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Miller R.M.,Cerner LifeSciences | Happe L.E.,Presbyterian College | Meyer K.L.,Global Outcomes Solutions | Spear R.J.,Xcenda
Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy | Year: 2012

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, and costly disease with several treatment options available; however, there is variability in evidence-based clinical guidelines. Therefore, payers are at a disadvantage when making management decisions without the benefit of definitive guidance from treatment guidelines. Objective: To outline approaches for the management of agents used to treat MS, as determined from a group of U.S. managed care pharmacists and physicians. Methods: A modified Delphi process was used to develop consensus statements regarding MS management approaches. The panel was composed of experts in managed care and included 8 pharmacy directors and 6 medical directors presently or previously involved in formulary decision making from 12 health plans, 1 specialty pharmacy, and 1 consulting company. These decision makers, who have experience designing health care benefits that include MS treatments, provided anonymous feedback through 2 rounds of web-based surveys and participated in 1 live panel meeting held in December 2010. Consensus was defined as a mean response of at least 3.3 or 100% of responses either "agree" or "strongly agree" (i.e., no panelist answered "disagree" or "strongly disagree") on a 4-item Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = agree, 4 = strongly agree). Results: After 3 phases, these managed care representatives reached consensus on 25 statements for management of patients with MS. Consistent with managed care principles, this group of managed care experts found that health plans should consider efficacy, effectiveness, and safety, as well as patient preference, when evaluating MS therapies for formulary placement. Cost and contracting should be considered if efficacy and safety are judged to be comparable between agents. Conclusion: The consensus statements developed by a panel of managed care representatives provide some insight into decision making in formulary and utilization management of MS therapies. © 2012, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. Source

Boswell K.,Xcenda | Kwong W.J.,Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Services LLC | Kavanagh S.,Worldwide Health Economics and Pricing
Journal of Opioid Management | Year: 2010

Opioid analgesia is the mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe acute and chronic pain and is highly effective in relieving pain but can be limited by side effects, the most common of which affect the gastrointestinal (GI) and central nervous systems. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that opioid-associated GI side effects constitute an important health problem with significant humanistic and economic consequences that warrant consideration by healthcare professionals and administrators in optimizing patients' pain management. This article documents the frequency of opioid-associated GI side effects and describes its clinical and economic burdens based on a systematic review of the medical literature between 1966 and 2008. © 2010 Journal of Opioid Management, All Rights Reserved. Source

Velligan D.I.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Carroll C.,Xcenda | Lage M.J.,HealthMetrics Outcomes Research | Fairman K.,Kathleen Fairman Ltd.
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2015

Objective: Patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia commonly receive nonrecommended drug regimens, including antipsychotic polypharmacy, sometimes in lieu of clozapine. This analysis compared utilization and cost outcomes for cohorts of Medicaid beneficiaries treated with clozapine monotherapy and with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Methods: Data were from the Medicaid MarketScan database. Patients (age 18-64) initiated second-generation antipsychotic polypharmacy or clozapine monotherapy between July 2006 and January 2009, had continuous Medicaid coverage from six months before (preperiod) through 12 months after (postperiod) treatment initiation, and had a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorder (ICD-9-CM code 295.XX). Study outcomes included disease-specific and all-cause hospitalization, emergency department use, and Medicaid payments. Logistic regression analyses and generalized linear models controlled for demographic factors, preperiod utilization, and comorbidities. Results: Characteristics associated with use of clozapine monotherapy (N=479) instead of antipsychotic polypharmacy (N=2,440) included younger age, fewer comorbidities, lower preperiod utilization rates, nonwhite race, and male sex. When the analysis controlled for baseline differences, clozapine monotherapy was associated with lower odds of mental disorder-related (odds ratio [OR]=.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.60-.95) or schizophrenia-related (OR=.70, CI=.54-.90) emergency department use but not with hospitalization or all-cause emergency department use. Total Medicaid payments were significantly lower for the clozapine group than for the polypharmacy group: reductions of $21,315 for all-cause, $17,457 for mental disorder-related, and $10,582 for schizophrenia-related payments. Conclusions: Among nonelderly adult Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia, treatment with clozapine instead of antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with reduced disease-specific emergency department use and with reduced disease-specific and all-cause health care costs. © 2015, American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved. Source

Landsman-Blumberg P.B.,Xcenda | Wei W.,Sanofi S.A. | Douglas D.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Smith D.M.,Xcenda | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice | Year: 2013

Background: Food-induced anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening condition that frequently results in emergency department (ED) visits and/or hospitalization. Little information is available on patient compliance with recommended postdischarge anaphylaxis care. Objective: To describe patient characteristics, concordance with recommended postdischarge care, and risk of repeated events among adults with an initial ED visit and/or hospitalization for food-induced anaphylaxis. Methods: In this retrospective study of health care claims, adults with an ED visit and/or hospitalization for food-induced anaphylaxis were identified from the 2002-2008 Truven Health MarketScan Databases by using an expanded International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code algorithm. The first identified ED visit and/or hospitalization was the index event. Data from patients with continuous medical and prescription coverage for ≥1 year before and after the index event were retained for analysis. Analyses included baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, postdischarge epinephrine autoinjector (EAI) prescription fills and allergist/immunologist visits, and repeated events in the 1-year postindex period. Results: Patients (n= 1370) had a mean (SD) age of 44 ± 15 years, 58% were women. Most (86%) were seen in the ED and/ discharged from the ED. Within 1 year after discharge, 54% of adults had filled ≥1 EAI prescription (71% within 1 week) and 22% had ≥1 allergist/immunologist visit (53% within 4 weeks). Overall, 73 patients (5%) had evidence of a subsequent anaphylaxis-related ED visit and/or hospitalization 1 year after discharge. Conclusion: Concordance with recommended postdischarge anaphylaxis care was low among adults with food-induced anaphylaxis. Within 1 year after discharge, 54% of patients filled an EAI prescription and 22% consulted an allergist/immunologist. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

Diette G.B.,Johns Hopkins University | Dalal A.A.,Glaxosmithkline | D'souza A.O.,Xcenda | Lunacsek O.E.,Xcenda | Nagar S.P.,Glaxosmithkline
International Journal of COPD | Year: 2015

Background: This study evaluated patterns of pharmacotherapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as they relate to recommended guidelines in a prevalent COPD patient population with employer-sponsored health insurance in the US. Methods: Health care claims data from 2007 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed for the study population defined as patients aged 40 years and older, continuously enrolled during the study period, and having at least one inpatient or one emergency department (ED) visit, or at least two outpatient claims coded with COPD (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 491.xx, 492.xx, 496.xx). Rates of any pharmacotherapy (both maintenance and reliever), long-acting maintenance pharmacotherapy in patients with an exacerbation history, and short-term treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD were evaluated in the overall population, newly diagnosed, and previously diagnosed patients (including maintenance-naïve and maintenance-experienced). Stratified analyses were also conducted by age group (40–64 years, ≤65 years) and physician specialty. Results: A total of 55,361 patients met study criteria of whom 39% were newly diagnosed. The mean age was 66 years, and 46% were male. Three-fourths (74%) of all COPD patients had some pharmacotherapy (maintenance or reliever) with less than half (45%) being treated with maintenance medications. The combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting beta-agonist was the most prevalent drug class for maintenance treatment followed by tiotropium. Only 64% of patients with an exacerbation history had a prescription for a long-acting maintenance medication, and short-term treatment with oral corticosteroids or antibiotics was higher for hospitalization exacerbations compared to ED visit exacerbations (68% vs 44%). In general, the rates of pharmacotherapy were highest in patients who were maintenance-experienced followed by newly diagnosed and maintenance-naïve. Conclusion: The majority of COPD patients received maintenance or reliever COPD medications, but less than half received guideline-recommended care, especially those with an exacerbation history or receiving short-term treatment for acute exacerbations. © 2015 Weinreich et al. Source

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