Xerox Corporation /ˈzɪərɒks/ is an American multinational document management corporation that produces and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photocopiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut , though its largest population of employees is based around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded. On September 28, 2009, Xerox announced the intended acquisition of Affiliated Computer Services for $6.4 billion. The deal closed on February 8, 2010. As a large developed company, it is consistently placed in the list of Fortune 500 companies.Researchers at Xerox and its Palo Alto Research Center invented several important elements of personal computing, such as the desktop metaphor GUI, the computer mouse and desktop computing. These features were frowned upon by the then board of directors, who ordered the Xerox engineers to share them with Apple technicians. The features were taken on by Apple and, later, Microsoft. Partly thanks to these features, these two firms would then go on to duopolize the personal computing world. Wikipedia.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014
1 October 2013 marked 30 years since Medicare began paying hospitals by diagnosis-related group (DRG), arguably the most influential innovation in the history of health care financing. Initially developed as a tool for hospital management, DRGs became the basis of the inpatient prospective payment system that Medicare implemented in 1983. The strong incentives were revolutionary in their impact. Medicare spending growth slowed sharply, and, more remarkable, hospitals posted record profits. After the link between cost and payment was broken, hospitals moved quickly to cut costs. Nevertheless, a literature survey concluded that none of the worst fears about adverse effects on patients were realized. Diagnosis-related groups have also come to define "the product of a hospital" for purposes of benchmarking and risk adjustment. The acceptance of DRG algorithms owes much to their categorical approach, clinical focus, and transparency. The 2 most commonly used algorithms, Medicare DRGs and All Patient Refined (APR) DRGs, typically explain more than 40% of cost variance in inpatient stays, although with considerable range by care category. Because Medicare DRGs are unsuitable for obstetrics, pediatrics, and neonatology, some payers prefer APR DRGs. Diagnosis-related groups have proven to be a suitable basis for payment, as evidenced by widespread use. Common issues include mitigation of adverse incentives, appropriate payment for extremely costly stays, applicability to certain hospitals and care categories, and growing complexity. The DRG experience offers lessons about the effectiveness of financial incentives, the likelihood of adverse effects, the usefulness of case-mix measures, the risks of growing complexity, and the example that sensible policy need not be the domain of any one political party or other entity. © 2014 American College of Physicians.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2015
Eight basic payment methods are applicable across all types of health care. Each method is defined by the unit of payment (per time period, beneficiary, recipient, episode, day, service, dollar of cost, or dollar of charges). These methods are more specific than common terms, such as capitation, fee for service, global payment, and cost reimbursement. They also correspond to the division of financial risk between payer and provider, with each method reflecting a risk factor within the health care spending identity. Financial risk gradually shifts from being primarily on providers when payment is per time period to being primarily on payers when payment is per dollar of charges. Method 4 (per episode) marks the line between epidemiologic and treatment risk. The 8 methods are typically combined to balance risk and thus balance incentives between payers and providers. This taxonomy makes it easier to understand trends in payment reform-especially the shifting division of financial risk and the movement toward value-based purchasing-and types of payment reform, such as bundling, accountable care organizations, medical homes, and cost sharing. The taxonomy also enables prediction of conflicts between payers and providers. For each unit of payment, providers are rewarded for increasing units while decreasing their own cost per unit. No payment method is neutral on quality because each encourages and discourages the provision of care overall and in particular situations. Many professional norms and business practices have been established to mitigate undesirable incentives. Health care differs from many other industries in that the unit of payment remains variable and unsettled. © 2015 American College of Physicians.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013
Inaccurate inference of positional homologies in multiple sequence alignments and systematic errors introduced by alignment heuristics obfuscate phylogenetic inference. Alignment masking, the elimination of phylogenetically uninformative or misleading sites from an alignment before phylogenetic analysis, is a common practice in phylogenetic analysis. Although masking is often done manually, automated methods are necessary to handle the much larger data sets being prepared today. In this study, we introduce the concept of subsplits and demonstrate their use in extracting phylogenetic signal from alignments. We design a clustering approach for alignment masking where each cluster contains similar columns-similarity being defined on the basis of compatible subsplits; our approach then identifies noisy clusters and eliminates them. Trees inferred from the columns in the retained clusters are found to be topologically closer to the reference trees. We test our method on numerous standard benchmarks (both synthetic and biological data sets) and compare its performance with other methods of alignment masking. We find that our method can eliminate sites more accurately than other methods, particularly on divergent data, and can improve the topologies of the inferred trees in likelihood-based analyses. Software available upon request from the author. © 2012 The Author.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010
A dislocation model for the nonclassical rotational inertia is proposed. Temperature dependence of the period of the torsional oscillator containing solid helium is derived from the variation in the average pinning length of dislocations in solid helium. The mechanism is that the vibration of dislocations causes the wave number of the shear wave in solid helium to increase. Consequently the apparent moment of inertia of solid helium is increased with increasing temperature. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-9-2015 | Award Amount: 8.22M | Year: 2016
The overall objective of READ is to implement a Virtual Research Environment where archivists, humanities scholars, computer scientists and volunteers are collaborating with the ultimate goal of boosting research, innovation, development and usage of cutting edge technology for the automated recognition, transcription, indexing and enrichment of handwritten archival documents. This Virtual Research Environment will not be built from the ground up, but will benefit from research, tools, data and resources generated in multiple national and EU funded research and development projects and provide a basis for sustaining the network and the technology in the future. This ICT based e-infrastructure will address the Societal Challenge mentioned in Europe in a Changing World namely the transmission of European cultural heritage and the uses of the past as one of the core requirements of a reflective society. Based on research and innovation enabled by the READ Virtual Research Environment we will be able to explore and access hundreds of kilometres of archival documents via full-text search and therefore be able to open up one of the last hidden treasures of Europes rich cultural hertitage.