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Wu M.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Lan S.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Cai B.,Xiamen Botanical Garden | Chen S.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

To elucidate chloroplast genome evolution within neotropical-paleotropical bamboos, we fully characterized the chloroplast genome of the woody bamboo Guadua angustifolia. This genome is 135,331 bp long and comprises of an 82,839-bp large single-copy (LSC) region, a 12,898-bp small single-copy (SSC) region, and a pair of 19,797-bp inverted repeats (IRs). Comparative analyses revealed marked conservation of gene content and sequence evolutionary rates between neotropical and paleotropical woody bamboos. The neotropical herbaceous bamboo Cryptochloa strictiflora differs from woody bamboos in IR/SSC boundaries in that it exhibits slightly contracted IRs and a faster substitution rate. The G. angustifolia chloroplast genome is similar in size to that of neotropical herbaceous bamboos but is ~3 kb smaller than that of paleotropical woody bamboos. Dissimilarities in genome size are correlated with differences in the lengths of intergenic spacers, which are caused by large-fragment insertion and deletion. Phylogenomic analyses of 62 taxa yielded a tree topology identical to that found in preceding studies. Divergence time estimation suggested that most bamboo genera diverged after the Miocene and that speciation events of extant species occurred during or after the Pliocene. © 2015 Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Cai B.-P.,Xiamen Botanical Garden | Guo L.-D.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Chen J.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang Q.-X.,Beijing Forestry University
Mycotaxon | Year: 2013

Two new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, Glomus mume (Glomerales) and Kuklospora spinosa (Diversisporales), were isolated from rhizosphere soil of Prunus mume in China. Glomus mume resembles G. taiwanense, but differs by its spore walls swelling to a globose to subglobose structure in or near the middle of the spore apex. Kuklospora spinosa resembles K. colombiana but differs by the fine spines covering the middle-layer of the outer spore wall. © 2013. Mycotaxon, Ltd.

Xu S.,Fujian Institute of Subtropical Botany | Huang Q.,Fujian Institute of Subtropical Botany | Lin C.,Fujian Institute of Subtropical Botany | Lin L.,Fujian Institute of Subtropical Botany | And 3 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2016

The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive, which is a curious phenomenon in the plant kingdom, and the biochemical mechanisms for this restriction are unknown. In the present study, we performed transcriptome analysis of two betalain-producing species, red Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. 'Sanderiana' (R) and white B. glabra 'Alba' (W) by transcriptome sequencing. In total, we obtained 69692 (Red) and 60727 (White) genes with an average length of 665 and 728bp respectively. Out of 3106 significantly differentially-expressed genes (71%), 1003 were R-specific (32%), and 1605 were W-specific (52%). To validate betalain-/anthocyanidin-biosynthesis genes detected (cytochrome P 450 76AD1 (CYP76AD1), dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA)-4,5-dioxygenase (DODA), cyclo DOPA-5-O-glycosyltransferase (cyclo-DOPA-5-GT) dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX)), real-Time PCR was performed in leaves and three development stages of flowers in four Bougainvilleas, red R, white W, orange Bougainvillea×buttiana 'Salmoea' (O) and purple B. glabra 'Formosa' (P). Contents of betalains were also measured. The results showed that betalains accumulation was consistent with the expression level of DODA in O. A correlation between expression of CYP76AD1 and cyclo-DOPA-5GT and betalains was not discovered. This suggests that production of betacyanins was under the regulation of more complex factors. Both DFR and LDOX responsible for anthocyanidin production were first validated in floral organs and leaves in betalain-producing plants by real-Time PCR. These findings suggest a fully functioning anthocyanin pathway, at least, to the stage of LDOX in bougainvilleas. © CSIRO 2016.

Li T.,Beijing Forestry University | Li T.,CAS Institute of Botany | Ding Y.,Xiamen Botanical Garden | Hu Y.,Wenshan University | And 3 more authors.
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

Photosynthetic activity is one of the most important indicators for evaluating the introduction and acclimatization of trees to new geographies. The aim of this study was to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of marula [Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro (Anacardiaceae)] and the environmental conditions relevant to its growth in China. We analyzed the diurnal dynamics of photosynthesis in two S. birrea varieties, one from South Africa and one from Israel, after introduction into China using a portable photosynthesis measuring system. Our results showed that the diurnal net photosynthetic rate (Pn) exhibited an atypical double-peak pattern that was influenced mainly by stomatal factors. Moreover, the diurnal change in stomatal conductance (Gs) was consistent with that for Pn and showed an obvious double-peak curve, whereas the diurnal change in the transpiration rate (Tr) was opposite to that in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), which presented a single-peak curve. The extreme values of the environmental factors we monitored occurred at approximately the same time of day and influenced photosynthesis by affecting Ci, Tr, and leaf temperature (TL), with light intensity exerting an especially strong effect. The Pn of the S. birrea variety from Israel was higher than that of the S. birrea variety from South Africa, while South Africa S. birrea exhibited superior growth trait in southern China. We suggest that the photosynthetic performance of S. birrea can be acclimated to a new environment. © 2015 South African Association of Botanists.

Xie X.,Xiamen University | Weng B.,Xiamen University | Weng B.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Cai B.,Xiamen Botanical Garden | And 2 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2014

This study evaluated the interactive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation and exogenous phosphorus supply on soil phosphotases, plant growth, and nutrient uptake of Kandelia obovata (Sheue, Liu & Yong). We aimed to explore the ecophysiological function of AMF in mangrove wetland ecosystems, and to clarify the possible survival mechanism of mangrove species against nutrient deficiency. K. obovata seedlings with or without AMF inoculation (mixed mangrove AMF), were cultivated for six months in autoclaved sediment medium which was supplemented with KH2PO4 (0, 15, 30, 60, 120mgkg-1). Then the plant growth, nitrogen and phosphorus content, root vitality, AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity were analyzed. The inoculated AMF successfully infected K. obovata roots, developed intercellular hyphae, arbuscular (Arum-type), and vesicle structures. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization ranged from 9.04 to 24.48%, with the highest value observed under 30 and 60mgkg-1 P treatments. Soil P supply, in the form of KH2PO4, significantly promoted the height and biomass of K. obovata, enhanced root vitality and P uptake, while partially inhibiting soil acid (ACP) and alkaline phosphotase (ALP) activities. Without enhancing plant height, the biomass, root vitality and P uptake were further increased when inoculated with AMF, and the reduction on ACP and ALP activities were alleviated. Phosphorus supply resulted in the decrease of leaf N-P ratio in K. obovata, and AMF inoculation strengthened the reduction, thus alleviating P limitation in plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and adequate P supply (30mgkg-1 KH2PO4) enhanced root vitality, maintained soil ACP and ALP activities, increased plant N and P uptake, and resulted in greater biomass of K. obovata. Mutualistic symbiosis with AMF could explain the survival strategies of mangrove plants under a stressed environment (waterlogging and nutrient limitation) from a new perspective. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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