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Suzhou, China

Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University is a young, independent university based in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China. Founded in 2006 and resulting from a partnership between the University of Liverpool and Xi’an Jiaotong University, it is the first Sino-British university between research led universities, exploring new educational models for China Wikipedia.

Kadetz P.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmalogical relevance The rapid commodification of plant-based medicines has led to the development of regulatory guidelines and standards by the World Health Organization to ensure the safety of these products. However, these standards have been identified to be selectively implemented, if implemented at all, in many contexts. A primary concern for proving the safety of intrinsic factors of plant-based medicines, may result in less attention paid to the often more problematic extrinsic factors of mass production. This article critically examines the normative global discourse of safety concerning plant-based medicines and problematises many of the assumptions identified in this discourse. Materials and methods This qualitative research was conducted in the Traditional Medicine Unit of the Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO) and in field work in the rural Philippines. Data was collected through archival research, analysis of WHO data sets, semi-structured and structured interviews and surveys, participant observation concerning local plant-based medicine use in the Philippines and participant observation in WHO meetings regarding future strategies for traditional Asian medicines. Results Although informants reported concerns of safety for every aspect of the production, marketing and sales of plant-based medicines, this research has identified that the implementation (WHO guidelines) has been uneven and inconsistent over the past ten years in the Western Pacific Region of the WHO. Differences in local contexts that are not consistent with global guidelines and standards were reported by informants. Issues have also been identified in the inconsistent regulation of plant-based medicines as pharmaceuticals within only certain, rather than all, processes of production. Conclusions It is imperative to understand plant-based medicines as the potent substances they are, whose rapid global commodification may affect both their potency and safety. The WHO discourse of the need for safety in the use of plant-based medicines has justified the need for biomedical oversight through processes of commodification. Yet, it is often through these very processes of commodification and mass production that safety may be compromised. This research suggests that the discourse concerning the safety of the plant-based medicines needs to be reframed from a primary focus on the intrinsic factors of plant-based medicines to a greater focus on the extrinsic factors of global commodification. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Wang M.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Neuropeptides | Year: 2013

Although detailed disease mechanisms of migraine remain poorly understood, migraine is known to have a complex pathophysiology with both vascular and neuronal mechanisms. The neuronal mechanisms of migraine may be attributed to cortical spreading depression (CSD); consequently, CSD has been widely studied for understanding the pathophysiology of migraine. Well validated CSD models have been developed for evaluating anti-migraine drugs. Neuropeptides, mainly, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have been proposed as an emerging class of effective drugs against migraine headache. The central role of this neuropeptide has led to research into CSD for understanding disease mechanisms of migraine. This review briefly summarizes our current understanding of CSD and CGRP involvement in CSD. Although CSD can also worsen strokes, this brief paper has excluded the possible connection between the neuropeptide and CSD associated with them. Instead it has focused solely on CGRP in CSD associated with migraine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yuen K.K.F.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making | Year: 2014

Group decision making is the process to explore the best choice among the screened alternatives under predefined criteria with corresponding weights from assessment of a group of decision makers. The Fuzzy TOPSIS taking an evaluated fuzzy decision matrix as input is a popular tool to analyze the ideal alternative. This research, however, finds that the classical fuzzy TOPSIS produces a misleading result due to some inappropriate definitions, and proposes the rectified fuzzy TOPSIS addressing two technical problems. As the decision accuracy also depends on the evaluation quality of the fuzzy decision matrix comprising rating scores and weights, this research applies compound linguistic ordinal scale as the fuzzy rating scale for expert judgments, and cognitive pairwise comparison for determining the fuzzy weights. The numerical case of a robot selection problem demonstrates the hybrid approach leading to themuch reliable result for decision making, comparingwith the conventional fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and TOPSIS. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Quality function deployment (QFD) is an essential decision tool for product development in various domains. QFD enables the cross-functional team to translate the customer requirements into engineering characteristics during product development. Whilst there are some limitations for criteria evaluation and analysis in QFD, this study proposes a hybrid framework of Fuzzy Cognitive Network Process, Aggregative Grading Clustering, and Quality Function Deployment (F-CNP-AGC-QFD) for the criteria evaluation and analysis in QFD. The fuzzy number applied to the QFD, i.e. FQFD, enables rating flexibility for the expert judgment to handle uncertainty. The Fuzzy Cognitive Network Process (FCNP) is used for the criteria weights/priorities evaluation. The Fuzzy Aggregative Grading Clustering (FAGC) classifies the weights/priorities as ordinal grades. The proposed hybrid QFD approach applied to the cloud software product development is demonstrated to show the validity and applicability. © 2014.

Yuen K.K.F.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University
Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making | Year: 2012

Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) has increasingly been applied in many areas. Extent analysis method is the popular tool for prioritization in FAHP, although significant technical errors are identified in this study. With addressing the errors, this research proposes membership maximization prioritization methods (MMPMs) using different membership functions as the novel solutions. As a lack of research about effectiveness measurement on the crisp/fuzzy prioritization methods, this study proposes membership fitness index to evaluate the effectiveness of the prioritization methods. Comparisons with the other popular fuzzy/crisp prioritization methods including modified fuzzy preference programming, Direct least squares, and Eigen value are conducted and analyses indicate that MMPMs lead to much more reliable result in view of membership fitness index. A numerical example demonstrates the usability of MMPMs for FAHP, and thus MMPMs can effectively be applied to various decision analysis applications. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

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