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Allschwil, Switzerland

Lubcke-von Varel U.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Bataineh M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Lohrmann S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Loffler I.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 5 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2012

Polar fractions of a sediment extract of the industrial area of Bitterfeld, Germany, have been subjected for effect-directed identification of mutagens using the Ames fluctuation assay with TA98. Mutagenicity could be well recovered in several secondary and tertiary fractions. Dinitropyrenes and 3-nitrobenzanthrone could be confirmed to contribute great shares of the observed mutagenicity. In addition, a multitude of polar polycyclic aromatic compounds has been tentatively identified in mutagenic fractions including nitro-PAHs, azaarenes, ketones, quinones, hydroxy-compounds, lactones and carboxylic acids although their contribution to mutagenicity could not be quantified due to a lack of standards. Diagnostic Salmonella strains YG1024 and YG1041 were applied to confirm the contribution of nitro-aromatic compounds. We suggest the inclusion of dinitropyrenes and 3-nitrobenzanthrone into sediment monitoring in order to minimize the mutagenic risk to aquatic organisms and to human health. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Reifferscheid G.,Federal Institute of Hydrology BfG | Maes H.M.,RWTH Aachen | Allner B.,Gobio GmbH | Badurova J.,Vyzkumny ustav vodohospodarsky T. G. Masaryka | And 25 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

An international round-robin study on the Ames fluctuation test [ISO 11350, 2012], a microplate version of the classic plate-incorporation method for the detection of mutagenicity in water, wastewater and chemicals was performed by 18 laboratories from seven countries. Such a round-robin study is a precondition for both the finalization of the ISO standardization process and a possible regulatory implementation in water legislation. The laboratories tested four water samples (spiked/nonspiked) and two chemical mixtures with and without supplementation of a S9-mix. Validity criteria (acceptable spontaneous and positive control-induced mutation counts) were fulfilled by 92-100%, depending on the test conditions. A two-step method for statistical evaluation of the test results is proposed and assessed in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The data were first subjected to powerful analysis of variance (ANOVA) after an arcsine-square-root transformation to detect significant differences between the test samples and the negative control (NC). A threshold (TH) value based on a pooled NC was then calculated to exclude false positive test results. Statistically, positive effects observed by the William's test were considered negative, if the mean of all replicates of a sample did not exceed the calculated TH. By making use of this approach, the overall test sensitivity was 100%, and the test specificity ranged from 80 to 100%. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Varel U.L.-V.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Machala M.,Veterinary Research Institute | Ciganek M.,Veterinary Research Institute | Neca J.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Sediment extracts from three polluted sites of the river Elbe basin were fractionated using a novel online fractionation procedure. Resulting fractions were screened for mutagenic, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated, transthyretin (TTR)- binding, and estrogenic activities and their potency to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) to compare toxicity patterns and identify priority fractions. Additionally, more than 200 compounds and compound classes were identified using GCMS/ MS, LC-MS/MS, and HPLC-DAD methods. For all investigated end points, major activities were found in polar fractions, which are defined here as fractions containing dominantly compounds with at least one polar functional group. Nonpolar PAH fractions contributed to mutagenic and AhR-mediated activities while inhibition of GJIC and estrogenic and TTR-binding activities were exclusively observed in the polar fractions. Known mutagens in polar fractions included nitro- and dinitro-PAHs, azaarenes, and keto-PAHs, while parent and monomethylated PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzofluoranthenes were identified in nonpolar fractions. Additionally, for one sample, high AhR-mediated activities were determined in one fraction characterized by PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs. Estrone, 17β-estradiol, 9H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one, and 4-nonylphenol were identified as possible estrogenic and TTR-binding compounds. Thus, not only nonpolar compounds such as PAHs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs but also the less characterized and investigated more polar substances should be considered as potent mutagenic, estrogenic, AhR-inducing, TTR-binding, and GJIC-inhibiting components for future studies. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Fluckiger-Isler S.,Xenometrix AG | Kamber M.,Xenometrix AG
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

The Ames microplate format (MPF™) test, which uses liquid media and in 384-well microplates with a readout based on a colour-change, has been used for over 10 years at several major pharmaceutical companies for screening the genotoxic potential of early drug candidates when compound supply is minimal. Meanwhile, Xenometrix has adapted this screen from the two-strain Ames II test for use with five tester strains, in compliance with OECD Guideline 471. A set of 15 equivocal to weakly positive chemicals selected from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) database was tested simultaneously in the Ames microplate format (MPF) and the standard Ames pre-incubation method on agar plates. Such a direct comparison of the two test methods with the same overnight culture(s), chemicals and S9-mix preparation should exclude external variability factors. Thirteen of the 15 chemicals showed concordant results in both tests despite the choice of chemicals that showed varying inter- and even intra-laboratory results in the NTP studies. These results indicate that the Ames MPF™ assay is a reliable predictive tool that can be used like the regular Ames test to evaluate compounds for mutagenicity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Umbuzeiro G.D.A.,CETESB Cia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental | Umbuzeiro G.D.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Rech C.M.,CETESB Cia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental | Correia S.,CETESB Cia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental | And 5 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to compare the responses of the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay with the new microplate fluctuation protocol (MPF) for the evaluation of the mutagenic activity of environmental samples. Organic extracts of total particulate atmospheric air samples, surface waters, and effluents were tested in dose-response experiments. The assays were performed with strain TA98 in the absence and presence of S9 mix. Both protocols produced similar results, despite the fact that the maximum score of the MPF is limited to 48 wells, whereas in the regular plate assay it is possible to count up to 1,500 colonies using an automatic counter. Similar sensitivities based on the lowest dose that resulted in a positive response were obtained for both assays. The MPF procedure is less laborious (e.g., all-liquid format, use of multichannel pipettors) and allows for automation of the pipetting and dispensing steps, thus, reducing time of the analysis which is particularly important in environmental quality monitoring programs or in effect-directed analysis. The results show that the MPF procedure is a promising tool to test environmental samples for mutagenic activity. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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