTs) from the protein coding ones (PCTs). As various information and data about lncRNAs are preserved by previous studies, it is appealing to develop novel methods to identify the lncRNAs more accurately. Our method lncRScan-SVM aims at classifying PCTs and LNCTs using support vector machine (SVM). The gold-standard datasets for lncRScan-SVM model training, lncRNA prediction and method comparison were constructed according to the GENCODE gene annotations of human and mouse respectively. By integrating features derived from gene structure, transcript sequence, potential codon sequence and conservation, lncRScan-SVM outperforms other approaches, which is evaluated by several criteria such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) and area under curve (AUC). In addition, several known human lncRNA datasets were assessed using lncRScan-SVM. LncRScan-SVM is an efficient tool for predicting the lncRNAs, and it is quite useful for current lncRNA study. © 2015 Sun et al.


Wen H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Wen H.,Xian Jiaotong University | Su B.,State Grid Corporation of China
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2016

For Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, DC-DC power converters are essential to provide energy storage buffers between fuel cell stacks and the traction system because fuel cells show characteristics of low-voltage high-current output and wide output voltage variation. This paper presents a hybrid-mode two-phase interleaved boost converter for fuel cell electric vehicle application in order to improve the power density, minimize the input current ripple, and enhance the system efficiency. Two operation modes are adopted in the practical design: mode I and mode II are used with each boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. The operation, design and control of the interleaved boost converter for different operating modes are discussed with their equivalent circuits. The boundary conditions are distinguished with respect to switching duty ratio and load conditions. Transitions between continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode are illustrated for the whole duty ratio range. The expressions for inductor current ripple, input current ripple and output voltage ripple are derived and verified by simulation and experimental tests. The efficiency and power density improvements are illustrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yuen K.K.F.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making | Year: 2014

Group decision making is the process to explore the best choice among the screened alternatives under predefined criteria with corresponding weights from assessment of a group of decision makers. The Fuzzy TOPSIS taking an evaluated fuzzy decision matrix as input is a popular tool to analyze the ideal alternative. This research, however, finds that the classical fuzzy TOPSIS produces a misleading result due to some inappropriate definitions, and proposes the rectified fuzzy TOPSIS addressing two technical problems. As the decision accuracy also depends on the evaluation quality of the fuzzy decision matrix comprising rating scores and weights, this research applies compound linguistic ordinal scale as the fuzzy rating scale for expert judgments, and cognitive pairwise comparison for determining the fuzzy weights. The numerical case of a robot selection problem demonstrates the hybrid approach leading to themuch reliable result for decision making, comparingwith the conventional fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and TOPSIS. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.


Tadjouddine E.M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics | Year: 2011

Purpose: As agent-based systems are increasingly used to model real-life applications such as the internet, electronic markets or disaster management scenarios, it is important to study the computational complexity of such usually combinatorial systems with respect to some desirable properties. The purpose of this paper is to consider two computational models: graphical games encoding the interactions between rational and selfish agents; and weighted directed acyclic graphs (DAG) for evaluating derivatives of numerical functions. The author studies the complexity of a certain number of search problems in both models. Design/methodology/approach: The author's approach is essentially theoretical, studying the problem of verifying game-theoretic properties for graphical games representing interactions between self-motivated and rational agents, as well as the problem of searching for an optimal elimination ordering in a weighted DAG for evaluating derivatives of functions represented by computer programs. Findings: A certain class of games has been identified for which Nash or Bayesian Nash equilibria can be verified in polynomial time; then, it has been shown that verifying a dominant strategy equilibrium is non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete even for normal form games. Finally, it has been shown that the optimal vertex elimination ordering for weighted DAGs is NP-complete. Originality/value: This paper presents a general framework for graphical games. The presented results are novel and illustrate how modeling real-life scenarios involving intelligent agents can lead to computationally hard problems while showing interesting cases that are tractable. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Liu L.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Zhang S.-W.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Meng J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Chen R.-S.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Chen R.-S.,CAS Institute of Biophysics
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2015

With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, the emerging of methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) technology makes it possible to detect RNA epigenetic modifications in a large scale, which allows transcriptome-wide profiling of RNA methylation. Mining the patterns of global mRNA methylation from these MeRIP-seq data can help reveal the potential functional roles of these mRNA methylations in regulating gene expression, splicing, RNA editing and RNA stability, effectively guiding the therapeutic intervention of cancer. Here, the principle of MeRIP-seq sequencing was first introduced. Then, the recent progress of the processing and analysis of MeRIP-seq data were comprehensively discussed. In the end, the computational problems and challenges faced in the process of MeRIP-seq data processing were also summarized.


Yin N.,Suzhou University of Science and Technology | Yin N.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Wang L.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Wang L.,East China Normal University | And 7 more authors.
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2015

Abstract Two conjugated A-π-D-π-A type small molecules having a 4,8-bis(thienyl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (TBDT) unit as the donor part, a mono-thiophene as the π-conjugation bridge, and 2-cyano-3-octyloxy-3-oxo-1-propenyl (COOP) or dicyanovinyl (DCV) as the terminal acceptor unit were synthesized and investigated. Both compounds showed broad absorption band over 400-600 nm and similar HOMO/LUMO energy levels. However, these two compounds showed a big difference in photovoltaic performance. The DCV-1T-TBDT:PC61BM based solar cell exhibited an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.93 V, a short circuit current (JSC) of 8.54 mA cm-2, a fill factor (FF) of 0.56, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.48%, whereas the COOP-1T-TBDT:PC61BM based solar cell showed a VOC of 1.04 V, a JSC of 2.28 mA cm-2, an FF of 0.29, and a PCE of 0.69. Furthermore, DCV-1T-TBDT showed minor thickness-dependent PCE behavior in PV device, which is beneficial for printing processing. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Hu X.-M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yu Y.,Dalian University of Technology | Chung H.S.-H.,City University of Hong Kong | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2010

Maximizing the lifetime of a sensor network by scheduling operations of sensors is an effective way to construct energy efficient wireless sensor networks. After the random deployment of sensors in the target area, the problem of finding the largest number of disjoint sets of sensors, with every set being able to completely cover the target area, is nondeterministic polynomial-complete. This paper proposes a hybrid approach of combining a genetic algorithm with schedule transition operations, termed STHGA, to address this problem. Different from other methods in the literature, STHGA adopts a forward encoding scheme for chromosomes in the population and uses some effective genetic and sensor schedule transition operations. The novelty of the forward encoding scheme is that the maximum gene value of each chromosome is increased consistently with the solution quality, which relates to the number of disjoint complete cover sets. By exerting the restriction on chromosomes, the forward encoding scheme reflects the structural features of feasible schedules of sensors and provides guidance for further advancement. Complying with the encoding requirements, genetic operations and schedule transition operations in STHGA cooperate to change the incomplete cover set into a complete one, while the other sets still maintain complete coverage through the schedule of redundant sensors in the sets. Applications for sensing a number of target points, termed point-coverage, and for the whole area, termed area-coverage, have been used for evaluating the effectiveness of STHGA. Besides the number of sensors and sensors' sensing ranges, the influence of sensors' redundancy on the performance of STHGA has also been analyzed. Results show that the proposed algorithm is promising and outperforms the other existing approaches by both optimization speed and solution quality. © 2010 IEEE.


Lu Q.,University of Liverpool | Zhao C.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Mu Y.,University of Liverpool | Zhao C.Z.,University of Liverpool | And 3 more authors.
Materials | Year: 2015

A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV) technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The results indicated that: (1) more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrOx; (2) the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N2 ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 1012 cm-2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 1012 cm-2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10-6 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10-3 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one. © 2015 by the authors.


Wang W.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Yao F.,University of Surrey | De S.,University of Surrey | Moessner K.,University of Surrey | Sun Z.,University of Surrey
Information Sciences | Year: 2015

The concept of sensing-as-a-service is proposed to enable a unified way of accessing and controlling sensing devices for many Internet of Things based applications. Existing techniques for Web service computing are not sufficient for this class of services that are exposed by resource-constrained devices. The vast number of distributed and redundantly deployed sensors necessitate specialised techniques for their discovery and ranking. Current research in this line mostly focuses on discovery, e.g., designing efficient searching methods by exploiting the geographical properties of sensing devices. The problem of ranking, which aims to prioritise semantically equivalent sensor services returned by the discovery process, has not been adequately studied. Existing methods mostly leverage the information directly associated with sensor services, such as detailed service descriptions or quality of service information. However, assuming the availability of such information for sensor services is often unrealistic. We propose a ranking strategy by estimating the cost of accessing sensor services. The computation is based on properties of the sensor nodes as well as the relevant contextual information extracted from the service access process. The evaluation results demonstrate not only the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of ranking quality measure, but also the potential for preserving the energy of the sensor nodes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Pugliese L.,University of Aalborg | Poulsen T.G.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Soil Science | Year: 2014

The relationship between solute dispersion coefficient (Dmech) and porewater velocity during chloride transport in porous media with different particle characteristics at low porewater velocities (u< 1 cmmin-1), relevant for groundwater flowconditions,was investigated.Data for 29 porous media with very different particle shapes (ranging from almost spherical to very angular) and particle sizes (0.088-12mm) at different velocities (340 breakthrough curves) were used in the analyses. The analysis showed that Dmech at low u is significantly different from that at higher u. Whereas the u - Dmech relationship generally can be assumed linear at higher u (based on observations in earlier studies), the data presented in this study clearly show that this is not the case at low u. The results further indicated that Dmech at low u is strongly related to porous medium particle shape and to some degree also to medium particle size range and mean particle diameter. As the current knowledge about dispersion at low u and its dependency on porous medium properties is very limited, the results obtained in this study represent a significant addition to this understanding. A set of expressions for predicting Dmech at low u from medium properties was developed. These expressions yield good accuracy across all 29 media, thus providing a means for predicting dispersion at low u across a very wide range of media. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Del Cid P.J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Michiels S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Joosen W.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hughes D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2010 IEEE International Conference on Networked Embedded Systems for Enterprise Applications, NESEA 2010 | Year: 2010

In order to improve application reaction times and decrease overall transmission overhead, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications are being developed to push intelligence into the network. In multi-purpose enterprise deployments of WSNs the infrastructure is considered a light-weight service platform that can provide services for multiple concurrent distributed applications. In this context our middleware focuses on efficiently managing shared resources while considering Quality of Data (QoD) and context aware operation. In this paper we address the issue of how concurrent use of WSN services may lead to consequential contention over a sensor node's resources. We contribute by introducing share-able components that minimize the consequential resources needed and a resource planner that effectively reserves these resources. A prototype implementation and evaluation are provided. ©2010 IEEE.


Guan C.,University of Liverpool | Yuen K.K.F.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Coenen F.,University of Liverpool
Proceedings - 2015 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2015 | Year: 2015

Folksonomy, a system for social tagging or collaborative tagging, is popular in Semantic Web research. Folksonomy is applied to items, such as music pieces, which their personalized tags can be annotated by users. Recommendation systems can use these tags to produce meaningful information. Clustering methods, such as the Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) method, can be applied in the context of recommendation system. This paper proposes the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (IFAHC) algorithm for recommendation using social tagging. The Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set (IFS) concept is used to represent tag values which are vague and uncertain. IFAHC can cluster items represented by using IFS into different groups. The application of IFAHC to music recommendation is used to demonstrate the usability of the proposed method. © 2015 IEEE.


Roberts J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Koliska M.,University of Maryland University College
First Monday | Year: 2014

An ever-increasing number of us live in a world rich in information and media that provide us with constant access to that information. Besides television, radio, newspapers, and computers, we now carry communication devices with us. Mobile devices with digital content - phones, iPods, PDAs - have become ubiquitous around the world, creating an information environment with as yet unknown consequences for the way we function and the way we think and feel. This study examines responses from students at 12 universities from 10 nations who tried to avoid all "media" for 24 hours and reflect on their experience, and considers the data in the context of ambient media in hopes of better understanding the effects of living in a world of ambient media. © First Monday, 1995-2014.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Pham T.D.,University of New South Wales
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications | Year: 2013

Subcellular localisation is a key functional characteristic of proteins. In this paper, we apply Haralick texture analysis and Curvelet Transform for feature description and propose a cascade Random Subspace (RS) ensemble with rejection options for subcellular phenotype classification. Serial fusions of RS classifier ensembles much improve classification reliability. The rejection option is implemented by relating the consensus degree from majority voting to a confidence measure and abstaining to classify ambiguous samples if the consensus degree is lower than a threshold. Using the public 2D HeLa cell images, classification accuracy 93% is obtained with rejection rate 2.7% from the proposed system. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Hu J.,Xidian University | Lou Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Cui Y.,Xidian University
Journal of Computational Information Systems | Year: 2013

A differential evolution algorithm that bases on the generating of opposition individuals, and applies individual ordering strategy on the elites is proposed. First, the opposition-based method extends the search fields to the symmetrical positions. Then all the existing individuals are sorted into two sub-populations, according to the different fitness values. Elitism ordering strategy is applied to the individuals with better fitness to improve the capability of local search, while the commonly random differential evolution method is used to the rest individuals, aiming at the diversity improvement. Simulation experiments are implemented based on a set of benchmark functions, and the result shows the promising performance of the proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2013 Binary Information Press.


Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2010 5th International Conference on Future Information Technology, FutureTech 2010 - Proceedings | Year: 2010

This paper presents our industrial experience on the implementation of Minteos Mesh Protocol which is a memory, power and delay efficient mesh protocol; and Minteos SystemC Simulator for mesh networks. Experiments are carried out to validate the adequate use of Minteos Mesh Protocol. Also, simulation/test results are given to show the effectiveness and applicability of Minteos SystemC simulator for mesh networks. ©2010 IEEE.


Wan K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Alagar V.,Concordia University at Montreal
2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, FSKD 2015 | Year: 2015

Virtual health care or e-Health is a powerful paradigm for creating patient-centered and technology supported service-oriented health care systems. Such systems can provide effective health care to everyone at any time and from anywhere. Health care providers, clinical technicians, domain experts, physicians, and patients may be geographically distributed, yet are connected through a reliable network for sharing their knowledge and expertise. They may use a variety of devices, such as smart medical devices, or smart phones, or laptops to automatically access, share, and synthesize health related knowledge, patient records, and clinical information. In this integrated health care environment decision making is leveraged on collective intelligence and social responsibility. Context-dependent privacy and security rules can be enforced in knowledge sharing and health service delivery. In this paper we introduce a holistic mobile health care model which is context-aware, knowledge-centric, and patient friendly. The model facilitates cooperation of several health care partners and patients so that knowledge and evidence based treatment will be available to all clients at all times in all places. © 2015 IEEE.


Lee K.,Murdoch University | Hughes D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Proceedings - 2010 1st ACIS International Symposium on Cryptography, and Network Security, Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, E-Commerce and Its Applications, and Embedded Systems, CDEE 2010 | Year: 2011

The field of wireless sensor networks has produced a range of supporting hardware and software technologies that facilitate the creation of sensor network applications. Despite these advances, the implementation of wireless sensor network applications remains a complex task that requires domain experts and a significant investment of time and money. This level of investment is often infeasible for single applications, especially for those applications with a short life-cycle. This paper suggests a new direction in wireless sensor network research. We argue that next generation sensor network platforms should strive towards a shared infrastructure, multi-application paradigm, with a clean separation of concerns between infrastructure providers and application developers. These are principles that are well established in the field of Cloud Computing. This paper introduces our vision for future sensor networks, which we refer to as the 'Tangible Cloud'. To support this vision, we introduce a reference architecture and pricing model for sensor network resources. © 2010 IEEE.


Wong M.M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Wong M.L.D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Nandi A.K.,University of Liverpool | Hijazin I.,Swinburne University of Technology
European Signal Processing Conference | Year: 2012

The recent increase of resource-constrained embedded devices have led to the need of lightweight cryptography. Therefore, the design of secure communication algorithms that fit in this highly constrained environments has become a fundamental issue in cryptographic circuit design. In this paper, we propose an optimization methodology that would efficiently reduces the code size of the S-box, the most expensive operation of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Here, we perform a study on composite field AES S-box constructed using an inversion algorithm based on Fermat's Little Theorem (FLT). Consequently, we derive two AES S-box constructions over the fields GF((24) 2) and GF((22)4) respectively. Our methodology results in smaller computational cost compared to the conventional Look-up Table (LUT) method, which is commonly deployed on microcontrollers. © 2012 EURASIP.


Horre W.,Katholieke University Leuven | Michiels S.,Katholieke University Leuven | Joosen W.,Katholieke University Leuven | Hughes D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Journal of Software | Year: 2011

If we are to deploy sensor applications in a realistic business context, we must provide innovative middleware services to control and enforce required system behavior. Sensor application developers typically reason about required system behavior in terms of high-level quality goals. Due to the extreme dynamism, scale and unreliability of wireless sensor networks, managing these goals using contemporary software management techniques without support for high-level quality goals quickly becomes challenging. This paper presents QARI, a middleware service which addresses these management challenges by offering a simple yet flexible way to define, enforce, and maintain high-level quality goals for software deployment in wireless sensor networks. We have evaluated QARI using the LooCI component model on two sensor node platforms; results confirm that QARI enables quality aware software deployment for a single application as well as multiple applications, and even in the presence of node failure and mobility. © 2011 ACADEMY PUBLISHER.


Jung D.-Y.,Daeho Technology | Choi J.-W.,Inha University | Park W.-J.,Inha University | Lee S.-H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Journal of Central South University of Technology (English Edition) | Year: 2011

Comparison and data analysis with the similarity measures and entropy for fuzzy sets were carried out. The distance proportional value between the fuzzy set and the corresponding crisp set was considered by the fuzzy entropy. The relation between the similarity measure and the entropy for fuzzy set was also analyzed. The fuzzy entropy was reformulated as the dissimilarity measure. Furthermore, crisp set having the minimum uncertainty with respect to the corresponding fuzzy set was also proposed. Finally, derivation of a similarity measure from entropy with the help of total information property was derived. A simple example shows the relation between similarity measure and fuzzy entropy, in which the summation of similarity measure and fuzzy entropy represents a constant value. © 2011 Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Deng Z.,University of Hong Kong | Wang R.X.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Ning J.Q.,University of Hong Kong | Zheng C.C.,University of Hong Kong | And 7 more authors.
Solar Energy | Year: 2014

In this work, remarkable transverse diffusion of minority carriers in the GaxIn1 - xP top subcell of a GaxIn1 - xP/GaAs double-junction tandem solar cell is revealed by the electroluminescence (EL) image surveying. As the forward bias is increased, the overall EL intensity rapidly increases, but the topographical distribution of lateral intensity becomes more uneven. By analyzing the relation between the measured EL emission intensity and diffusion parameters of electrically injected minority carriers, the transverse diffusion length of the minority carriers is determined to be ~93μm at the forward bias of 2.75V, which is 30 times larger than that of unbiased GaxIn1 - xP single layer. Possible influence of such super diffusion of charge carriers on the conversion efficiency of tandem solar cells is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Fischer T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2014 IEEE Conference on Norbert Wiener in the 21st Century: Driving Technology's Future, 21CW 2014 - Incorporating the Proceedings of the 2014 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference, NAFIPS 2014, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

An increasing number of practitioners, researchers and educators in the design field find value in describing design processes in cybernetic terms, while cyberneticians have come to recognize design as a central cybernetic theme. Design and cybernetics have in common that their modes of operation can be characterized as kinds of 'forward-looking search', which transcend the description-focused concerns of natural science. Based on a review of some of Wiener's writings - in particular an abandoned reflection on the process of invention - this paper argues that Wiener was not only one of the inventors of cyber-netics, but also an early cybernetician of invention (i.e. design). Developing analogies between the causal principles observed in automatic anti-aircraft guns, the formation of cybernetics as an academic discipline, and the practices of cybernetics and design, this paper argues that Wiener not only operated between what is (scientifically describable) and what ought to be (designed), but that he also reflected theoretically on himself doing so, thereby enacting several concepts of today's cybernetic design theory. A selection of these concepts is listed and discussed. © 2014 IEEE.


Xia Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Zhang B.,University of Liverpool | Coenen F.,University of Liverpool
2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, FSKD 2015 | Year: 2015

With the rise of crimes associated with ATM, security reinforcement by surveillance techniques has been in high agenda for both academia and industries. Though cameras are generally installed in ATMs to capture the facial images of users, the function is only limited to recording for follow-up criminal investigations, which could become useless when a criminal's face is occluded. Therefore, face occlusion detection has become very important to prevent crimes connected with ATMs. Traditional approaches to solve the problem typically consist of a succession of steps such as localization, segmentation, feature extraction and recognition. This paper proposes robust and effective facial occlusion detection based on convolutional neural networks (ConvNets) with multi-task learning. Covering of different facial parts, namely, left eye, right eye, nose and mouth, can be predicted by the multi-task CNN. In comparison with previous approaches, CNN is optimal from the system point of view as the design is based on end-to-end principle and the model operates directly on the image pixels. We created a large scale face occlusion database, consisting of over fifty thousand images, with annotated facial parts. Experimental results revealed that the proposed method is extremely effective. © 2015 IEEE.


Gleadall A.,University of Nottingham | Pan J.,University of Leicester | Ding L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Kruft M.-A.,Corbion Purac Biomaterials | Curco D.,University of Barcelona
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2015

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to analyse materials at the atomic scale. However, MD has high computational demands, which may inhibit its use for simulations of structures involving large numbers of atoms such as amorphous polymer structures. An atomic-scale finite element method (AFEM) is presented in this study with significantly lower computational demands than MD. Due to the reduced computational demands, AFEM is suitable for the analysis of Young[U+05F3]s modulus of amorphous polymer structures. This is of particular interest when studying the degradation of bioresorbable polymers, which is the topic of an accompanying paper. AFEM is derived from the inter-atomic potential energy functions of an MD force field. The nonlinear MD functions were adapted to enable static linear analysis. Finite element formulations were derived to represent interatomic potential energy functions between two, three and four atoms. Validation of the AFEM was conducted through its application to atomic structures for crystalline and amorphous poly(lactide). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Nayel M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
IEEJ Transactions on Power and Energy | Year: 2011

This paper studies those parameters affecting the shielding angle of the lightning rod (Franklin Rod) above very tall buildings. It was recommended that the shielding angle of the lightning rod is about 45° ∼ 60°. The downward lightning leader is modeled by using discrete line charges to consider the exponential distribution of charges through the downward leader. The voltage condition used by Rizk is used to investigate the inception of the upward lightning leader. Different air conditions (relative air density and air humidity) are considered for more practical simulation. The influences of lightning parameters and lightning rod height on the shielding angle are studied. The results shows that, lightning leader parameters, lightning rod height and ground slope have series effects on the lightning rod shielding angle. Based on the results, a lightning rod shielding angle for shielding design is recommended to decrease the lightning stroke to the lightning rod. © 2011 The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.


Dounas T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Beyond Codes and Pixels - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2012 | Year: 2012

The present paper tries to explore the potential of visual-heavy tools in the creation of virtual reality worlds, with an emphasis on tools borrowed from 3d electronic games. Compared to earlier approaches in virtual reality creation the paper focuses on game design tools and provides a basic framework for interaction in virtual reality, based on classic rather than digital representations, which is then expanded using digital representations. In the second part of the paper a game creation tool is assessed based on its potential not only of usability but also on guiding the designer in specific paths to designing virtual worlds. The assessment is based on a case study of interaction design. © 2012, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong.


Herr C.M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Beyond Codes and Pixels - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper presents a discussion of contemporary interactive media façades that complements the currently primarily technical framing of this field of research. Media façades, in the form of digitally orchestrated façade illumination, are discussed here as sites of potential encounter and interaction that form part of the public sphere. These aspects seem both underestimated as well as underused as media façades tend to be limited to pre-programmed and primarily ornamental trivial response patterns, or to serving as oversized displays. This paper discusses media façades from an architectural rather than a technological perspective and critically assesses the promises of interactivity as well as implications of such façades on urban public space. © 2012, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong.


Armstrong L.M.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Luo K.H.,University of Southampton
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2011

An Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the gasification processes in a coal bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is presented based on the experimental setup taken from the literature. The base model is modified to account for different parameter changes in the model setup. The exiting gas compositions for the base model have been averaged over time and validated with experimental data and compared to the exiting results for the different parameter models. An extensive study is also carried out which considers the variation of different parameters such as bed temperatures, bed height, bed material, heat transfer coefficients, and devolatilization models influenced the gasification processes in different ways. Such an extensive parametric study has yet to be carried out for an Eulerian-Eulerian coal gasification model. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Wan K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Alagar V.,Concordia University at Montreal
2012 International Conference on Systems and Informatics, ICSAI 2012 | Year: 2012

The integration of physical systems and processes with networked computing has led to the emergence of a new generation of engineered systems, called Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). The resources in these systems are critical, because without them timely and dependable CPS services in different contexts cannot be provided. This in turn requires a formal resource model integrated within a CPS service model. The resource model should include resource types and definition, resource utility, resource constraints, and resource mapping to services. In this paper we explore the issues related to a formal representation of resources and discuss a context-dependent resource-centric CPS model. We compare our model with existing models and bring out the merits of our resource model. © 2012 IEEE.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Proceedings - International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics | Year: 2012

Though many progresses have been made, face recognition is still a challenging topic in computer vision. Most of the published works focused on accurate classifiers design to produce identity predictions for query faces without suggesting how reliable the predictions are. These classifiers may not be applicable in some critical situations where the incorrect predictions have serious consequences. Aiming to tackle this problem, this paper proposes a highly reliable face recognition scheme by Random Subspace Support Vector Machine (SVM) ensemble which provides a reject option. Being different with previous classifier ensembles which purpose to increase the classification accuracy only, the objective of the proposed SVM ensemble is to supply classification confidence to accommodate the situations where no decision should be made if the confidence is low. The ensemble is created using Random Subspace (RS) method, together with four different feature descriptions to comprehensively characterize face images, including Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradient (PHOG), Gabor filtering and wavelet transform. The consensus from the ensemble's voting conforms to the confidence measure and the rejection option is accomplished accordingly when the confidence falls below a threshold. The reliable recognition scheme is empirically evaluated using a realistic face database created by the author, showing that pre-defined 100% accuracy can be reached with a rejection rate 7%. © 2012 IEEE.


Yuen K.K.F.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
2012 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing, ICSPCC 2012 | Year: 2012

With rapid growth of Software-as-a-Services (SaaS) products in cloud paradigm, evaluation of SaaS product is essential for an enterprise to purchase a software service whilst there are a number of alternatives. This paper proposes the primitive cognitive network process (P-CNP) approach to measure the SaaS products in multi-criteria decision making aspect. The P-CNP is the rectified approach of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in the aspects of paired interval scale and the corresponding mathematical development. The proposed approach can support the business decision maker to select the best cloud service product through user experiences and preferences. © 2012 IEEE.


Wang Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Pu Q.,Tongji University | Wu S.,Zhengzhou University | Wu S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics | Year: 2012

Most recently, Youn and Lim proposed an improved delegationbased authentication protocol for secure roaming service with unlinkability. In this letter, we show that 1 it is vulnerable to a denial of service (DoS) attack 2 can not provide the unlinkability as claimed. Finally, we propose an enhanced protocol to remedy the security loopholes existing in it. Moreover, our improved protocol is still efficient. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Zhou J.,Wuyi University | Niu Q.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2010

We proposed a substructure preconditioner for a class of structured linear system of equations. We show that a preconditioner with half of the constraint terms is able to make the preconditioned matrix have only three distinct eigenvalues. For some practical applications, a regularized variant is formulated, and the influence of the regularization parameter is analyzed. Numerical results show that the regularized variant is as efficient and is able to produce nearly optimal convergence behavior with a wide range of parameters. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen X.,Yanshan University | Han S.,Yanshan University | Wang R.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Li Y.,Yanshan University
Acta Crystallographica Section C: Structural Chemistry | Year: 2016

Crystal engineering can be described as the understanding of intermolecular interactions in the context of crystal packing and the utilization of such understanding to design new solids with desired physical and chemical properties. Free-energy differences between supramolecular isomers are generally small and minor changes in the crystallization conditions may result in the occurrence of new isomers. The study of supramolecular isomerism will help us to understand the mechanism of crystallization, a very central concept of crystal engineering. Two supramolecular isomers of dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N')cobalt(II), [CoCl2(C12H8N2)2], i.e. (IA) (orthorhombic) and (IB) (monoclinic), and two supramolecular isomers of dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N')cobalt(II) N,N-dimethylformamide monosolvate, [CoCl2(C12H8 N2)2]·C3H7NO, i.e. (IIA) (orthorhombic) and (IIB) (monoclinic), were synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) and structurally characterized. Of these, (IA) and (IIA) have been prepared and structurally characterized previously [Li et al. (2007). Acta Cryst. E63, m1880-m1880; Cai et al. (2008). Acta Cryst. E64, m1328-m1329]. We found that the heating rate is a key factor for the crystallization of (IA) or (IB), while the temperature difference is responsible for the crystallization of (IIA) or (IIB). Based on the crystallization conditions, isomerization behaviour, the KPI (Kitajgorodskij packing index) values and the density data, (IB) and (IIA) are assigned as the thermodynamic and stable kinetic isomers, respectively, while (IA) and (IIB) are assigned as the metastable kinetic products. The 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands interact with each other through offset face-to-face (OFF) π-π stacking in (IB) and (IIB), but by edge-to-face (EF) C-H⋯π interactions in (IA) and (IIA). Meanwhile, the DMF molecules in (IIB) connect to neighbouring [CoCl2(phen)2] units through two C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, whereas there are no obvious interactions between DMF molecules and [CoCl2(phen)2] units in (IIA). Since OFF π-π stacking is generally stronger than EF C-H⋯π interactions for transition-metal complexes with nitrogen-containing aromatic ligands, (IIA) is among the uncommon examples that are stable and densely packed but that do not following Etter's intermolecular interaction hierarchy. © 2016 International Union of Crystallography.


Parkinson E.,University of Southampton | Boyd P.,University of Southampton | Aleksic M.,Colworth Science Park | Cubberley R.,Colworth Science Park | And 2 more authors.
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology | Year: 2014

The risk of contact sensitization is a major consideration in the development of new formulations for personal care products. However, developing a mechanistic approach for non-animal risk assessment requires further understanding of haptenation of skin proteins by sensitizing chemicals, which is the molecular initiating event causative of skin sensitization. The non-stoichiometric nature of protein haptenation results in relatively low levels of modification, often of low abundant proteins, presenting a major challenge for their assignment in complex biological matrices such as skin. Instrumental advances over the last few years have led to a considerable increase in sensitivity of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. We have combined these advancements with a novel dual-labeling/LC-MS(E) approach to provide an in-depth direct comparison of human serum albumin (HSA), 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB), 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MCI), trans-cinnamaldehyde, and 6-methyl coumarin. These data have revealed novel insights into the differences in protein haptenation between sensitizers with different reaction mechanisms and sensitizing potency; the extreme sensitizers DNCB and MCI were shown to modify a greater number of nucleophilic sites than the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde; and the weak/non-sensitizer 6-methyl coumarin was restricted to only a single nucleophilic residue within HSA. The evaluation of this dual labeling/LC-MS(E) approach using HSA as a model protein has also demonstrated that this strategy could be applied to studying global haptenation in complex mixtures of skin-related proteins by different chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Nobles T.,Texas State University | Zhang Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream. © 2015 Nobles, Zhang. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Jayaprakasam S.,University of Technology Malaysia | Rahim S.K.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Leow C.Y.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ting T.O.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
I4CT 2015 - 2015 2nd International Conference on Computer, Communications, and Control Technology, Art Proceeding | Year: 2015

Collaborative beamforming with finite number of collaborating nodes produces sidelobes that depend on the nodes' arrangement. Sidelobes cause interference when they occur at the directions of unintended receivers and thus reduce the transmission rate at these receivers. Peak sidelobe minimization does not effectively minimize the overall sidelobe of a beampattern formed by collaborative beamforming. Two main contributions are highlighted in this paper. First, we proposed a new fitness function based on directivity instead of the conventional peak sidelobe. Second, we applied the genetic algorithm (GA) to reduce the sidelobe in collaborative beamforming. This proposed solution is implemented without any feedback from the unintended receiver(s). In the light of reduced sidelobe, we recorded the resultant capacity and calculated its improvement. Results showing up to 14% of capacity improvement, proving the efficacy of the proposed methodologies: the GA and the new fitness function. © 2015 IEEE.


Zheng C.C.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Ning J.Q.,University of Hong Kong | Wang J.F.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Xu K.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | And 2 more authors.
Optoelectronic Devices and Integration, OEDI 2015 | Year: 2015

The effect of Fe doping on a series of Fe-doped GaN epilayers with difference doping concentrations were studied by Raman spectroscopy with comparison to Si-doped GaN samples. Compressive strain in Fe-dope GaN tend to relax. © OSA 2015.


Zhao C.,University of Liverpool | Zhao C.Z.,University of Liverpool | Zhao C.Z.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Taylor S.,University of Liverpool | Chalker P.R.,University of Liverpool
Materials | Year: 2014

Flash memory is the most widely used non-volatile memory device nowadays. In order to keep up with the demand for increased memory capacities, flash memory has been continuously scaled to smaller and smaller dimensions. The main benefits of down-scaling cell size and increasing integration are that they enable lower manufacturing cost as well as higher performance. Charge trapping memory is regarded as one of the most promising flash memory technologies as further down-scaling continues. In addition, more and more exploration is investigated with high-k dielectrics implemented in the charge trapping memory. The paper reviews the advanced research status concerning charge trapping memory with high-k dielectrics for the performance improvement. Application of high-k dielectric as charge trapping layer, blocking layer, and tunneling layer is comprehensively discussed accordingly. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Zhang X.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy | Year: 2012

Purpose: Despite a number of studies that have demonstrated the potential of geographic information sharing and analysis in enabling the delivery of modernised e-government services, there is a growing need for an evaluation of the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in local governments. The purpose of the paper is to explore the possibilities in this regard by establishing an evaluative framework based on e-government development models. In addition, the paper will provide some preliminary findings of a case study from the northwest of England, where the framework was used. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents an evaluation framework which connects GIS use in local governments, with e-government development models. Semi-structured interviews were used in a case study of some local governments in the northwest of England. The findings are then compared and contrasted with findings from a critical literature review. Findings: The framework is considered as useful in evaluating the development and use of GIS in local governments under the e-government banner. The results illustrate a wider use of GIS in local governments in the northwest of England and its close connection with the e-government strategy. The study also indicates many local governments are still facing social, technological and organisational challenges in different stages of the development of advanced GIS use. Originality/value: The paper presents an evaluation framework designed for a new and specific perspective regarding the connection of e-government and the use of GIS. Developing benchmarks with the framework should help politicians and other stakeholders to compare their initiatives with similar ones in other local governments. The paper would also help practitioners and decision makers to understand possible challenges in achieving such modernisation and the potential solutions at different stages development. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Zhao C.,Nanjing Southeast University | He J.,Nanjing Southeast University
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics | Year: 2012

The identification of the make and model of vehicles from images captured by surveillance camera, also referred to as vehicle type recognition, is a challenging task in intelligent transportation system and automatic surveillance. In this paper, we first comparatively studied two feature extraction methods for image description, i.e., the MPEG-7 edge orientation histogram (EOH) and the pyramid histogram of oriented gradients (PHOGs). EOH captures the spatial distribution of edges by detecting five predefined types of edge directions. PHOG represents the local shape by a histogram of edge orientations computed for each image sub-region, quantised into a number of bins. Compared with previously proposed feature extraction approaches for vehicle recognition, EOH has the advantage of small feature size, economic calculation cost and relative good performance and PHOG has the ascendency in its description of more discriminating information. A composite feature description from PHOG and EOH can further increase the accuracy of classification by taking their complementary information. We then investigate the applicability of the random subspace (RS) ensemble method for vehicle classification based on the combined features. A base classifier is trained with a randomly sampled subset of the original feature set and the ensemble assigns a class label by majority voting. Experimental results using more than 600 images from 21 types show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The composite feature is better than any single feature in the classification accuracy and the ensemble model produces better performance compared to any of the individual neural network base classifier. With moderate ensemble size 30, the random subspace ensembles offers a classification rate close to 94%, showing the promising potential in real applications. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics | Year: 2011

Purpose: Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is an important research area for automatically retrieving images of user interest from a large database. Due to many potential applications, facial image retrieval has received much attention in recent years. Similar to face recognition, finding appropriate image representation is a vital step for a successful facial image retrieval system. Recently, many efficient image feature descriptors have been proposed and some of them have been applied to face recognition. It is valuable to have comparative studies of different feature descriptors in facial image retrieval. And more importantly, how to fuse multiple features is a significant task which can have a substantial impact on the overall performance of the CBIR system. The purpose of this paper is to propose an efficient face image retrieval strategy. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, three different feature description methods have been investigated for facial image retrieval, including local binary pattern, curvelet transform and pyramid histogram of oriented gradient. The problem of large dimensionalities of the extracted features is addressed by employing a manifold learning method called spectral regression. A decision level fusion scheme fuzzy aggregation is applied by combining the distance metrics from the respective dimension reduced feature spaces. Findings: Empirical evaluations on several face databases illustrate that dimension reduced features are more efficient for facial retrieval and the fuzzy aggregation fusion scheme can offer much enhanced performance. A 98 per cent rank 1 retrieval accuracy was obtained for the AR faces and 91 per cent for the FERET faces, showing that the method is robust against different variations like pose and occlusion. Originality/value: The proposed method for facial image retrieval has a promising potential of designing a real-world system for many applications, particularly in forensics and biometrics. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Chen W.-N.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chung H.S.H.,City University of Hong Kong | Chung H.S.H.,E.Energy Technology Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2010

Abstract-Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is predominately used to find solutions for continuous optimization problems. As the operators of PSO are originally designed in an n-dimensional continuous space, the advancement of using PSO to find solutions in a discrete space is at a slow pace. In this paper, a novel setbased PSO (S-PSO) method for the solutions of some combinatorial optimization problems (COPs) in discrete space is presented. The proposed S-PSO features the following characteristics. First, it is based on using a set-based representation scheme that enables S-PSO to characterize the discrete search space of COPs. Second, the candidate solution and velocity are defined as a crisp set, and a set with possibilities, respectively. All arithmetic operators in the velocity and position updating rules used in the original PSO are replaced by the operators and procedures defined on crisp sets, and sets with possibilities in S-PSO. The S-PSO method can thus follow a similar structure to the original PSO for searching in a discrete space. Based on the proposed S-PSO method, most of the existing PSO variants, such as the global version PSO, the local version PSO with different topologies, and the comprehensive learning PSO (CLPSO), can be extended to their corresponding discrete versions. These discrete PSO versions based on S-PSO are tested on two famous COPs: the traveling salesman problem and the multidimensional knapsack problem. Experimental results show that the discrete version of the CLPSO algorithm based on S-PSO is promising. © 2010 IEEE.


Zhang N.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
International Journal of Parallel Programming | Year: 2010

This article presents a novel CPU-based parallel algorithm (P-SURF) that computes the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF), a local descriptor that is able to find point correspondences between images in spite of scaling and rotation. The algorithm presented here parallelises all the seven major steps found in the original serial computation. The task in each of the steps is decomposed and the fractions are assigned to running threads bound onto distinctive processors. The implementation of the algorithm was tested using randomly selected images in regard to performance, scalability and stability. The results showed that its performance on mid-level Intel Core Duo processors was comparable to that of some fast GPU-based SURF implementations. For example, on a testing system equipped with an Intel Core Duo P8600 at 2.4 GHz, P-SURF was able to extract and represent features from a 640 × 480 image at a rate of 33 frames per second. The experimental results also revealed that, instead of leaving the threads to the kernel for processor assignment, assigning hard processor affinity by the algorithm produced better performance and stability. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.


Xie J.,La Trobe University | Liu F.,La Trobe University | Guan S.-U.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Journal of Information Science | Year: 2011

This paper defines a framework for ontology integration-Tree-structure Based Ontology Integration (TSBOI). Unlike other methodologies in the area, which mainly concentrate on attribute comparison, this methodology is designed to map objects of an ontology to a tree structure, restructure the tree, and rely on the tree structure to integrate ontologies through attribute comparison. The new methodology utilizes accurate matching and partial matching to group the matched objects to enhance the mapping accuracy. Once the tree structure is established, it can be reused to answer different queries. This significantly enhances its efficiency. © 2011 Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals.


Smith S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Computer Assisted Language Learning | Year: 2011

This exploratory study describes a framework for data-driven learning (DDL), in General (non-major) English university classes, in which learners construct linguistic corpora instead of merely consulting them. Prior related work has addressed the needs of language specialists, in particular trainee translators who are learning how to compile glossaries, rather than non-major students of English. It is argued in this article that the process of creating a corpus inculcates a sense of ownership in the learner and therefore has a motivational impetus. This is especially true, it is claimed here, when the topic of the corpus is of personal interest to the learner, or coincides with their major field of study. Learners may pursue language study for only a short period of their university career, but once the corpus is constructed, some students may be sufficiently motivated to consult it and add to it when needed. Moreover, the process of compiling the corpus may lead to the acquisition of not only language but also useful transferable skills, including information technology and problem-solving competencies. This study presents some of the motivational issues surrounding DDL in Asia and suggests corpus construction as a solution. Previous research on corpus construction by learners is reviewed. In the experiment which forms the core of this study, 90 freshmen compiled and analyzed corpora as part of a General English course in Taiwan. Of these, 19 students completed final projects based on corpora they had compiled. Their findings - and reactions to the use of corpora compilation as a language learning tool - are reported in a qualitative data analysis. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Zhang B.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

An automatic, reliable and efficient prediction system for protein subcellular localization can be used for establishing knowledge of the spatial distribution of proteins within living cells and permits to screen systems for drug discovery or for early diagnosis of a disease. In this paper, we propose a two-stage multiple classifier system to improve classification reliability by introducing rejection option. The system is built as a cascade of two classifier ensembles. The first ensemble consists of set of binary SVMs which generalizes to learn a general classification rule and the second ensemble focus on the exceptions rejected by the rule. To enhance diversity for the classifier ensembles, multiple features are introduced, including the local binary patterns (LBP), Gabor filtering and Gray Level Coocurrence Matrix (GLCM). Using the public benchmark 2D HeLa cell images, a high classification accuracy 96% is obtained with rejection rate 21%. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Uzupyte R.,Vytautas Magnus University | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Krilavicius T.,Vytautas Magnus University | Zliobaite I.,Aalto University | Simonavicius H.,UAB Rubedo Systems
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2015

The main goal of radiotherapy is to destroy the tumor while minimizing harm to nearby healthy tissue. In order to achieve an effective and accurate treatment, motion of the target, caused by respiration, should be taken into account when positioning the beam. This paper presents a work-in-progress on computational techniques for identifying tumor position from an external marker during treatment session.


Zhan Z.-H.,University of South Africa | Zhan Z.-H.,Key Laboratory of Software Technology | Zhang J.,University of South Africa | Zhang J.,Key Laboratory of Software Technology | Shi Y.-H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
3rd International Workshop on Advanced Computational Intelligence, IWACI 2010 | Year: 2010

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been witnessed fast developments these years for the algorithm performance improvements and the applications in real-world problems. However, the experimental study on the population diversities is not taken seriously by the PSO researchers. This paper intends to make a comprehensive experimental study on the PSO diversity, in order to monitor the evolutionary process of the PSO algorithms, and also to give some discussions based on the observations of the experimental results.


Liu G.,Soochow University of China | Shen H.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Shen H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shen H.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | And 6 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Transferrin (Tf), an iron-transporting serum glycoprotein that binds to receptors overexpressed at the surface of glioma cells, was chosen as the ligand to develop Tf-conjugated PEGylated nanoscaled graphene oxide (GO) for loading and glioma targeting delivery of anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) (Tf-PEG-GO-Dox). Tf-GO with lateral dimensions of 100-400 nm exhibited a Dox loading ratio up to 115.4%. Compared with Dox-loaded PEGylated GO (PEG-GO-Dox) and free Dox, Tf-PEG-GO-Dox displayed greater intracellular delivery efficiency and stronger cytotoxicity against C6 glioma cells. A competition test showed that Tf was essential to glioma targeting in vitro. The HPLC assay for Dox concentration in tumor tissue and contrapart tissue of the brain demonstrated that Tf-PEG-GO-Dox could deliver more Dox into tumor in vivo. The life span of tumor bearing rats after the administration of Tf-PEG-GO-Dox was extended significantly compared to the rats treated with saline, Dox, and PEG-GO-Dox. In conclusion, we developed Tf-PEG-GO-Dox which exhibited significantly improved therapeutic efficacy for glioma both in vitro and in vivo. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Hahanov V.,Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics | Man K.L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Abbas B.A.A.,University of Baghdad | Litvinova E.,Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics | And 3 more authors.
ISOCC 2014 - International SoC Design Conference | Year: 2015

This paper describes technology for diagnosis SoC HDL-models, based on transaction graph. Diagnosis method is focused on decreasing the time of fault detection and memory for storage of diagnosis matrix by means of forming ternary relations between test, monitor, and functional component. A method for analyzing the activation matrix to detect the faulty blocks with given depth and synthesis logic functions for subsequent embedded hardware fault diagnosis is given. © 2014 IEEE.


Xie J.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Zhang X.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Xu Z.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Yuan G.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) from 83 surface water sampling sites in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) monitored ecosystems, representing typical agro- and forest ecosystems, were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010 from still and flowing surface water. Results showed that, TP concentrations were significantly higher in agro-ecosystems than those in forest ecosystems both for still and flowing surface water. For agroecosystems, TP concentrations in the southern area were significantly higher than those in the northern and northwestern areas for both still and flowing surface water, however no distinct spatial pattern was observed for forest ecosystems. In general, the median values of TP within agro- and forest ecosystems did not exceed the Class V guideline for still (0.2 mg·L-1) or flowing (0.4 mg·L-1) surface water, however, surface water at some agroecosystem sampling sites was frequently polluted by TP. Elevated concentrations were mainly found in still surface water at the Changshu, Fukang, Linze and Naiman monitored ecosystems, where exceedance (>0.2 mg·L-1) frequencies varied from 43% to 78%. For flowing water, elevated TP concentrations were found at the Hailun, Changshu and Shapotou monitored ecosystems, where exceedance (>0.4 mg·L-1) frequencies varied from 29% to 100%. Irrational fertilization, frequent irrigation and livestock manure input might be the main contributors of high TP concentrations in these areas, and reduced fertilizer applications, improvements in irrigation practices and centralized treatment of animal waste are necessary to control P loss in these TP vulnerable zones. © 2013 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shao W.,Tongji University | Wu X.,Tongji University | Wu X.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

In this paper, we combined the Fourier cosine series and differential quadrature method (DQM) in barycentric form to develop a new method (FCDQM), which is applied to the 1D fourth order beam problem and the 2D thin isotropic plate problems. Furthermore, we solved the complex boundary conditions on irregular domains with DQM directly. The numerical results illustrate the stability, validity and good accuracy of the method in treating this class of engineering problems.


Wang J.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Jia H.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Ding L.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Xiong X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology
Polymers for Advanced Technologies | Year: 2015

The carbon-silica dual phase filler (CSDPF) was modified by bis (3-triethoxy-silylpropyl) tetrasulphane (Si69) and 1-allyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AMI), respectively. The natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates filled with modified CSDPF were fabricated through mechanical mixing followed by a high-temperature cure process. The impacts of filler surface modification on the curing characters, crosslinked junctions, network structure, and mechanical properties of NR vulcanizates were investigated. The results showed that the Si69 interacted with CSDPF through covalent bond, while the interaction between AMI and CSDPF was hydrogen bond. Both modifications increased the cure rate of CSDPF/NR compounds as well as the crosslinked degree, compared with those of pristine CSDPF/NR compound. The modifications improved the dispersion of CSDPF in NR matrix. The covalent modification by Si69 caused a limited movement of NR chains in the CSDPF surface, which contributed to a greater tensile modulus of Si69-modified CSDPF/NR. However, the higher content of mono-sulfidic crosslink and the poorer content of strain-induced crystallization in the NR matrix led to a slight increase of tensile strength and tear strength of Si69-modified CSDPF/NR, compared with those of CSDPF/NR. The tensile modulus of AMI-modified CSDPF/NR had a lower value due to a faster polymer chain motion on the CSDPF surface. However, the tensile and tear strength of AMI-modified CSDPF/NR increased significantly because of the increase of mono-sulfidic crosslink, strain-induced crystallization, and the existed hydrogen bond between CSDPF and NR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wen H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Wen H.,Xian Jiaotong University | Su B.,State Grid Corporation of China
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2016

Due to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources including photovoltaic and wind energy, the energy storage systems are essential to stabilize dc bus voltage. Considering the discharge depth of super-capacitors and energy-storage batteries, the bidirectional isolated power interface will operate for a wide range of voltage and power. This study focuses on in-depth analysis of the dual-active-bridge dc-dc converter that is controlled by the dual-phase-shift scheme to improve the conversion efficiency in distributed power system. The power flow of each operating mode with dual-phase-shift control is characterized based on a detailed analysis of the effects of "minor parameters", including the deadtime and power device voltage drops. The complete output power plane of the dual-active-bridge converter with dual-phase-shift control is obtained and compared with experimental results. The optimal operating mode is determined according to the practical output power range and the power flow characteristics. Experimental evaluation shows the effectiveness of the proposed power flow model with dual-phase-shift control and significant efficiency improvement using the optimal mode of dual-phase-shift compared with the conventional phase shift control. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Davies-Colley R.J.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Ballantine D.J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Elliott S.H.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Swales A.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | And 2 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Fine sediment continues to be a major diffuse pollution concern with its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Mass concentrations (and loads) of fine sediment are usually measured and modelled, apparently with the assumption that environmental effects of sediment are predictable from mass concentrations. However, some severe impacts of fine sediment may not correlate well with mass concentration, notably those related to light attenuation by suspended particles. Light attenuation per unit mass concentration of suspended particulate matter in waters varies widely with particle size, shape and composition. Data for suspended sediment concentration, turbidity and visual clarity (which is inversely proportional to light beam attenuation) from 77 diverse New Zealand rivers provide valuable insights into the mutual relationships of these quantities. Our analysis of these relationships, both across multiple rivers and within individual rivers, supports the proposition that light attenuation by fine sediment is a more generally meaningful basis for environmental management than sediment mass. Furthermore, optical measurements are considerably more practical, being much cheaper (by about four-fold) to measure than mass concentrations, and amenable to continuous measurement. Mass concentration can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from optical surrogates locally calibrated for particular rivers. © IWA Publishing 2014.


Ballantine D.J.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Hughes A.O.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Davies-Colley R.J.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports | Year: 2014

Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM) mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand's National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN) is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS) was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity. Copyright © 2014 IAHS Press.


Wu Y.,University of Sheffield | Guo W.,University of Warwick | Yuan H.,University of Warwick | Li L.,University of Sheffield | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2016

In this article, we look into how the LTE network can efficiently evolve to cater for new data services by utilizing direct communications between mobile devices and extending the direct transmissions to the unlicensed bands, that is, D2D communications in conjunction with LTE-Unlicensed. In doing so, it provides an opportunity to solve the main challenge of mutual interference between D2D and CC transmissions. In this context, we review three interconnected major technical areas of multihop D2D: Transmission band selection, routing path selection, and resource management. Traditionally, D2D transmissions are limited to specific regions of a cell's coverage area in order to limit the interference to CC primary links. We show that by allowing D2D to operate in the unlicensed bands with protective fairness measures for WiFi transmissions, D2D is able to operate across the whole coverage area and, in doing so, efficiently scale the overall network capacity while minimizing cross-tier and cross-technology interference. © 1979-2012 IEEE.


Le Kernec J.,The University of Nottingham Ningbo, China | Gray D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Romain O.,Laboratoire ETIS
Proceedings of 3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Antennas and Propagation, APCAP 2014 | Year: 2014

In this study, a protocol for an unbiased analysis of radar signals' performance. Using a novel UWB software-defined radar, range profile, Doppler profile and detection range are evaluated for both Linear Frequency Modulated pulse and Multitones. The radar was prototyped and is comparable in overall performance to software defined radar test-beds found in the literature. The measured performance was in agreement with the simulations. © 2014 IEEE.


Xue H.,University of Hong Kong | Chan L.Y.,University of Hong Kong | Zhang Y.,University of Hong Kong | Lau H.Y.,University of Hong Kong | And 4 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2014

QuickScan Calculator (QSC) has been proposed in this paper. QSC is a highlighter shaped electronic calculator equipped with Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology. It generates results instantaneously when an arithmetic expression is scanned by the QSC. Therefore, people can perform calculations without the process of "punching buttons". This would help the people to reduce the error made when wrong buttons are punched. Technical implementation concerns, societal concerns and possible future developments have been fully addressed in this positioning paper.


Wong M.L.D.,University of Technology Malaysia | Lee S.H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Nandi A.K.,University of Liverpool
Institution of Mechanical Engineers - 10th International Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery | Year: 2012

The ability of detecting faults in rotating elements is highly desired in machine condition monitoring application (MCM). On many MCM platforms, discriminating attributes based on time and/or frequency domain of the acquired vibration data are used to classify the element under monitoring into normal and abnormal conditions. However, having such diagnostic ability is still insufficient in our global goal towards predictive maintenance. To achieve true predictive maintenance, the development tool must be able to provide a certain level of real time computation capability. In this paper, the authors propose a novel method based on fuzzy entropy and similarity measure for monitoring the health conditions of ball bearings on-line. The practicalities of the effectiveness and speed of the method are verified empirically, and results are presented towards the end of this paper. © The author(s) and/or their employer(s), 2012.


Yang Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Dai C.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Cai Z.,Georgia State University | Hou A.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience | Year: 2016

Chemotherapy is the main strategy in the treatment of cancer; however, the development of drug-resistance is the obstacle in long-term treatment of cervical cancer. Cisplatin is one of the most common drugs used in cancer therapy. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs are involved in various bioactivities in oncogenesis. It is not unexpected that miRNAs play a key role in acquiring of drug-resistance in the progression of tumor. In this study, we induced and maintained four levels of cisplatin-resistant HeLa cell lines (HeLa/CR1, HeLa/CR2, HeLa/CR3, and HeLa/CR4). According to the previous studies and existing evidence, we selected five miRNAs (miR-183, miR-182, miR-30a, miR-15b, and miR-16) and their potential target mRNAs as our research targets. The real-time RT-PCR was adopted to detect the relative expression of miRNAs and their mRNAs. The results show that miR-182 and miR-15b were up-regulated in resistant cell lines, while miR-30a was significantly down-regulated. At the same time, their targets are related to drug resistance. Compared to their parent HeLa cell line, the expression of selected miRNAs in resistant cell lines altered. The alteration suggests that HeLa cell drug resistance is associated with distinct miRNAs, which indicates that miRNAs may be one of the therapy targets in the treatment of cervical cancer by sensitizing cell to chemotherapy. We suggested a possible network diagram based on the existing theory and the preliminary results of candidate miRNAs and their targets in HeLa cells during development of drug resistance. © 2016 IEEE.


Wang S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Wang S.,University of South Australia | Guo W.,University of Warwick | Jafari A.,University of Sheffield | Jafari A.,Alcatel - Lucent
International Journal of Sensor Networks | Year: 2016

In this paper, we consider a wireless sensor network that involves data transmitted through multiple relays to reach a destination. In particular we improve the decode-and-forward cooperative relaying scheme, by proposing the Cascade-Decode-and-Forward scheme, where the number of successful relays increases with each additional cooperation stage. The achieved effect is a cascade of relays that contribute towards achieving full spatial diversity at the destination.Arelationship between the achievable bit error rate and delay is derived for the proposed scheme. The results show that for a small delay constraint, the scheme can achieve full diversity. As the delay constraint increases, the protocol can achieve full diversity at signals levels 10-100 orders magnitude lower than the decode- And-forward protocol. The proposed protocol can dynamically trade-off transmission reliability with delay and a certain node connectivity density is required to achieve a cascading cooperation chain with an arbitrary low data extinction probability. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Wang Q.,Kristianstad University College | Yigitler H.,Aalto University | Jantti R.,Aalto University | Huang X.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2016

Low-data-rate wireless networks can be deployed for physical intrusion detection and localization purposes. The intrusion of a physical object (or human) will disrupt the radio-frequency magnetic field and can be detected by observing the change in radio attenuation. This gives the basis for the radio tomographic imaging technology, which has recently been developed for passively monitoring and tracking objects. Due to noise and the lack of knowledge about the number and the sizes of intruding objects, multiobject intrusion detection and localization is a challenging issue. This paper proposes an extended variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture model (VB-GMM) algorithm in treating this problem. The extended VB-GMM algorithm applies a Gaussian mixture model to model the changed radio attenuation in a monitored field due to the intrusion of an unknown number of objects and uses a modified version of the variational Bayesian approach for model estimation. Real-world data from both outdoor and indoor experiments (using the radio tomographic imaging technology) have been used to verify the high accuracy and the robustness of the proposed multiobject localization algorithm. © 2016 IEEE.


Wan K.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Alagar V.,Concordia University at Montreal
Mobile Networks and Applications | Year: 2014

The integration of physical systems and processes with networked computing has led to the emergence of a new generation of engineered systems, called Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). These systems are large networked systems of systems, in which a component system may itself be a grid. In this paper we survey the current state of the art of CPS security, identify the issues surrounding secure control, and investigate the extent to which context information may be used to improve security and survivability of CPS. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Caon M.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland | Caon M.,University of Bedfordshire | Angelini L.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland | Angelini L.,University of Fribourg | And 5 more authors.
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2014

We present a concept where the smart environments of the future will be able to provide ubiquitous affective communication. All the surfaces will become interactive and the furniture will display emotions. In particular, we present a first prototype that allows people to share their emotional states in a natural way. The input will be given through facial expressions and the output will be displayed in a context-aware multimodal way. Two novel output modalities are presented: a robotic painting that applies the concept of affective communication to the informative art and an RGB lamp that represents the emotions remaining in the user's peripheral attention. An observation study has been conducted during an interactive event and we report our preliminary findings in this paper. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Ismail H.S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Wang L.,University of Liverpool | Poolton J.,University of Liverpool
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management | Year: 2014

Simulation models have been extensively used in manufacturing to enhance the design, planning and decision making processes. However, the tendency has been to use simulation in one-off applications, often at the start of a project and not take account of inherent process changes over time. This has inhibited their contribution as a realtime decision make tool. This paper describes how simulation is used as a component of an integrated optimisation platform to support real-time decision making in a highly variable manufacturing process environment where outputs are stochastic. The paper follows by proposing an integrated framework for addressing issues of process variability in simulation based systems. © 2014 IEEE.


Jin Z.,University of Liverpool | Tillo T.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Cheng F.,University of Liverpool
2014 IEEE 3rd Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper proposes an unsupervised technique for detecting planar surfaces on single depth map image. The proposed method can detect planar surfaces by adopting dynamic seed growing technique without using texture information. So aided with this mechanism to control the growing process, each seed patch can grow to its maximum extent and then the next seed patch begins to grow. This process avoids over-segmentation of the whole scene. Moreover, it allows detecting semi-planer surfaces. Compared with one popular planar surface detection algorithms, i.e., RANdom SAmples Consensus(RANSAC), the accuracy of the proposed method is superior on typical indoor scenes. The proposed method can have huge technical potential for image/video segmentation and coding, enhancing the depth information of time-of-flight cameras, and finally it could be used for navigation system for humanoid robotics. © 2014 IEEE.


Xu G.,The Surgical Center | Xu G.,Soochow University of China | Ji W.,The Surgical Center | Su Y.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | And 11 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

The human sulfatase 1 (hSulf-1) gene encodes an endosulfatase that functions to inhibit the heparin-binding growth factor signaling, including the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-mediated pathway, by desulfating the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). bFGF could stimulate cell cycle progression and inhibit cell apoptosis, this biological effect can be reversed by hSulf-1. However, molecular mechanisms have not been fully reported. In the current study, by reactivation of hSulf-1 expression and function in the hSulf-1-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and HCC xenograft tumors, we found that hSulf-1 blocked the bFGF effect on the promotion of cell cycle and inhibition of apoptosis. The bFGF-stimulated activation of protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways was suppressed by hSulf-1, which led to a decreased expression of the target genes Cyclin D1 and Survivin, then finally induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCC cells. Our data suggested that hSulf-1 may be a suitable target for cancer therapy.


Theodoros D.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2013

The paper presents a critique of the Shape Grammar paradigm viewed through the lens of the incompleteness theorem of Gödel. Shape Grammars have been extensively researched through many lenses. Their productive systemic nature was the focus of the first papers along with more recent treatises in the field while their use in analysis of known building styles has been extensive and a proven mechanism for style analysis. It is surprising though that use of Shape Grammars in actual design in practice however has been minimal. The architectural community has not actively used the paradigm in the design of real buildings, probably because of the rigid analytical approach to style and rules, following from the academic analysis that the paradigm has been subjected to. However I propose that there is another underlying reason, other than the rigid approach to construct a Shape Grammar. The nature of the concurrent application and creation of the rules lies close to the incompleteness theorem of Gödel, that uses a multitude of Turing Machines to prove that a from a set of True Axioms-A-we will never be able to determine if all sentences are true, without having to invent new axioms, outside the initial set-A-, thus unproven in terms of their true or false nature. Negation of this possibility drives us to the conclusion that true Design can never be feature-complete and thus can never be placed in a trusted framework that we all agree or believe it to be the complete truth. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Armstrong L.M.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Luo K.H.,University of Southampton
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2011

An Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the gasification processes in a coal bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) is presented incorporating the devolatilisation, heterogeneous, homogeneous reactions and limestone calcination. The model considers separate phases for the coal, limestone and char and is carried out for different experimental conditions taken from the literature. The results of the exiting gas compositions have been averaged over time and validated with experimental data. The hydrodynamic behaviour as well as temperature and reaction distributions within the bed is presented. The impact of limestone calcination on the gaseous composition is observed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Zeoli N.,University of Southampton | Tabbara H.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,University of Southampton | Gu S.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2011

Powder metals are the basis of powder metallurgy with a large variety of applications, including sintering and thermal spray coatings. The Gas atomization process has been widely employed as an effective method to produce fine spherical metal powders. New applications and emerging surface technologies demand high quality powders with a very narrow particle size distribution. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is developed to examine complex fluids during atomization from different nozzle designs, using the volume of fluid (VOF) method and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The modeling results show that the swirling gas atomizer is not beneficial to the atomization process while the inner-jet atomizer can improve the powder generation processing. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cheng S.,The University of Nottingham Ningbo, China | Shi Y.,Xian Jia